REFERENCES - IDENTIFYING WILDLIFE TRACKS

 

Beaver References

University of Michigan - Animal Diversity Web - Rebecca Anderson

http://web.idirect.com/~hland/sh/an020.htm

Frazier, Janice. 1996. Pittsburgh Zoo. Castor canadensis.-- http://keyselections.lm.com/wildlife/beaver.html

Hall, E. Raymond Ph.D, Kelson, Keith R. Ph.D. 1959. The Mammals Of North America. vol. 2. The Ronald Press Company. NY.

Sevilleta Long-Term Ecological Research Project (LTER)/ RKM and KVP. University of New Mexico. 1995. Castor canadensis.

http://sevilleta.unm.edu/animal/mammal/beaver.html
 

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Pika References

University of Michigan - Animal Diversity Web - Sharon Jansa

Smith, A.T. and M. L. Weston (1990) Ochotona princeps. Mammalian Species 352:1-8. American Society of Mammalogists.
 

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Bobcat References

University of Michigan - Animal Diversity Web - Debbie Ciszek

Nowak, R.M., and J.L. Paradiso. 1983. Walker's Mammals of the World. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press.  

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Marmot References

University of Michigan - Animal Diversity Web - Liz Ballenger

Parker, S.P., ed. 1990. Grzimek's Encyclopedia of Mammals, Vol. III. McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, New York.

Nowak, R.M. and J.L Paradiso. 1983. Walker's Mammals of the World. 4th edition. John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD.  

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Lynx References

University of Michigan - Animal Diversity Web - David L. Fox and Tiffany Murphy

Kitchener, A. 1991. The Natural History of the Wild Cats. Comstock Publishing Associates, Ithaca, NY.

Nowak, R. M. 1991. Walker's Mammals of the World. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD.

Turbak, G. 1985. A tale of two cats. International Wildlife, 14:4-11.  

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Badger References

University of Michigan - Animal Diversity Web - Nancy Shefferly

Hoffmeister, D.F. 1989. Mammals of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana and Chicago.

Nowak, Ronald. 1991. Walker's Mammals of the World. John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore and London.  

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Coyote References

University of Michigan - Animal Diversity Web - Erik Tokar

Baker, Rollin H. 1983. Michigan Mammals. Michigan State University Press, Detroit, pg: 390-399.

Banfield, A.W.F. 1974. Mammals of Canada. University of Toronto Press, Toronto and Buffalo, pg: 286-289.

Fox, M.W. 1975. The Wild Canids: Their Systematics, Behavioral Ecology and Evolution. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York, London and Melbourne, pg: 247-262.

Nowak, Ronald M. and John L. Paradiso. 1983. Walkers Mammals of the World. 4th Ed. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD, pg: 949-951.  

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Cougar, Mountain Lion References

University of Michigan - Animal Diversity Web - Anupama Shivaraju

Baker, R.H. 1983. Michigan Mammals. Michigan State University Press, Michigan, pg 536-543.

Currier, M.J.P. 1983. Mammalian Species. The American society of Mammalogists, Michigan, pg 1-7 (200).

Kurts, A. 1995. Mammals of the Great Lakes Region. The University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, pg 274-275.

Nowak, R.M., Paradiso, J.L. 1983. Walker's Mammals of the World. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 1065-1066.  

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Caribou References

University of Michigan - Animal Diversity Web - Nancy Shefferly

Dalrymple, B.W. 1978. North american big-game animals. Outdoor Life Books, New York.

Nowak, R.M. and J.L. Paradiso. 1983. Walker's Mammals of the World, Fourth Edition. John Hopkins University Press. Baltimore and London.  

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Raccoon References

University of Michigan - Animal Diversity Web - Rebecca Fox

Chapman, J. A. and G. A. Feldhamer. 1892. Wild Mammals of North America. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.

The New Encyclopedia Britannica. 1994. Vol. 9. Encyclopedia Britannica Inc., Chicago.

Deems, E. F. and D. Pursley, ed. 1983. North American Furbearers. International Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies.

Rue, L. L. 1968. Sportman's Guide of Game Animals. Harper & Row, New York.  

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Moose References

University of Michigan - Animal Diversity Web - Anne Bartalucci and Bret Weinstein

Gelder, Richard. 1928. Mammals of the National Parks. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.

Stidworthy, John. 1988. The Large Plant-Eaters. Equinox Limited, Oxford.

Walker's Mammals of the World, fifth edition; Nowak, R. ed.; 1991; Johns Hopkins University Press.  

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Red Fox References

University of Michigan - Animal Diversity Web - David L. Fox

Lloyd, H. G. 1981. The Red Fox. B. T. Batsford, Ltd., London.

Nowak, R. M. 1991. Walker's Mammals of the World. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD.  

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Grey Fox References

University of Michigan - Animal Diversity Web - Sharon Jansa

Baker, R.H. (1983) Michigan Mammals. Michigan State University Press (Detroit).

Fritzell, E.K and K.J. Haroldson (1982) Urocyon cinereoargenteus. Mammalian Species (189:1-8). American Society of Mammalogists.  

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Porcupine References

University of Michigan - Animal Diversity Web - Rebecca Bodzick

Jones, J. Knox Jr. and Elmer C. Birney. 1988. Handbook of Mammals of the North- Central States. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis.

Kurta, Allen. 1995. Mammals of the Great Lakes Region. The University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor.

Nowak, R.M. and John L. Paradiso. 1983. Walker's Mammals of the World. Fourth Edition. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.

Woods, Charles A. 1973. Erethizon dorsatum. Mammalian Species. No. 29 pp. 1-6.  

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Grizzly (Brown) Bear References

University of Michigan - Animal Diversity Web - Liz Ballenger

Allen, T.B., ed. 1979. Wild Animals of North America. The National Geographic Society, Washington, D.C.

Nowak, R.M. and J.L Paradiso. 1983. Walker's Mammals of the World. 4th edition. John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD.

Tubarek, G. 1993. Survivors in the Shadows: Threatened and Endangered Mammals of the American West. Northland Publishing Company, Flaggstaff, Arizona.  

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Black Bear References

University of Michigan - Animal Diversity Web - Christine Kronk

Academic American Encyclopedia. 1994. Grolier Incorporated. Danbury, CT.

Collier's Encyclopedia. 1993. Collier Incorporated. New York, NY.

Encyclopedia Americana. 1994. Grolier Incorporated. Danbury, CT.

The Carnivores. Ewer, R.F. 1973. Cornell University Press. Ithaca, NY.

Walker's Mammals of the World, 4th Ed. Nowak, Ronald, M. and John L. Paradiso. 1983. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD.

Wild Mammals of North America. Chapman, Joseph, A. and George A. Feldhamer. 1982. Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore, MD.

World Book Encyclopedia. 1994. World Book Incorporated. Chicago, IL.  

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Armadillo (9-banded) References

University of Michigan - Animal Diversity Web - David L. Fox

McBee, K. and Baker, R. J. 1982. Dsypus novemcinctus. Mammalian Species Account No. 162. American Society of Mammalogist. 9 pp.

Nowak, R. M. 1991. Walker's Mammals of the World. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD.  

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Skunk, striped References

University of Michigan - Animal Diversity Web - Christopher J. Wilke

Baker, Rollin H. 1983. Michigan Mammals. The Michigan State University Press, Lansing, Michigan.

Banfield, A.W.F. 1974. Mammals of Canada. The University of Toronto Press, Toronto.

Burt, William H. 1946. The Mammals of Michigan. The University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Nowak, Ronald M. 1983. Walker's Mammals of the World. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland.

Verts, B.J. 1967. The Biology of the Striped Skunk. The University of Illinois Press, Urbana, Illinois.  

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Elk, Wapiti, or Red Deer References

University of Michigan - Animal Diversity Web - Rachel Lesley Senseman

Baker, R. H. 1983. Michigan Mammals. Michigan State University Press. East Lansing, MI. 566-577.

Kurta, A. 1995. Mammals of the Great Lakes Region. University of Michigan Press. Ann Arbor, MI. 261-264.

Nowak, R.M. and J.L. Paradiso. 1991. Walker's Mammals of the World. The John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD. 1207-1212.  

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Wolf, Gray References

University of Michigan - Animal Diversity Web - Jennifer Scherwin

Burton, Maurice. 1962. University Dictionary of Mammals of the World. Thomas Y. Crowell Company, NY.

Mech, L. David. 1970. The Wolf: The Ecology of an Endangered Species. Natural History Press, NY.

Nowak, Ronald M. 1991. Walker's Mammals of the World; fifth ed., vol II. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.

Stewart, S. 1982. Wolf Music. Michigan Natural Resources Magazine 51(6): 40-49.

Zimen, Eric. 1981. The Wolf. Souvenir Press, London.  

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Bison (Buffalo) References

University of Michigan - Animal Diversity Web - Toni Lynn Newell

Honacki, J.H., ed.; Kinman, K.E., ed.; Koeppl, J.W., ed. 1982. Mammal Species of the World; A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Association of Systematics Collectionsz; U.S.A.

Meagher, M. (16 June 1986). "Bison bison." Mammalian Species. The American Society of Mammalogists, 266.

VanGelder, R.G. 1982. Mammals of the National Parks. The John Hopkins University Press: Baltimore and London  

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Wild Boar (Pig) References

University of Michigan - Animal Diversity Web - Jennifer Hruby

Hedgepeth, W. 1978. The Hog Book. Doubleday & Company, Inc. NY.

Hopf, A. 1979. Pigs: Wild and Tame. Holiday House, NY.

Porter, V. 1993. Pigs - A Handbook to the Breeds of the World. Cornell University Press, NY.

Storer, P. 1992. Miniature Pigs. Barron's Educational Series, Inc. NY.

vanLoon, D. 1979. Small-Scale Pig Raising. Garden Way Publishing, Vermont.  

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Muskrat References

University of Michigan - Animal Diversity Web - Toni Lynn Newell

Baker, R.H. 1983. Michigan Mammals. Michigan State University Press. United States of America.  

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Bighorn Sheep References

University of Michigan - Animal Diversity Web - Liz Ballenger

Banfield, A.W.F. 1974. The Mammals of Canada. University of Toronto Press, Toronto.

Darymple, B.W. 1985. North American Big-Game Animals. Outdoor Life Books, New York.

Geist, V. 1979. Hoofed mammals. In: Wild Animals of North America. National Geographic Society, Washington, D.C.

Nowak, R.M. and J.L Paradiso. 1983. Walker's Mammals of the World. 4th edition. John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD.  

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Mountain Goat References

University of Michigan - Animal Diversity Web - Eric J Ellis

MacDonald, Dr. David. 1984. The Encyclopedia of Mammals. Equinox (Oxford), Ltd. Pgs. 584-588.

Nowak, Ronald M. 1991. Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th Ed. The Johns Hopkins University Press. Pgs. 1475-1476.

Parker, Sybil P [Editor]. 1990. Grzimek's Encyclopedia of Mammals, Vol 5. McGraw-Hill Publishing. Pgs 501-505.

Rideout, Chester B. and Robert S. Hoffman. 1875. # 63 in Mammalian Species. The American Society of Mammalogists.  

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Mule Deer References

University of Michigan - Animal Diversity Web - Michael Misuraca

Anderson, A. E. 1984. Odocoileus hemionus. Mammalian Species, No. 219, Pp. 1-9. American Society of Mammalogists, New York.

Geist, V. 1981. Behavior: adaptive strategies in mule deer. Pp. 157-224, in Mule and Black-tailed deer of North America (O. C. Wallmo, ed.). Univ. Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 605 pp.

Kucera, T. E. 1978. Social behavior and breeding system of the Desert mule deer. J. Mamm., 59:463-476.

Short, H.L. 1981. Nutrition and metabolism. Pp. 99-127, in Mule and Black-tailed deer of North America (O. C. Wallmo, ed.). Univ. Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 605 pp.

Wallmo, O. C. 1981. Mule and Black-tailed deer distribution and habitats. Pp. 1-25, in Mule and Black-tailed deer of North America (O. C. Wallmo, ed.). Univ. Nebraska Press, Lincoln, xvii + 605 pp.  

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Whitetail Deer References

University of Michigan - Animal Diversity Web - Page author unknown

Banfield, A.W.F. 1974. The Mammals of Canada. University of Toronto Press, Toronto.

Darymple, B.W. 1985. North American Big-Game Animals. Outdoor Life Books, New York.

Nowak, R.M. and J.L Paradiso. 1983. Walker's Mammals of the World. 4th edition. John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD.

Geist, V. 1979. Hoofed mammals. In: Wild Animals of North America. National Geographic Society, Washington, D.C.  

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Pronghorn Antelope References

University of Michigan - Animal Diversity Web - Antonia Gorog

Macdonald, David. 1984. The Encyclopedia of Mammals, Facts on File Publications, New York, pp542-543.

Nowak, Ronald M. and Paradiso, John L. 1983. Walker's Mammals of the World, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore and London, pp 1230-1232.

O'Gara, Bart W. 1978. Mammalian Species, No. 90, The American Society of Mammalogists, pp 1-7.

Wilson, Don E. and Reeder, DeeAnn (ed.). 1990. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington and London, pp 392-393.  

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Opossum References

University of Michigan - Animal Diversity Web - Toni Lynn Newell and Rachel Berg

Baker, R.H. 1983. Michigan Mammals. Michigan State University Press. United States of America.

McManus, J.J. (2 May 1974) "Didelphis virginiana." Mammalian Species. The American Society of Mammalogists, 40.  

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