Genetic Disorders of the Manchester Terrier

**Note**
These disorders are not listed in any particular order.  Manchesters as a whole are a very healthy breed, and many breeders have never seen any of these disorders in their lines, much less heard of them.  But, they can happen, and you as the buyer need to be knowledgeable enough to ask about them when choosing a pup and a breeder.



Epilepsy:  A disease characterized by convulsions (seizures) and/or disturbances of consciousness.

Secondary Glaucoma:  The disease is secondary to, or caused by another condition.  A common example is a penetrating wound to the eye.  A brief list of the causes of secondary glaucoma would include bleeding in the eye, inflammation within the eye, luxation or displacement of the lens, attachments or scarring between the iris and the lens, degeneration of the structure within the drainage angle, or anything that causes the angle to
narrow or close.

Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome:  A connective tissue disease characterized by loose, hyperextensible and very fragile skin that tears easily.

von Willebrand's Disease:  A type of bleeding disorder caused by defective blood platelet function.  An autosomal trait affecting both sexes.
**Note**
vWD is probably the most common disorder noted in the Manchester.  But please realize, this is a recessive disorder.  A dog can be genetically clear, carrier or affected.  Breeding a clear to clear dog produces clear puppies.  Breeding a clear to carrier dog produces both clear and carrier puppies.  NEITHER CLEAR OR CARRIER PUPS SUFFER FROM THE DISORDER!!  Only affected pups have the disorder and should never be bred.  But even affected pups can live long and healthy lives with some additional care.  Carrier to carrier breedings should be avoided, as these are the breedings that can produce affected pups.  So please, ask your prospective breeder if they DNA test for vWD, and rest assured, whether your pup is clear or a carrier, he or she is healthy in all ways.



Hypothyroidism:  A common endocrine disease where the body produces an abnormally low amount of thyroid hormones.  An autoimmune destruction of the thyroid gland.

Alopicia Syndrome-Pattern Baldness:  Can indicate a nutritional deficiency, a hormonal condition, an allergy or a primary skin disease.

Progressive Retinal Atrophy:  A disease where the retina slowly deteriorates.  A progressive blinding disorder.

Leggs Perthes:  A  disease where the blood vessels feeding the femoral head (top part of the thigh bone) shrink, leading to starvation and death of the femoral head (the ball of the ball and socket joint of the hip). See the article Legg-Perthe's Disease by Teri Dickinson, DVM for more information. 

Patella Luxation:  A condition where the knee caps slide in and out of place.

Cardiomyopathy:  A disease of weakened heart muscles. 

Sensitivity to Anesthesia:
   SUMMARY OF Cornell University Article by Dr. Jerold Gemar DVM

What Anesthetic Should Be Used On Manchester Terriers And Why

The concern over anesthetic safety has been, still is and always will be a concern.  Complications from the anesthetic agent is more common than complications from the surgical or dental procedure.  Modern medicine has markedly improved the safety of the anesthetic agents.  To make them truly safe, a thorough understanding of their actions is essential.

A study done at Cornell University Veterinary School, noted there are differences in how some breeds of dogs metabolize premeds (preloads) and anesthetics, with "leaner" dogs with active metabolisms being more at risk.
The Manchester Terrier is one breed of dogs that is at RISK.

A Manchester Terrier should not be given premeds.  They should be gassed straight down - (this is a little more difficult for the Vet , but better than losing the dog on the table).  Sensitive breeds do not metabolize an initial premed sedative out of the bloodstream quickly enough.  When gas or injected anesthetic is administered, it causes a doubling up of the anesthetic load, resulting in depression of the cardiovascular and central nervous systems.

Some of the most common factors that need to be considered when selecting an anesthetic are the following:

1.  Age of the patient
2.  Pre-existing problems of the patient (liver disease, kidney insufficiency, cardiac irregularities, etc.)
3.  Rate of induction (how rapidly can the patient be anesthetized)
4.  Speed of recovery
5.  Affects to heart rate and rhythm
6.  Affects on blood pressure
7.  Overall safety to the patient and the hospital staff
8.  Cost

~~~Isoflurane~~~
Is the newest of the gas anesthetic agents, and is considered by many to be the anesthetic of choice.  This is especially true for the young, the geriatric and the critically ill patient.  It is a very volatile gas which makes for very rapid induction and rapid recovery of the Manchester Terrier as a patient.  The amount of isoflurane that is absorbed by the body tissues and has to be metabolized by the body (mainly the liver and kidney) is only 0.7%.  This is 100 times less than halothane and 300 times less than methoxyflurane (metoghane).  This makes is much safer for the liver and kidneys and these organs have much less to do in breaking down and of
the absorbed anesthetic, making it the anesthetic of choice for the young, the old, or the ill Manchester Terrier.

Some disadvantages of isoflurane are:

1.  The affect it has on lowering blood pressure
2.  Need of close monitoring because of its high vaporization rate
3.  Cost

~~~It is very important~~~
that the Manchester Terrier be well hydrated prior to and during the time, the anesthetic is being given.  Water should NEVER be restricted prior to surgeries, in Manchester Terriers.  Intravenous fluid administration is recommended for surgeries lasting longer than 20 minutes.  We ask for hydration intravenously during procedures of any length.

A Manchester Terrier should be awake and normal within 10 minutes after Surgery.



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