|( )||indicates Jeri's original data|
|( )||NEW STUFF, NEEDS CHECKING!|
C-One is a project begun about 3 years ago by a gifted computer enthusiast named Jeri Ellsworth. Her original concept was to develop a Video Accelerator card for use on a Commodore C-64. The card would allow the C-64 to use SuperVGA graphics modes when connected to a standard VGA/SVGA monitor. The project was based upon FPGA chips into which her hardware functions would be preprogrammed
As time progressed Jeri had to further integrate increasingly more of the original C-64 into her FPGA design. This was necessary to overcome innate limitations of the orignal 1 MHz 64 KByte design of the stock C-64. At some point she saw that she had essentially recreated the entire C-64 in her design. Having done so, she set herself to a more ambitious task, to create a modern computer with modern computer features which would remain compatible with traditional C-64 applications
The new computer was dubbed CommodoreOne (later C-One) and represents a logical evolutionary leap for Commodore users. The goal is to provide direct access to modern computer features and peripherals while retaining and preserving the personality and features which defined the classic C-64 experience. I see C-One as the computer Commodore would have produced if they had continued to develop and enhance the C-64
A 32-bit microprocessor is also being developed by a third person, Gideon Zweijtzer. The new processor exists on FPGA and will interface directly with the C-One motherboard. It will be 6502 code compatible but expands the bus to 32 bits. The opcode set will be expanded and enhanced to accomodate 32-bit operations
A FAT-16/32 filesystem is being developed for controlling IDE drives and Compact Flash devices. The filesystem currently supports selecting and loading an FPGA image from disk on startup
Now Jeri has teamed with Jens Schoenfeld in Germany to help with development and production of the new computer. Jens has become a key player in C-One development and has worldwide recognition already as an honest and trustworthy associate. With this merger comes serious plans for the future of C-One as a reconfigurable computer. In the future it will be possible to download a new core for the FPGA to configure C-One as most any classic 8-bit computer. I imagine this will include such favorites as the Atari 2600 and 8-bit series, TI 99/4a, Tandy/CoCo and many others
C-One is a work in progress and the hardware, specifications and features are constantly changing. The information here is not a list of promises but an attempt to reflect the current state and direction of development. With that in mind, I hope the C-One Details page will serve as a useful resource to Commodore fans
Date: Sun, 18 May 2003
I've debugged the floppy head/motor/step control circuit today and tested it against MV's test program. I added the keyboard fifo empty = carry on the lka command. Hopefully this will fix some of the keyboard bugs MV's been experiencing. I'm adding some video control registers for the drive CPU so it can control the resolution and frequency on startup
Date: Fri, 16 May 2003
MV and I have pretty much found all the bugs in the drive CPU's graphics controller and fixed them tonight. I've been fixing a few glitches in the memory interface between the drive CPU and the main memory and fixed a refresh problem on the SDRAM
Date: Thu, 15 May 2003
I just implemented the loading of code into the drive cpu after booting. This allows you to write things that run independently of the main system - ideal for something like the 1581 emulator. There are a few things to think about:
Of course, you can also just this as a way of not starting the 65816 (or whatever CPU is in the CPU slot). A file with just jmp * would effectively keep the main CPU off the bus, leaving the 1K100 free to do whatever it wants. I have no idea if this is useful or not, but the possibility's there
Thanks to Jeri and Jens putting off the release a little bit, I've had a chance to improve the boot rom a *lot*. The code has really matured over the last two weeks. So what's left to do? My TODO list for 1.0 currently consists of:
Unless any new bugs crop up, the boot rom will then be finished (in the sense that it behaves according to the spec). I'll be branching the code into a 1.0 tree as soon as I figure out how to do it with CVS
Date: Fri, 9 May 2003
First I would like to thank MagerValp and Adrian for working so hard on the boot up code. It's really coming along nicely. I'll be sending the second developer board out today to Adrian, so he can start testing his code on real hardware
I've been trying to get over a bad flu/cold that I picked up the day after I got home. I guess being sleep deprived so many days before I flew home didn't help my immune system any. I'm feeling much better each day now and have started to get more and more done
I've fixed a bug that MV discovered in the drive cpu's adc abs,y, where the flags and values were not being stored. I've done a lot of work on the new DMA transfer circuit between the main system memory and the drive cpu. The circuit for flashing is now done and ready for software. I've also fixed a few bugs in the main memory arbitration. I'll try to post an update every few days from now on, since we are on the final stretch
Date: Fri, 09 May 2003
I can't answer for Jens or Jeri, but the boot code is making a lot of progress. Instead of burning a new eprom every time I compile a new version, I made a small rom that receives the boot code over RS-232. This means that it now takes about 10 seconds for me to test the code, instead of 10 minutes. Development speed up, frustration level down
The code is at the point where it almost does what it's supposed to. The code to select a configuration by holding down 0..9 got a long overdue fix last night. Bus scanning is still a bit flaky, but it at least seems to find all the hard drives I throw at it (including CF cards). CD-ROMs are still not cooperating though. Filesystem handling has been completely abstracted, making it possible for me to start working on the ISO9660 support. Adrian Gonzalez has joined the project, and will be working on floppy support and flash upgrade code
FAT12 is almost done (it's just a variant on FAT16), and he's also thinking about putting 1581 support in there. I've added some more stuff to the project homepage http://c1boot.sourceforge.net/ including a small news section. I'll try to keep it updated whenever there's a significant feature added or a particularly nasty bug has been squashed.
Date: Tue, 29 Apr 2003
I wanted to let everyone know that the production of c1's is going well and that I've been away from email for quite some time. I'll do my best to confirm the orders that have arrived by email before I leave. The first board shipped shipped yesterday to MV who is programming the drive boot code! Well back to work.. The boards come off the machines at about 1 every 6 minutes and it's taking a lot longer than that to test each one
April 10, 2003
C-One production started
After more than two years development time, the C-One production has started. It'll start selling on may 5th in Germany and the Netherlands. Our other European partners should have the boards by may 9th, when the board will also be launched in North America
Many projects have dealt with re-configurable computers so far, but none of them is as consistent and flexible as the C-One. Other projects only kept parts of the hardware re-configurable, but the C-One can change the behaviour of it's chipset even during runtime. Therefore, the C-One is the world's first re-configurable computer. Read more on the official homepage of the C-One: www.c64upgra.de/c-one
There has been silence from our side for the past weeks. The main reason was that we focused on the work, taking all the time off any spare time activity. The Delfina production was kind of a dress rehersal for the C-One production, as it was organized as precise as we are now organising the C-One production. A new PCB production partner has proved to deliver very high quality at decent prices, and - most important - with a highly predictable production schedule. Since all other partners who deliver parts and services for the production of individual Computers are known to be in time, the following timetable will presumably be 95% accurate
As you can see, the next three weeks will be very busy. Please understand that we probably will not answer all questions in time until the production is done. The chance to implement physical changes is long gone. Adding an internal IEC is not possible any more. Moving the CF connector to a different position is impossible. The C-64 cartridge connector has now half an inch space to the audio connector, more was not possible. If you make suggestions for changes now, please understand that we can only implement it if this can be done with a core change. All physical things are written in stone now
Our stress level will be a lot higher than usual until the end of the month. The best time to get questions answered will probably be the Breakpoint Party, any other day might either be too busy to answer email, or we're too far away from the next internet-connected computer
To make things clear again: This is a developer board. Do not buy it for what it may become in the future. If you buy it, then buy it for what it is right now: A board that will experience a lot of core changes. You will need a PC to have access to the Internet, because that will be the only place where you can retrieve new cores. Depending on the state of the early startup ROM (which is not re-configurable!), you can either boot from CD (CD-writer in the PC necessary!), or from CompactFlash (CF cardwriter for the PC necessary!). Booting from CF and from hard drive is already implemented. Booting from CD is not yet implemented, but MagerValp is already working on it. Thanks again for his great support in getting the early startup procedure to work
The big difference between developer board and user board will be the availability of software and cores. We've paid thousands of Euros for tooling cost, which are impossible to pay with just a production run of 300. If the design would be changed in any way, we'd have to pay tooling cost again, and this is totally out of the question
What does developer board mean?
If you have any doubts, don't buy now. Only buy after all doubts are gone. And again -- Only buy for what the machine is at the time of your order. Do not buy it for something it might become in the future, because our plans might change without notice:
...you get the point: If you want something and it's not coming fast enough ... Learn VHDL and do it yourself! Oh, and if you're not prepared to pay a nominal fee for each core, then never buy the machine
Some of the following text was copied from the CommodoreOne website because that site is sometimes unresponsive due to overwhelming traffic. It was originally posted by Jeri Ellsworth, developer of the C-One
The CommodoreOne computer started off as a 2002 enhanced adaptation of the Commodore 64. During development it evolved into the C-One Re-Configurable Computer, a new class of computer where the chips do not have dedicated tasks any more. By programming the FPGAs with new cores, it should be possible to turn the C-One into clones of famous 80's computers like the C-64, VIC-20, Plus/4, TI-99/4a, Atari 2600, Atari 8-bit series, Sinclair Spectrum, ZX81, Schneider CPC and others. It can of course also be a completely new computer with specs unknown to these milestones in computer history
Here is a General Overview of the features of the C-One as of December 22, 2002. Some features may change slightly as development progresses
Keyboard Decoder Look Up Table (LUT) Programming Instructions
LUT data needs to be arranged
To set a bit in the 8x8 matrix, assign a row and column in the LUT that corresponds to the keyboards scan code. You can disable the shift keys when you want to map a character to an un-shifted location with the block shift command. Mapping an un-shifted character to a shifted location requires the uses of the force shift command. The block and force shifts can only be used in the 8x8 matrix. When in the extended matrix command you can set bits in the d02f extended columns and the joystick bits
|LUT address (hex)||Bits|
|Un-shifted = scan code||7-6||5-3||2-0|
|Shifted = scan code + 128||Command||Column||Row|
|Map un-shifted key 'A' to the matrix location for 'A'|
|Map shifted key 'A' to the matrix location for shift 'A' (no need to force a shift here if a shifted key 'A' is desired)|
|Map shifted 'quote' key to matrix location for shift '@' (still no need to force shift because itís still a shifted key)|
|Map shifted '+' key to un-shifted matrix location for '+' (the shift key bit is present on the matrix and must be blocked to cross this key over to the un-shifted side also notice that by blocking the shift we still need to map from the shifted half of the LUT)|
|Map un-shifted ';' key to shifted matrix location for '=' (the shift bit must be forced onto the matrix for this crossing and does not change which half of the LUT we map from)|
|Map un-shifted 'Z' key to joy1 button1 (must set command to extended column to access joysticks)|
|Map un-shifted 'F9' key to extended matrix col(0) row(1)|
No, C-One is an entirely new computing platform designed from scratch with a C-64 at it's heartWhat kind of PC do I need to use C-One?
None at all. C-One is not an emulator nor is it an accessory for a PC. It is an entirely new computing platform designed from scratch with a C-64 at it's heartI would like to know if the emulation of the C64 is real (ie hardware level) or software emulation (like the emulators for pc etc)?
Good question! The C-One is an entirely new computer. Jeri has incorporated all the functions of a C-64 into her own hardware. No software emulation is involved here. This project has been made possible by recent advances in programmable logic chipsWhat software in my current collection will run on C-One?
Hopefully a large percentage of existing C-64 software will run on C-One. Because C-One will use a 65816 processor, I expect compatibility to be similar to that of the SuperCPU (probably a little better.) Many programs have already been patched for 65816 compatibility and high-speed operation. For more info, see The SuperCPU Home
How C-64 compatible will C-One really be?
Effort is being made to keep it as compatible as possible without sacrificing the new goodies. The C-One mode with MonsterSID and SuperVIC will still be C64 compatible but not 100%. If you have really tricky games, demos or other stuff that goes wild on the IO registers, it might not work on the C-One core. In such a case, you just choose a different core on power-up. Indeed, even after the C-One boards have shipped compatibility refinements and bug-fixing will continue being worked on and updates to be madeWhen updates are available how will my C-One get updated?
That's the beauty of C-One, the updates will be made with software. In the past computer updates were made by replacing chips on the motherboard, as Commodore replaced VIC-II and KERNAL chips when bugs were fixed. With C-One we can distribute updates to our users via internet download or on disk. You'll be able to make the updates yourself through the software interfaceThe original C64 had very predictable timing, e.g. cycles per line depending on number of shown spites. Will the C-One be able to emulate this timing perfectly?
The timing relations between the CPU and the display will not be affected. Please note that the C-One DOES NOT EMULATE, it really clones the hardware. C-One has a flickerfixer (hardware unit that generates a VGA compatible picture), and today's monitors are made to sync to varying frequencies. The part not emulating, but cloning even results in an internal pixel clock of 8 Mhz, which is used to transport data from the SuperVIC to the flickerfixer
No but it should be possible to build an interface to connect C-64 compatible tape drives. Currently it is thought that this interface would connect to the "Geek Port" but it is not yet definedWill the Cassette control lines still be available at $0001?
The addresses $0000 and $0001 will float on the lines normally used for cassette. This means that a person could make an address decoder for this location and register the data lines used for cassetteWill the [RS-232 port] be a user port connection or a real COM port? Will it have a real 6551 ACIA driving it, like SwiftLink-style?
The RS-232 serial port will be replaced by two Amiga 1200 compatible clock port connectors, because the Silversurfer serial port for the Amiga computer is exactly this. Since it is produced in high quantities, it's cheaper to use that instead of buying new 16c550 UARTs. Plus, it gives you the opportunity to use Amiga add-ons that go on that port. The clock-port is polled I/O only. The two clockports are pin-per-pin equal, like a pass-through. This is to make it compatible with one clock module and one serial portWhat kinds of devices are supported by the joystick ports?
Digital joysticks (Atari-type) and devices compatible with digital joysticks will work.Can the joystick ports be used to drive miscellaneous digital I/O devices?
The lines on the joystick ports are input-only, so they cannot be used for anything other than joysticks and other input devices that also work on the C64Light pens and light guns are digital input devices. Will they work?
I ran the LP line over to the 1k30 just in case we wanted to do a light pen. It may be a little tricky since the VGA output isn't necessarily synced with the VIC in the 1k100What about game paddles and other analog input devices?
The C-One has both real SID sockets wired to the joystick ports. The analog inputs for game paddles are only available with classic SID chip installedWhat about the TOD clock?
Yes, it will have the TOD...How much memory can the CPU actually address?
The 65816 itself has a 24-bit address space (16 MegaBytes). From a programming perspective it functions more like a 16-bit address bus with an 8-bit extension tacked on. That way the 65816 can directly execute classic 6502 code without modification inside 64 KiloByte banksHow does the 16MB bank switching scheme work?
I haven't defined the banking yet. I can't bank it all at once or you will lose zero page so I may bank only the upper 8 megs or something. It will have a simple banking system at first. Later we can look into the possibility of a real MMUThe original C-64 expansion port does not offer us the top 8 address lines that a 65816 can ordinarily access. How can we access 24-bit addresses on the C-One expansion port?
The upper 8 bits of the address is time multiplexed and can be captured on the cartridge port with a D type latch (74ls373)
What kind of memory should I use in C-One? How many slots are on C-One mobo?
Use the fastest SIMM module you can find (smallest ns number) (Fast page or EDO, EDO preferred). You can tell the speed by looking at the chips on the module, e.g.: sn14411441 -60 is 60 ns DRAM. The c-One uses a 5v power supply for the SIMM, but the FPGA inputs are tolerant for either 5v or 3.3v. 5v SIMMS are recommended because 3.3v ones might get too hot. There is one DIMM socket which supports 66, 100 and 133 MHz SDRAM modules. DIMMS must be 3.3v (5v's don't fit the socket).What is the MM Memory?
Video memory and CPU memory are still in the same memory module, but for higher resolutions, this would mean a slowdown for the processor. To get around this, there is a framebuffer that is only updated if the VIC (or other cloned display chip) updates the screen. This framebuffer has it's own strip of memory in a SIMM socket. Since the memory on that module is not restricted to graphics, but music can also be stored any played back without CPU usage, we call this the MultiMedia Memory
I have tested the prototype with many of the CBM, CMD peripherals and various fast loaders and it seems to work wellCan the 3.5″ drive read and write MFM-encoded (PC format) floppies?
I've built a MFM encoder and decoder that can write at 1.44 data rates. It can read sectors, write sectors, read tracks, write tracks, perform the checksums and seek a track. I've been working on a 6502 core (minus BCD) that has built in opcodes for IDE and floppy, but the biggest problem is that there is no software written yetCan C-One DMA to/from an IDE drive?
The C-One can DMA from floppy, IDE and compact flash directly to memory which is much faster than a polled system, but the PIO registers are also availableWill the C-One have special DOS for the hard disk filesystem?
This will be up to the programmers. I'm just authoring the hardware at this pointIf you have a Commodore 64 core installed in your C-One, how are you supposed to access harddisks, CD-ROMs and other non-tape/floppy kinds of media?
At first: Not at all. The drivers are not available, but they are being worked on. The first thing will be the 1581 emulation, so you can use a cheap 1.44M drive as a 1581 drive from the C64 side. The next step after that will be handling .d81 images on harddisk or compact flash media that is FAT16 or FAT32 formatted, so they are easily interchanged with PCs. A third step after that could be the implementation of a bigger filesystem - anything is possible, the system is re-configurable without having to open the computer, and you can update by downloading cores from the internetHow large of a hard drive is supported?
Not yet defined. At this time I don't think the hardware puts any limit on IDE disk capacity. It will depend entirely upon the IDE filesystem developed by the software peopleWill the C1 have a calendar/clock like PCs? This would be cool...
RTC is expensive, because it's not only the chip, but also the batteries, charging circuit and stuff. Of course it's only a few dollars more, but since we have the clock-ports, there's a perfect place to add an RTC for those who want to run OSes that require oneWhat's this I hear about a 6510 being used as a second processor?
I've added a port that a cpu card will plug into on the new revision and someone can plug a 6809, 6502 or what ever into it. The CPU card will be able to carry the 65816, 6502, 65C02, Z80 and 6809. This will enable the C-One to act like nearly any computer of the 80s just by exchanging the CPU card and the program in the CF card. And yes, the 6510 ports are simulated, and yes, it's possible to add interfaces on the CPU card. The slot will be documented, so third party companies can produce hardware for itWill there be versions of C-One for other cassic computer systems besides the C-64?
The FPGA can be re-configured with a different program in the CompactFlash card. As soon as there's time and the need for a faster bus (for example a 2nd source vendor wanting to add some features to an existing design), this will be done. I'm really looking forward to playing Atari 2600 games on it, and to turn it into my first machine ever, the Sinclair ZX-81. For instance, Jeri said that she had produced a version that makes the board a VIC-20Can I put multiple system cores (eg VIC-20, PET/CBM, +4/C16/C116) on the same CF card as the C64 cores? How can I choose one of them at boot time?
Yes. Currently the early startup gives you the choice of up to ten cores that are selected with the numbers 0 to 9 on the PS/2 keyboard. The CF card must be FAT16 or FAT32 formatted, and the core files must be in a directory calledWhat prevents a rogue program from re-configuring the hardware against my will?
BOOT. ROM files are also located as straight binary files on the CF card or harddisk
The early startup flash ROM has a write protect jumper so the machine will never be accidentally rendered brain deadDoes this mean we can expect C-128 support with BASIC 7.0?
C128 is a double-processor design. This will presumably not work with the current concept of the C-OneIs the C-One mainboard fully micro-ATX compliant?
It's a midi-sized board, not micro. Four slots are occupied, where full-size uses five, and micro uses three (the one thing that's important is four slots). The dimensions are 10.58 x 7.38 x 1.5 inches (about 270 x 190 mm), so it is definately not micro-ATX size and the case needs 4 expansion slots. The board will not change more than a 1/4 inch in any direction. MicroATX is defined to be 9.6 x 9.6 inches, so the C-One is in between a full ATX board (9.6 by 12 inches) and microATX, because it uses four slots. To be safe we should say that it requires a standard ATX case. There must be space for C-64 cartridge slot and the clock port expansions that will point down from the clock port.Are there any plans to shrink the motherboard to fit the Mini-ATX form factor standard? I'd like a small, slick desktop case placed underneath my monitor
No chance to go any smaller. The board is exactly one slot wider than mini-ATX, so it should fit in more cases than normal ATX sized boardsWould the C-One fit in a laptop case? Would it work?
The C-One is a low-power design. The most power consuming parts are the memory modules and (if installed) legacy CPUs. I have two contacts to Asian manufacturers who supply "cases only", that means case, keyboard and display (don't know about batteries and PSUs). The board will not fit in those cases because of all the connectors standing way too high above the PCB. We have a high-standoff DB25 printer port, a double-stack PS/2, and 90 degree memory module slots. A C-One Laptop would be a different PCB, and I doubt that it will have the same specifications due to lack of space (volume and backpanel). Let this be our goal for 2004 :-)How many PCI slots are there?
The initial plan was to have a single PCI slot for networking. Space allowed us to have a second one, but the order to the Asian supplier was already processed, so we have to deal with what we have, and that's one PCI slot per board. Currently there is only one PCI slot but provisions will be made for a second PCI connector to be added. Soldering on the board should only be done by educated, experienced personsWhat kinds of cards will work in the PCI slot(s)?
The reason for the PCI slot(s) is to satisfy the desire for networking, and all networking cards fit perfectly. If you want to connect special things, a riser card may helpI hope the PCI slot will support bus-mastering, otherwise I can't use it for my processor
The PCI slot does support bus mastering (In theory), but it still needs to be tested
PCI is supposed to be a 32-bit bus but 65816 is not a 32-bit processor. How does C-One interface with the 32-bit bus?
Yes, PCI is a 32-bit bus. PCI can DMA to the SDRAM by Bus Mastering. The PCI to SDRAM path is necked down to 16-bit x 60mhz but that is still transparent to the PCI. It will be stalled every fourth longword so the new column can be opened on the SDRAM. Delays would be no problem since a standard PC would do it in regular intervals anyway. The path from PCI to MM memory is 32-bit
The CF slot can be jumpered as Master or Slave on the Secondary IDE Channel. If you need access to the CF slot from the outside then there are ATA-to-CF adaptors which can be connected to a ATA CF Card Reader installed in a 3.5 drive bay of your case. The C-One's CF card slot can be used either as Secondary slot (if jumpered properly), or you can still use three IDE/ATA devices by leaving the internal CF slot empty. So yes, you can end up with two functioning CF card slots, but this reduces the number of IDE/ATA devices to two
Making a memory image for startup and using the copper to configure registers
Example Copper list
The memory image should have the reset vector set to the entry point of the program
C-Oneís memory map for startup
Programming MonsterSID DMA
This is a very early draft of how the MonsterSID DMA is programmed and will definitely change before the C-Oneís release
The new SID has ports directly to the L/R DAC's so you won't need to use the volume register to play digitized samples. The DMA controller should be considered when coding the new SAM because all you need to write is an speed register, upper memory byte and lower byte. Every time you write a value to the lower byte it starts the DMA running until it reaches 0 in the data or if in continuous mode it loops at the 0
This is what the MonsterSID can do now, but I have a lot of fun features I want to add to the MonsterSID before I ship the C-One!
I was planning on having both values avalable with a jumperHow is sound output provided on C-One?
The two RCA connectors can be connected to your home stereo system. You may use standard PC speakers with the appropriate adaptorHow many filters will the MonsterSID have?
Two, Left/RightCan the 8 DMA voices and 16 SID voices be used simultaneously?
Yes, 4 left, 4 right, no envelope control and only left/right volume control shared with voicesI'm wondering if I could ask you a bit more about the "MonsterSID"? What sort of frequency range or response does it have? Is it the same as the original? How high can it go???
It's exactly the same freq range as the originalCan the volume control still play digis?
Yes, the vol control can still play digisI suppose its obvious that the DMA will be used for waveform generation, what sort of output can it generate, 4, 8 or 16 bit? Are all 16 voices the same as the original, with the four shapes? Can you use the voices (pulse) or the filters to produce samples like the original?
(4) 8-bit DMA channels that access a small 64 KiloByte SRAM. The sync and ring can be redirected to multiple channels at once and the DMA channels alsoHow do they work? Are there 2 DMA and 8 voices per channel? I suppose there is no stereo-SID compatibility? Does using a sample also use a voice? Do all of the DMA share the 64K?
They have two modes of operation, Continuous and One-shot. They each have a register for the playback speed and start index register. When the DMA controller encounters a value of 00000000 it will loop or stop. They work with channel 1/2's voice 1/2's ADSR also. It will need a jumper wire attached when used with a real C=64 to decode the mirrors into the new registersWill the 64 KB sound buffer be mapped into the C-One's address space?
No it is accessed similar to the VDC in the 128. (Editor's Note: The C-128 VDC is accessed by writing to a "window-register", which does exist in the C-128 memory map. The VDC RAM is external to the system bus and cannot be accessed directly by the CPU. You write values to the VDC RAM by going through the "window-register"Will MonsterSID have "line in" or "microphone" input?
No plans for these at the momentI remember hearing something about defining custom waveforms for the SID voices. Is this a planned feature?
The DMA channels can be used to create virtually any shape waveform, but I'm thinking about having adjustible rising and falling edge rates on the waveform generators8 DMA channels, playback of MODs should be easy, yes? Are you still shooting at 16bit DAC?
Mods should be really easy. It has a 16-bit Sanyo DAC. [For MODs with more than 8 channels] I suppose the Blitter could mix the MODs with the AND minitermHow would the blitter be of help in audio channel mixing?
Couldn't you set channel 1 to one sample and channel two to another and do an AND function on them?Any new features in addition to sync, ring modulation, and filters for SID?
The SID has more flexible ring and sync modulation now and can be sync and ring moudlated from the DMA channels. The filters are interesting since they have 5 constants between 127 and -127 which determine the cutoff frequencies. I exposed these to the programmer to adjust, but I haven't tested it yet. I hope this will keep the whiners quiet if it doesn't sound exactly like the original because they can adjust it themselves. The SID's filters can be set with the copper on start up so the settings will always be the way they like them
Programming The Color Look Up Tables (CLUTs)
The color looks up tables are used for planar and cell video modes to generate a 16-bit RGB color values from an 8-bit addressable table. These 8-bit values give you a maximum of 256 colors per screen assuming you donít change the CLUTs during the scan and your video mode can support all 8-bit values
The C-Oneís 16-bit color output is 5-bits red, 6-bits green and 5-bits blue color intensity which allows a maximum palette of 65535 color
There should be three files Red Green Blue and all 256 entries must have a value
Can anybody reply to my previous question about how would the VIC functions work on the C-One? I'm really worried about this :)
- The color information is made up of many monochrome bitmaps stacked on top of each other and the depth of these stacked bitmaps determine the maximum colors on the screen. Example 4 planes = 16 colors. More about Planar Graphics
- Every pixel contains 16 bits of color info. PC-style graphics mode that is very wasteful, but allows every color from the pallette to be used on the same screen. More about Chunky Graphics
- It stands for CO-ProcEssoR and is just made up of useful graphics opcodes. More about COPpeR
- This is a bit mover circuit that can move blocks of data from on memory location to another while performing mask type functions against the data. More about Blitter
The legacy registers are identical to the original VIC-II. To access the extended register you store the magic sequence into a memory location $D02F and all the new registers are mapped $D030 - $D3FFColor Memory for the VIC-II 40-column display is usually mapped to $d800-$dbff. Will it be possible to relocate Color Memory?
The color attribute memory can be moved anywhere in a 16 MByte spaceWhat kind of video display do I use with C-One?
C-One requires a VGA/SVGA (PC compatible) monitor. VGA was chosen because it supports more display modes with higher resolution and more colorsCan I use my old Commodore monitor (eg 1702 or 1902) or TV?
You cannot use a composite monitor or television because the VGA video output of C-One is not compatible with these devices. Might work if you buy one of those VGA/TV converters. (Editor's Note: The ones I've seen have very poor picture)What about other Commodore monitors?
|Well, there is some speculation on that but we don't really know yet. According to Ville Jouppi the Commodore monitors below might work with C-One. More information to come; No guarantees on this yet!|
The VGA to composite converter would be very expensive since the C-One's video timing in some of the modes are out of range of low cost converters. The higher cost converters contain expensive dual port field memories that store an entire frame at a time, then display the data at a lower frame rate. I have to be careful with the adding $$$, since it drives the price up very quicklyCan I use more than one monitor?
There are no plans to support multiple monitorsAhem. What about us in PAL-land? This has to be made switchable :-)
The video is already switchable between PAL and NTSC and the CPU clock can be set PAL/NTSC. The TOD is updated from the h_sync (60Hz) and will work correctly as it was intended, but what I need to make absolutely sure is that people are not driving the TODs with say 50Hz and setting the 60Hz bit for some reason
It doesn't have a set of registers that you increment for the x,y coordinates, but a start address and modulo that the programmer needs calculate for any given super bitmap
Do what you call cell modes include character modes or only bitmap modes with cell addressing? Will windowing work in character modes too?
|When I refer to cells I'm talking about the way the address generator rasterizes the data. Cell raster lines are organized in memory like this-- byte0, byte8, byte16 .....and so on. Linear chunky is-- byte0, byte1, byte2....Super bitmaps work in all modes, chunky, cell and planar||Cell Rasters||Linear Rasters|
Yes, hopefully this should include all C-65 modes. These will all be illustrated in the documentationHow many colors are available in the various modes?
Is there an 8-bpp chunky mode (ie a paletted, one-byte-per-pixel mode)? A mode like this has plenty of colours for games and since it's a single byte per pixel it should be nice and fast to draw on
- All C= display modes = 256 available colors out of 65,536 possible
- Planar mode = 256 possible colors out of 65,536 available colors, works like the Amiga
- Chunky Mode = ALL 65536 shades of color. The video chip fetches 2 bytes of data per pixel (16-Bits per pixel mode). 5-bits Red, 6-Bit Green, 5-Bits Blue. In chunky mode no sprites over 24 pixels wide x 256 pixels tall
- 1280 x 1024 mode should work when finished with fetches - fetching FIFO throws the C-64 timing of programs off, especially ones using Raster interrupts, thus crashing the program
Yes, it's already thereSince the C-1 is getting all its pixel frequencies off a single clock - that, coupled with the copper, mean that we'll be able to use Amiga-style draggable screens?
Yes, Everything is synced from one clkHow does overscan work? What's fetched in the borders for all the normal modes?
Nothing unless you set the start and stop registers there. The vertical stop register can cause some strange things to happen if you set them out of the screens resolution. The address generator doesn't resetHow does windowing mode differ from the super bitmaps?
Windowing is the same as superbitmaps. Super bitmaps are set with a line size and modulo to be added at the end of the line. Super bitmaps are really really fast for scrolling in any direction. Almost zero CPU cycles needed to do it. It's going to be very exciting to see what the demo guys will do with itWhat about the LCD connector? I'm pretty sure Jeri meant the HD44780 equipped LCDs (common kind of parallel LCDs) when she designed that in
When I said TTL I meant the RGB interface. Some interface at TTL levels, but most today use LVDS which my board doesn't directly support. The TTL LCD's I'm talking about have a parallel interface. Usually 4 bits red, 4 green, 4 blue, hsync, vsync. They were used in older laptops (Apple especially).I was wondering how the C-One mapped "classic mode" graphics onto a VGA display? I assume that to get full screen at the low res of the C64 that each C=64 pixel is mapped as a chunky VGA pixel? Is this done in HW in the new VIC?
The Final board has a framebuffer that takes care of the higher frequencies. You could consider this as the "flickerfixer" that might be familiar to Amiga users. Even if the VIC is in "full compatibility mode", emulatong 15 khz horizontal frequency, the display output will be sent at VGA rate to the monitor. This gives us the opportunity to sync the VIC (or any other video chip that we want to have) to the CPU, and still have a VGA monitor. Now that the monitor output is decoupled, we can go back to the "old days" when everything on the homecomputers was run off of one crystal (the typical Commodore design)
Blitter has the same correlators (sp?) and miniterms as the Amiga. Blitter can grab chunks of data and move them around in memory faster than the processor. This works in main memory as well as video memoryWhat can the blitter do, how is it set up?
The Blitter has two channels you select the start location of each in memory and how long each line is to be. Then the modulo to be added at the end of each line and the length of the blit in total bytes. Then you set the destination, modulo and the function to do with the data (AND, OR, XOR, ROTATE, CORNER-TURN). Then you trigger it or set it to trigger on raster positionCan the blitter move stuff around in main memory or just between main memory and video memory? Is it faster than MVP/MVN?
You can move stuff anywhere in the memory, but the blitter will slow the processor if you are moving in main memory. The blitter is a lot faster than the CPUI understand the Blitter can move bits between arbitrary memory ranges. Can it spreading the bits out wider as they go? Can it EOR them against a mask before depositing them in the target range? For instance, if page $0400 were full of $FF bytes, could you move them to page $0500 and (by spreading them apart by 1 bit as they go) fill up both pages $0500 and $0600 with $AA bytes?
The blitter will be able to do thisWill the Blitter arguments be 24 or 32 bits wide?
I think I'll keep the source and destination 24 bits with a 8-bit Bank register. The modulus is 16 bits
As mentioned, the C-One project is possible thanks to programmable logic technology. Traditionally computers are constructed with integrated circuit chips containing many densly packed logic gates. Each chip is designed to serve a specific purpose and that purpose only. VIC, CIA and 6510 in the C-64 are examples of these traditional integrated circuit chips. Programmable logic chips are able to be custom configured as to what functions they provide. PLA (Programmable Logic Array) 82s100 in the C-64 is such a programmable logic chip which provides functions specifically tailored to the C-64. Recent advances in programmable logic chips makes them affordable and flexible enough for a project like C-One. The FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) chips in C-One belong to this latter class of integrated circuits as described below by Jens Schoenfeld:
The two main chips carry out different tasks, depending on the needs of the program. The technology used is called FPGA - field programmable gate arrays. These chips can be programmed to do the tasks that the chips of the C-64 or other computers have done. It's no emulation, but it's a re-implementation of the chips that are no longer available since many years.
Those of you who have followed the development of the C-One since the very beginning know that the first prototype was running at a bus frequency of 50 MHz. The January rev 2 prototype which is the base for the currently running production has one significant change: It uses a PLL to generate the bus frequency. This has two big advantages:
The choices for the FSB frequency are:
The board will be shipped in the 67.74 Mhz configuration to ensure proper functionality with every SIMM module, which is mandatory for the early startup procedure. This SIMM module must be at least 4 MB in size, and the speed grade must be 60 ns or faster. During our tests here, we cranked up the FSB to 105.84 Mhz, and got the C-One to pass early startup with a high-quality 60 ns EDO memory module. 60ns FPM modules work up to 89.96 Mhz.
These are the absolute maximum ratings. As the memory modules get hot, their speed goes down, and pixels on the screen start flickering. Please also note that the horizontal and vertical frequency of the VGA output also changes with the FSB, so your monitor must support the generated frequencies (which are still being adjusted, we'll publish the actual frequencies later).
The highest FSB frequency of 135.48 Mhz is not supported with the current early startup procedure, and probably will not be any time soon. Other frequencies between the steps given cannot be generated without adding another crystal, which falls under the topic aftermarket tuning, and cannot be done without a soldering iron.
Every core will be made for a specific clock rate. Overclocking a core might be possible, but is really not recommended, just as in the PC world. The different FSB frequencies are meant to add to the flexibility, not to unreliability!
This page was last updated August 13, 2005