Glossary

CT
Computer (Aided) Tomography, sometimes called a CAT scan. Uses an array of X-rays at different angles to give a 3D image.
Oedema
US:edema The term generally used for the accumulation of excess fluid in the intercellular tissue spaces or body cavities. Edema may be localised or may be systemic. When edema is severe and generalised and causes diffuse swelling of all tissues, it is called anasarca. Edema fluid in the peritoneal cavity is known as ascites; in the pleural cavity it is known as hydrothorax; and in the pericardial sac is known as hydropericardium. Noninflammatory edema is protein-poor (the specific gravity is usually below 1.012) and is referred to as a transudate. Inflammatory edema is protein-rich (specific gravity is usually over 1.020) and usually contains leukocytes and is referred to as an exudate.
Melanoma
A tumour arising from the melanocytic system of the skin and other organs.
MRI
Magnetic Resonance Imaging. A technique using the spin of molecules to identify them and therefore identify what sort of tissue contains them.
PET
Positron Emission Tomography. In clinical applications, a very small amount of labelled compound (called radiopharmaceutical or radiotracer) is introduced into the patient usually by intravenous injection and after an appropriate uptake period, the concentration of tracer in tissue is measured by the scanner. During its decay process, the radionuclide emits a positron which, after travelling a short distance (3-5mm), encounters an electron from the surrounding environment. The two particles combine and “annihilate” each other resulting in the emission in opposite directions of two gamma rays.

The image acquisition is based on the external detection in coincidence of the emitted rays, and a valid annihilation event requires a coincidence within 12 nanoseconds between two detectors on opposite sides of the scanner. For accepted coincidences, lines of response connecting the coincidence detectors are drawn through the object and used in the image reconstruction.

For more information, see http://www.imaginis.com/nuclear-medicine/nuc_pet.asp

Plantar Fibromatosis
In some European countries this condition is known as Ledderhose disease or Ledderhose Plantar Fibromatosis.

Plantar fibromatosis is a benign nodular disorder of the plantar fascia (which is also known as the plantar aponeurosis). The plantar fascia is a thin, wide, long tissue that begins on the bottom (plantar) aspect of the heel and will continue forward through the arch to the ball of the foot. This tissue is a type of ligament that is made of bands of fibers that act as a shock absorber during weight bearing.

Plantar fibromatosis is most commonly found in the region of the arch but may occur at any point on the plantar fascia. These nodules often begin as pain free bumps under the skin but may become very painful during periods of high activity such as running, tennis, aerobics, and other similar activities. There may be redness and swelling in those regions but often will not show signs of irritation. It should be noted that this condition may occur in other parts of the body with subsequent renaming of the condition specific to that part.

This was plagiarised from http://www.valleyfoot.com/, which seems now to be broken. However, a Google search for “Plantar fibromatosis” yields lots of hits.

Sarcoma
A cancer of the bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, blood vessels or other connective or supportive tissue

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