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Time, Distance, and Velocity for Constant Acceleration

How to use:

Velocity and acceleration is most often used to determine the time and distance
needed to reach translation velocity or decelerate from FTL exit to a dead
stop.

Duration and acceleration is handy for determining the max radius of an intercept
sphere or how fast you're travelling when a timed event happens.

Distance and acceleration is used to calculate flight times for fly-bys or intercepts.
If you need the time for a flight from station to station, divide the total
distance by two, calculate, and then double the time. This models acceleration,
turn over, and deceleration.

Velocity
Scale:

Meters/Second
Hexes/Round
Lightspeed

Acceleration
Scale:

Meters/Second
Hexes/Round

Time
Scale:

Seconds
Minutes
Rounds
Days

Minutes in one round

Distance
Scale:

Meters
Kilometers
Hexes
AU

Kilometers in one hex

Given

Velocity and

Acceleration

Duration and

Distance

Given

Duration and

Acceleration

Velocity and

Distance

Given

Distance and

Acceleration

Duration and

Velocity

Orbital Velocity and Period Calculator

How to use:

What is orbital velocity and period? Orbital velocity is the
exact speed required to maintain a stable circular orbit around a planet or
moon. Period represents the time it takes to complete one orbit.

Orbital velocity is the direct result of planetary mass and altitude above
the surface (in kilometers.) This utility assumes that all stoney planets and
moons have a density of 5,520 milligrams per cubic centimeter (Earth density.)
Other density values and planetary data are listed in the side bar.

Round duration and hex size are pulled from the previous section.

Planetary Radius (km)

Name

Radius

Density

Altitude (km)

Mercury

2,440

5,430

Density (mg/cm3)

Venus

6,052

5,200

Earth

6,378

5,520

Period (seconds)

Luna

1,738

3,340

Velocity (m/s)

Mars

3,390

3,930

Surface Gravity (m/s)

Jupiter

69,911

1,330

Orbital Gravity* (m/s)

Saturn

58,232

687

Combat Rounds per orbit

Uranus

25,362

1,320

Orbit Size (hex ring)

Neptune

24,624

1,640

OV as Hexes/Round

Pluto

1,137

2,050

* While in a stable orbit, there is only the illusion of zero
gravity. Gravity is still present, but it is precisely blanced by orbital velocity.

The default radius and density is that of Earth. An altitude of 274.6 km was chosen as a
default since it generates handy orbits with a period of 90 minutes. This is a good
baseline for most tactical combat scenarios.

Orbit Size reflects a ring of hexagons starting at the center of the planet or moon and
radiating outwards. OV (orbital velocity) states how many hexes per round an object in
that ring will move each combat round.

Relativistic Kill Vehicles

How to use:

RKVs can take many forms; long range missiles, big rocks with
a bad attitude, or suicidal spacecraft. In general terms, the only two
significant factors are the mass and velocity of the projectiles. How much
of that potential energy is actually transferred to the target is subject to
a lot of variables that are beyond the scope of this utility.

Mass is measured in metric tons. That's one thousand kilograms per ton.
Velocity is determined as a fraction of the speed of light. While this kind
of velocity is usually not built up during ship to ship combat, it is possible
that a strategic relativistic attack could reach these speeds. Typical values
would be like .25 or 25 percent of the speed of light.

Mass of Projecticle (t)

Velocity (psol)

Joules of Energy

Kilotons

Megatons

Gigatons

Planet cracking is not an exact science. While brute force such as Chicxulub
will surely get the job done. I've heard some people mention that as little as
1,000 individual one gigaton strikes on major population centers would be sufficent to
destroy a civilization, wreak the biosphere, and send the natives that do survive back to
the stone age. On the bright side, that implies that even at the height of the Cold War
we couldn't have wiped out humanity with nuclear weapons.

Yield

Description

.002 kt

Murrah Building, Oklahoma (April 19, 1995)

1.0 kt

a 4.0 earthquake on the Richter scale

3.9 kt

Dresdan (Febuary 13-15, 1945)

15.0 kt

Hiroshima (August 6, 1945)

22.0 kt

Nagasaki (August 9, 1945)

1.0 mt

a 6.0 earthquake on the Richter scale

1.2 mt

B83 (largest nuke in US active service)

2.5 mt

Meteor Crater, Arizona (estimates vary up to 20 mt)

9.0 mt

B53 (larget US warhead, not in service)

15.0 mt

Tunguska event (estimates up to 40 mt)

24.0 mt

Mt. Saint Helens (May 18, 1980)

25.0 mt

B41 (largest US bomb, not in service)

50.0 mt

Tsar Bomba (October 30, 1961 - largest USSR device)

150.0 mt

Krakatoa (August 27,1883 - estimates vary up to 200 mt)

600.0 mt

Thera (Santorini, Greece)

1.0 gt

an 8.0 earthquake on the Richter scale

6,000.0 gt

Shoemaker-Levy 9 (18 July, 1994)

100,000.0 gt

Chicxulub impact (extinction event)

Travel Time and Translaction Velocities

How to use:

Using Heim Quantum Theory as a basis for faster than light
(FTL) travel, a ship needs to reach translation velocity before it can
engage the second stage drive. The mininum velocity for this drive is
30,000 m/s. Technically, that threshold is not FTL. At that velocity,
the second stage speed is equivalent to 10% of light speed. The mininum
velocity for true FTL is 300,000 or more meters per second.

The first function determines what your second stage speed will be
based on your translation velocity. The second function creates a table
that determines the time required to run up to run to speed, translated to
FTL, and then exit and possibly decelerate. For ease of use, one G is equal
to 10 meters per second.

Velocity (m/s)
=
Lightspeed (C)

Drive Rating (G)
Target Distance (ly)

Travel times are based on the need to make a 'run' up to
translation velocity, move FTL to the destination, and optionally decelerate.
By selecting the optimal percentage of the speed of light, you can determine
the shortest flight time based on the drive rating of the ship. FTL is in
multiples of C. Acceleration / deceleration and FTL times are measured in days.
Fly By Time is acceleration plus FTL travel times with no deceleration phase.
Round Trip is acceleration plus FTL plus deceleration times.

All Rights Reserved. No material on this website may be reproduced in any
fashion without the prior written permission of Todd Zircher. Special
permission is granted to copy and use information generated with this utility
for personal use only.