WEST EUROPE


Low Countries

Netherlands-Batavia-Holland (1581.7.26-1810.7.13; 1813.11.21-1940.5.13; 1945.3.13- )

Founded in 1581, Netherlands was originally under the hereditary rule of the Orange Family. In 1785 the Patriots staged a revolution in Hague and established a government, which was overthrown by Prussia in 1787. In 1795 France occupied Netherlands and reinstalled the Patriots'revolutionary government. In the same year, the country's name was also changed to Batavia, which was again changed to Holland in 1806. In 1810 Holland was annexed by France, but resumed independence in 1813, with the country's name reverted to Netherlands. With the promulgation of a constitution in 1814, Netherlands became a constitutional monarchy. In 1848 the parliamentary cabinet system was established. In 1940 Netherlands was conquered by Germany, but was restored in 1945. Thereafter, Netherlands was ruled by the left wing (Labour Party) and the right wing (Catholic People's Party, Christian-Democratic Appeal) alternately.

*Patriot 1785-1787
*Patriot 1795.1.17-1806.6.5
*Conservative [Con] 1814-1840.10.20
*Con 1848.3.25-.11.21
*Conservative-Liberal [Con-Lib] 1848.11.21-1849.11.1
*Liberal [Lib] 1849.11.1-1853.4.19
*Con-Lib 1853.4.19-1856.7.1
*Anti-Revolutionary Party [ARP] 1856.7.1-1858.3.18
*Joint rule by Con-Lib and Lib 1858.3.18-1861.3.14
*Con-Lib 1861.3.14-1862.1.31
*Lib 1862.2.1-1866.6.1
*Joint rule by ARP and Con 1866.6.1-1868.6.4
*Lib 1868.6.4-1874.6.20
*Joint rule by Con and Conservative-Protestant [Con-P] 1874.8.27-1877.9.25
*Lib 1877.11.3-1879.8.20
*Con-P 1879.8.20-1883.4.23
*Con 1883.4.23-1888.4.21
*ARP 1888.4.21-1891.8.21
*Lib 1891.8.21-1894.5.9
*Old Liberal 1894.5.9-1897.7.27
*Liberal Union [LU] 1897.7.27-1901.7.28
*ARP 1901.7.28-1905.8.14
*LU 1905.8.14-1908.2.8
*ARP 1908.12.8-1913.8.29
*Lib 1913.8.29-1918.9.7
*General Federation of Roman Catholic Voting Unions [AB] 1918.9.7-1925.7.31
*ARP 1925.7.31-1926.3.4
*Christian Historical Union [CHU] 1926.3.4-1929.8.4
*Roman Catholic States Party [RKSP] 1929.8.4-1933.5.24
*ARP 1933.5.24-1939.8.10
*CHU 1939.8.10-1940.5.13
*Radical Party [RP] 1945.6.23-1946.7.2
*Catholic People's Party [KVP] (previously RKSP) 1946.7.2-1948.8.6
*Labour Party [PvdA] (developed from RP) 1948.8.6-1958.12.22
*KVP 1958.12.22-1966.11.22
*ARP 1966.11.22-1967.4.3
*KVP 1967.4.3-1971.7.6
*ARP 1971.7.6-1973.5.11
*PvdA 1973.5.11-1977.12.19
*KVP 1977.12.19-1980.10.11
*Christian-Democatic Appeal [CDA] (formed by the merger of KVP, ARP, CHU) 1980.10.11-1994.8.22
*PvdA 1994.8.22-2002.7.22
*CDA 2002.7.22-2010.10.14
*People's Party for Freedom and Democracy 2010.10.14-

Belgium (1790.1.11-.12.7; 1830.10.4-1940.5.28; 1944.9.8- )

During a revolution in Belgium in 1790, the revolutionaries declared the independence of Belgium from Austria. But the revolution failed in the same year. Later Belgium was ceded to the Netherlands. In 1830 another revolution broke out in Belgium, leading to the independence of Belgium. In 1831 the parliamentary cabinet system was adopted. Between 1831 and 1914, Belgium was under the alternate rule of the Liberal Party and the Catholic Party. Between 1918 and 1937 Belgium was ruled by the Catholic Party. In 1940 Belgium was conquered by Germany and regained independenc in 1944. Between 1945 and 1999, Belgium was ruled by the Socialist Party and the Christian People's Party-Social Christian Party alternately.

*Liberal Party [PL] 1831.2.26-..27
*Catholic Party [CP] 1831.2.27-.3.10
*PL 1831.3.10-.11.12
*CP 1831.11.12-1832.3.26
*PL 1832.3.26-.10.20
*CP 1832.10.20-1845.7.30
*PL 1845.7.30-1846.3.31
*Catholic Union [UCB] (previously CP) 1846.3.31-1847.8.12
*PL 1847.8.12-1855.3.30
*UCB 1855.3.30-1857.11.9
*PL 1857.11.9-1870.7.2
*UCB 1870.7.2-1878.6.19
*PL 1878.6.19-1884.6.16
*UCB 1884.6.16-1914.10.8
*UCB 1918.11.21-1936
*Catholic Party (previously UCB) 1937.11.24
*PL 1937.11.24-1938.5.15
*Workers' Party [POB-BWP] 1938.5.15-1939.2.20
*Social Catholic Party-Catholic Flemish People's Party [PCS-KVV] 1939.2.20-1940.5.25
*Socialist Party [BSP-PSB] (previously POB-BWP) 1945.2.11-1949.8.10
*Christian People's Party-Social Christian Party [CVP-PSC] (previously CP) 1949.8.10-1954.4.23
*BSP-PSB 1954.4.23-1958.6.26
*CVP-PSC 1958.6.26-1968.1
*Coalition formed by Flemish Christian People's Party [CVP] and Francophone Social Christian Party [PSC] (split from CVP-PSC) 1968.1-1973.1.26
*BSP-PSB 1973.1.26-1974.4.25
*Coalition formed by CVP and PSC 1974.4.25-1979.4.3
*CVP 1979.4.3-1999.7.12
*Flemish Liberal Democratic Party (split from PL) 1999.7.12-2008.3.20
*Christian-Democratic and Flemish Party (previously CVP) 2008.3.20-2011.12.6
*Francophone Socialist Party (split from BSP-PSB) 2011.12.6-2014.10.11
*Reformist Movement 2014.10.11-

Luxembourg (1815.3.16-1940.5.10; 1944.9.23- )

Founded in 1815. With the promulgation of a constitution in 1841, Luxembourg became a constitutional monarchy. In 1868 the parliamentary cabinet system was adopted. In 1940 Luxembourg was annexed by Germany, but regained independence in 1944. Thereafter Luxembourg is under the alternate rule of the Christian Social People's Party and the Democratic Party.

*Democratic Party [DP] 1860.9.26-1874.12.26
*Liberal Party 1874.12.26-1888.9.22
*DP 1888.9.22-1915.10.12
*Christian Social People's Party [CSV] 1915.11.5-1916.2.22
*DP 1916.2.22-1917.6.17
*Party of the Right [PD] 1917.6.17-1925.3.19
*National Independence Party 1925.3.19-1926.7.16
*PD 1926.7.16-1937.11.6
*CSV 1937.11.6-1940.5.10
*CSV 1944.9.23-1974.6.15
*DP 1974.6.15-1979.7.19
*CSV 1979.7.19-2013.12.4
*DP 2013.12.4-


France

Monaco (1297.1.8-c.1402; 1419.6.5-1793.2.14; 1814.5.30- )

Founded in 1297. With the promulgation of a constitution in 1911, Monaco became a constitutional monarchy.

France (987.5.c21- )

1. Royal Government (987.5.c21-1792.9.21)

Founded in 987. Revolution broke out in 1789. A constitutional monarchical system was adopted in 1791 with the promulgation of a constitution. In 1792 the monarchy was supplanted by the First Republic.

*Feuillants 1791.9.14-1792.8.10

2. First Republic (1792.9.22-1804.5.18)

In 1799 General Napoleon staged a coup and established dictatorial rule. The First Republic finally ended when Napoleon made himself Emperor in 1804.

*Girondins 1792.9.22-1793.7.c10
*Jacobin Montagnards 1793.7.10-1794.7.27

3. First Empire (1804.5.18-1815.7.8)

Established by Napoleon I in 1804, the First Empire came to an end in 1815 when Napoleon I was forced to abdicate.

4. Royal Government (1814.5.2-1848.2.24)

Restored in 1814, this government adopted a constitutional monarchical system. This government was finally overthrown in a revolution in 1848.

*Constitutionals 1819.11.19-1820.2.20
*Ultra-royalists 1822.9.4-1828.1.4
*Movement 1830.11.2-1831.3.13
*Resistance [Res] 1831.3.13-1832.5.16
*Oreanlist Monarchist 1835.3.12-1836.2.22
*Parliamentary Monarchist-Center Left [MP-CG] 1836.2.22-.9.6
*Res 1836.9.6-1839.3.31
*MP-CG 1840.3.1-.10.29
*Parliamentary Monarchist-Center Right 1847.9.19-1848.2.23
*Res 1848.2.23-..24
*MP-CG 1848.2.24

5. Second Republic (1848.2.24-1852.12.1)

Established in 1848. After Louis Napoleon became the President in the same year, the Order Party dominated the political scene. In 1851 Louis Napoleon monoplised power. The Second Republic came to an end when Louis Napoleon made himself Emperor in 1852.

*Republican 1848.6.28-.12.20
*Order Party 1848.12.20-1852.12.1

6. Second Empire (1852.12.1-1870.9.4)

Established by Napoleon III in 1852. Overthrown by a revolution in 1870.

7. Government of National Defence (1870.9.4-1871.2.17)

Established by the conservatives in 1870 and replaced by the Third Republic in 1871, when the imperial system was formally abolished.

8. Third Republic (1871.2.17-1940.7.11)

Established in 1871. The parliamentary cabinet system was adopted in 1879. In 1940 Germany invaded France. With the French government moved to Vichy located in southern France, the Third Republic came to an end.

*Parliamentary Monarchist [MP] 1871.2.17-1873.5.24
*Monarchist [Mon] 1873.5.25-1874.5.22
*Conservative [Con] 1874.5.22-1875.3.10
*Mon 1875.3.10-1876.2.23
*MP 1876.2.23-.12.12
*Moderate Republican [RM] 1876.12.12-1877.5.17
*Mon 1877.5.17-.11.23
*MP 1877.12.13-1879.2.4
*Conservative Republican 1879.2.4-.12.28
*Opportunist Republican [RO] 1879.12.28-1880.9.23
*Left Republican [GR] 1880.9.23-1881.11.14
*RO 1881.11.14-1882.8.7
*GR 1882.8.7-1883.1.29
*Radical Party [Rad] 1883.1.29-.2.21
*GR 1883.2.21-1885.4.6
*Radical Socialist Party [RRRS] 1885.4.6-1886.1.7
*RO 1886.1.7-.12.16
*Rad 1886.12.16-1887.5.30
*RO 1887.5.30-.12.12
*GR 1887.12.12-1888.4.3
*Rad 1888.4.3-1889.2.22
*GR 1889.2.22-1890.3.17
*RO 1890.3.17-1892.2.27
*GR 1892.2.27-.12.6
*RM 1892.12.6-1893.4.4
*GR 1893.4.4-1895.1.26
*RM 1895.1.26-.11.1
*Rad 1895.11.1-1896.4.29
*RM 1896.4.29-1898.6.28
*Rad 1898.6.28-.11.1
*GR 1898.11.1-1899.6.22
*Republican Union 1899.6.22-1902.6.7
*Rad 1902.6.7-1905.1.24
*RO 1905.1.24-1906.3.12
*Rad 1906.3.12-1909.7.24
*Workers International French Section [SFIO] 1909.7.24-1911.3.2
*RRRS 1911.3.2-.6.27
*Rad 1911.6.27-1912.1.21
*Progressive Republican Party [PRP] 1912.1.21-1913.1.21
*SFIO 1913.1.21-.3.22
*GR 1913.3.22-.12.9
*RRRS 1913.12.9-1914.6.9
*RM 1914.6.9-..13
*Republican Socialist Party [PSR] 1914.6.13-1917.3.20
*RM 1917.3.20-.9.12
*PSR 1917.9.12-.11.16
*Rad 1917.11.16-1920.1.20
*PSR 1920.1.19-.9.24
*GR 1920.9.24-1921.1.16
*PSR 1921.1.16-1922.1.15
*PRP 1922.1.15-1924.6.8
*National Republican Party 1924.6.8-..15
*Rad 1924.6.15-1925.4.17
*PSR 1925.4.17-1926.7.20
*Rad 1926.7.20-..23
*PRP 1926.7.23-1929.7.29
*PSR 1929.7.29-.11.2
*GR 1929.11.2-1930.2.21
*RRRS 1930.2.21-.3.2
*GR 1930.3.2-.12.13
*RRRS 1930.12.13-1931.1.27
*National Bloc [BN] 1931.1.27-1932.2.20
*GR 1932.2.20-.6.3
*Rad 1932.6.3-.12.18
*SFIO 1932.12.18-1933.1.31
*RRRS 1933.1.31-1934.11.8
*Democratic Republican Alliance [ARD] 1934.11.8-1935.6.1
*BN 1935.6.7-1936.1.24
*RRRS 1936.1.24-.6.4
*SFIO 1936.6.4-1937.6.22
*RRRS 1937.6.22-1938.3.13
*SFIO 1938.3.13-.4.10
*RRRS 1938.4.10-1940.3.21
*ARD 1940.3.21-.6.16

9. Vichy Government (1940.7.10-1944.9.7)

In 1940 a puppet government was set up in Vichy. This government collapsed when the Allies entered France in 1944.

10. Resistance Government (1942.12.1-1946.10.13)

In 1942 Darlan revolted against the Vichy Government and set up this government in Algeria. Later this government cooperated with the various resistance organisations. In 1944 a Provisional Government was set up and was reorganised as the Fourth Republic in 1946.

*Fighting French 1943.6.3-1946.1.26
*SFIO 1946.1.26-.6.24
*Republican People's Movement [MRP] 1946.6.24-.10.13

11. Fourth Republic (1946.10.13-1958.10.5)

During this period, France readopted the parliamentary cabinet system until a new constitution was ratified in 1958. At the same time, the Fourth Republic was also succeeded by the Fifth Republic.

*MRP 1946.10.13-.12.16
*SFIO 1946.12.16-1947.11.24
*MRP 1947.11.24-1948.7.26
*RRRS 1948.7.26-.8.31
*MRP 1948.8.31-.9.12
*RRRS 1948.9.12-1949.10.28
*MRP 1949.10.28-1950.6.30
*RRRS 1950.6.30-.7.12
*Democratic and Socialist Union [UDSR] 1950.7.12-1951.3.10
*RRRS 1951.3.10-.8.11
*UDSR 1951.8.11-1952.1.20
*RRRS 1952.1.20-.3.8
*National Center of Farmers and the Self-employed [CNIP] 1952.3.8-1953.1.8
*Rad 1953.1.8-.6.27
*CNIP 1953.6.27-1954.6.18
*RRRS 1954.6.18-1956.1.31
*SFIO 1956.1.31-1957.6.12
*RRRS 1957.6.12-1958.5.13
*MRP 1958.5.13-.6.1
*Union for the New Republic [UNR] (commonly known as Gaullist Party) 1958.6.1-.10.5

12. Fifth Republic (1958.10.5- )

From 1958 onwards, the President became the head of state vested with real political power. Between 1958 and 1981, France was ruled by the right wing. From 1981 onwards, the left (Socialist Party) and right wings formed governments alternately. Occasionally, there occurred the phenomenon of "political cohabitation" in which the positions of the President and Premier are occupied by different blocs.

*UNR 1958.10.5-1967
*Union of Democrats for the Fifth Republic [UDR] (developed from UNR) 1967-1968
*Union of Democrats for the Republic [UDR] (previously UDR) 1968-1969.4.28
*UDR 1969.6.20-1974.4.3
*National Federation of Independent Republicans [RI] 1974.5.27-1978.6
*Union for the French Democracy [UDF] (developed from RI) 1978.6-1981.5.21
*Socialist Party [PS] (previously SFIO) 1981.5.21-1995.5.17
*Rally for the Republic [RPR] (previously UDR) 1995.5.17-2002.4.23
*Union for the Presidential Majority [UMP] (formed by the merger of RPR and Liberal Democracy) 2002.4.23-.11.17
*Union for a Popular Movement (previously UMP) 2002.11.17-2012.5.15
*PS 2012.5.15-


Iberia

Andorra (1278.9.8- )

Established by the Treaty of Joint Suzerainty signed by the Count of Foix located in southern France and the Bishop of Urgel located in northern Iberia in 1278. Since then, Andorra was jointly ruled by a secular coprince and a bishopric coprince. When a Plan of Reform came into effect in 1868, a General Council vested with legislative and executive powers was established. After an administrative reform in 1982, the executive power passed from the General Council to the Cabinet. With the promulgation of a new constitution in 1993, democracy was established in Andorra.

*National Liberal Party [PNL] 1982.1.8-1984.5.21
*Conservative Party 1984.5.21-1990.1.12
*PNL 1990.1.12-1994.12.7
*Liberal Union 1994.12.7-2005.6.3
*Liberal Party 2005.6.3-2009.6.5
*Social Democratic Party 2009.6.5-2011.5.12
*Democrats for Andorra 2011.5.12-

Spain (1516.1.23- )

1. Royal Government (1516.1.23-1813.12.11)

Founded in 1516. As a result of the French invasion in 1808, there was widespread resistance movement throughout Spain. In 1813 the French invaders were defeated by the Spanish revolutionaries.

2. Revolutionary Government (1808.9.25-1814.3.22)

Established by the Spanish revolutionaries. In 1812 a constitution was enacted and the parliamentary cabinet system was introduced. In 1814 the former King, Fernando VII, restored the Royal Government.

3. Royal Government (1814.3.22-1868.9.30)

In 1814 Fernando VII resumed absolute powers. With the promulgation of the Charter in 1834, Spain became a constitutional monarchy. This government was overthrown by the revolution in 1868.

*Liberal Party [PL] 1834.1.15-1835.9.25
*PL 1836.5.15-1837.8.18
*PL 1837.10.18-1840.8.28
*Progressive Party [PPg] 1840.9.16-1841.5.10
*Constitutional Monarchy Party [PM] 1841.5.20-1843.5.19
*PM 1843.7.23-1854.7.18
*PPg 1854.7.19-1856.7.14
*Liberal Union [UL] 1856.7.14-.10.12
*PM 1856.10.12-1857.10.15
*UL 1857.10.15-1866.7.10
*PM 1866.7.10-1868.4.23
*UL 1868.4.23-1868.9.30

4. Revolutionary Government (1868.9.29-1871.1.2)

Established by the revolutionaries in 1868. Monarchical rule was restored in 1871.

*PL 1868.10.8-1871.1.2

5. Royal Government (1871.1.2-1873.2.11)

This government was overthrown by the Republicans who established the First Republic in 1873.

*PL 1871.1.4-.7.24
*PPg 1871.7.24-.10.5
*PL 1871.10.5-1872.6.13
*PPg 1872.6.13-1873.2.11

6. First Republic (1873.2.11-1874.12.29)

In 1874 General Campos staged a coup and overthrew the First Republic.

*Democratic Party 1873.2.11-.6.11
*Federalist Republican Party 1873.6.11-.9.6
*Republican Party 1873.9.6-1874.1.3
*PL 1874.1.4-.12.29

7. Royal Government (1874.12.29-1931.4.14)

Restored in 1874. Between 1874 and 1923 the cabinets were basically formed by the Liberal Party and Liberal Conservative Party alternately. In 1923 General de Rivera staged a coup and established dictatorial rule. The constiutional government was restored in 1931. In the same year, this government was supplanted by the Second Republic.

*PL 1874.12.29-..30
*PL 1874.12.31-1875.9.12
*PL 1875.12.2-1883.10.13
*PPg 1883.10.13-1884.1.18
*PL 1884.1.18-1899.3.4
*Liberal Conservative Party [PC] 1899.3.4-1901.3.6
*PL 1901.3.6-1902.12.6
*PC 1902.12.6-1905.6.23
*Left-Democratic Party 1905.6.23-.12.1
*PL 1905.12.1-1907.1.25
*PC 1907.1.25-1909.10.21
*PL 1909.10.21-1913.10.27
*PC 1913.10.27-1915.12.9
*PL 1915.12.9-1917.6.11
*PC 1917.6.11-.11.3
*PL 1917.11.3-1918.3.28
*PC 1918.3.28-.11.9
*PL 1918.11.9-1919.4.15
*PC 1919.4.15-1922.12.7
*PL 1922.12.7-1923.9.15

8. Second Republic (1931.4.14-1939.4.1)

The parliamentary cabinet system was adopted on the establishment of the Second Republic in 1931. In 1936 the left wing (Socialist Workers' Party being the main force) formed the Popular Front became the ruling party. A civil war between the left and right wings broke out in the same year. The right wing formed a Fascist Government, which defeated the Second Republic in 1939.

*Conservative Republican Party 1931.4.14-.10.15
*Agrarian 1931.10.15-1933.9.12
*Radical Republican Party 1933.9.12-1935.9.25
*Liberal Conservative Party 1935.12.14-1936.2.19
*Republican Left [IR] 1936.2.19-.7.19
*Republican Union 1936.7.19
*IR 1936.7.19-.9.4
*Socialist Workers' Party [PSOE] 1936.9.4-1939.3.31

9. Fascist Government (1936.7.23-1975.11.22)

In 1936, Franco, a rightist general, revolted against the Second Republic and formed this government. In 1939 this government defeated the Second Republic and established fascist rule of the Phalange Party in the whole country. After the death of Franco in 1975, the Royal Government was restored.

*Phalange Party 1939.4.1-1956
*National Movement (previously Phalange Party) [NM] 1956-1975.11.22

10. Royal Government (1975.11.22- )

In 1976 the parliamentary cabinet system was restored. Thereafter, Spain was ruled by the left (Socialist Workers' Party) and right wings alternately.

*NM 1975.11.22-1976.7.5
*Union of Democratic Centre 1976.7.5-1982.12.2
*PSOE 1982.12.2-1996.5.5
*People's Party [PP] 1996.5.5-2004.4.18
*PSOE 2004.4.18-2011.12.21
*PP 2011.12.21-

Portugal (1095- )

1. Royal Government (1095-1910.10.5)

Founded in 1095. With the promulgation of a constitution in 1822, Portugal became a constitutional monarchy. In 1823 the Portuguese King resumed absolute powers. But the constitutional system was restored in 1834, when a new constitution was enacted. Between 1878 and 1906 the cabinets were formed by the Regenerator Party and the Progressive Party alternately. In 1910 the monarchical system was abolished.

*Liberal [Lib] 1834.9.24-1835.5.27
*Lib 1836.4.20-.9.10
*Lib 1839.9.26-1851.5.1
*Regenerator Party [Reg] 1851.5.1-1856.6.6
*Historical Party [Hist] 1856.6.6-1859.3.16
*Reg 1859.3.16-1860.7.4
*Hist 1860.7.4-1865.4.17
*Reformist Party [Ref] 1865.4.17-.9.4
*Coalition formed by Hist and Reg 1866.9.4-1868.1.4
*Ref 1868.7.22-1869.8.11
*Hist 1869.8.11-1870.5.19
*Reg 1870.5.19-.8.29
*Ref 1870.8.30-1871.9.13
*Reg 1871.9.13-1877.3.6
*Ref 1877.3.6-1878.1.26
*Reg 1878.1.26-1879.5.29
*Progressive Party (formed by merger of Hist and Ref) [Prog] 1879.5.29-1881.3.23
*Reg 1881.3.23-1886.2.16
*Prog 1886.2.16-1890.1.14
*Reg 1890.1.14-.10.11
*Reg 1893.2.22-1897.2.5
*Prog 1897.2.5-1900.7.26
*Reg 1900.7.26-1904.10.20
*Prog 1904.10.20-1906.3.19
*Reg 1906.3.19-.5.19
*Liberal Regenerator Party 1906.5.19-1908.2.4
*Reg 1910.6.26-.10.4

2. First Republic (1910.10.5-1926.5.31)

With the enactment of a new constitution in 1911, the constitutional cabinet system was introduced. After a military coup in 1926, the First Republic was replaced by the Second Republic.

*Republican Union 1911.9.4-.11.13
*Democratic Party [PD] 1911.11.13-1915.1.28
*PD 1915.11.29-1916.3.16
*Republican Evolutionist Party 1916.3.16-1917.4.25
*PD 1917.4.25-.12.8
*Republican Party 1919.1.27-.3.30
*PD 1919.3.30-.6.30
*PD 1920.1.21-.3.8
*PD 1920.6.26-.7.19
*Liberal Republic Party [PRL] 1920.7.19-.11.20
*PD 1921.3.2-.5.23
*PRL 1921.5.23-.10.19
*Republican National Union 1921.12.16-1922.2.7
*PD 1922.2.7-1923.11.15
*PD 1925.7.1-1926.5.30

3. Second Republic (1926.5.31-1974.4.25)

Since 1926 Portugal was under military dictatorship. Between 1928 and 1968, Salazar was in power. In 1933 fascist rule of the National Union was established. With the overthrow of the dictatorial government in 1974, the Second Republic came to an end and the Third Republic was established.

*National Union 1930.1.21-1974.4.25

4. Third Republic (1974.4.25- )

The political system gradually reverted to the parliamentary cabinet system from 1976 onwards. Since 1981 Portugal has been under the alternate rule of the Social Democrat Party and the Socialist Party.

*Movement of Armed Forces 1974.7.18-1976.7.23
*Socialist Party [PS] 1976.7.23-1978.8.28
*Centre of Social Democrat 1980.1.3-.12.4
*Social Democrat Party [PSD] 1981.1.9-1983.6.9
*PS 1983.6.9-1985.11.6
*PSD 1985.11.6-1995.10.30
*PS 1995.10.30-2002.4.6
*PSD 2002.4.6-2005.3.12
*PS 2005.3.12-2011.6.21
*PSD 2011.6.21-


British Isles

England (829-1707.5.1)

Founded in 829. A revolution broke out in 1640. In 1649 England merged with Scotland and Ireland to establish a republican Commonwealth, which was under the dictatorial rule of O. Cromwell between 1653 and 1658. In 1660 the monarchical system was restored. In 1688 the absolute system was replaced by a constitutional system and the King became a symbolic head, with the real power vested in the Cabinet led by the First Lords of the Treasury (later Prime Ministers), whose position was occupied by the Whigs and Tories alternately. In 1707 England and Scotland merged to become Britain.

*Whig Party [Whg] 1690.11.15-1697.5.1
*Whg 1700.12.12-1701.12.27
*Tory Party [Tor] 1702.5.8-1707.5.1

Britain (1707.5.1- )

In 1721 the accountability system of the Cabinet was established, hence the birth of the parliamentary cabinet system. In 1924 the Labour Party replaced the Liberal Party as one of the main ruling parties (the other being the Conservative Party) of Britain.

*Tor 1707.5.1-1710.8.11
*Tor 1711.3.29-1714.7.30
*Whg 1715.10.10-1762.5.26
*Tor 1762.5.26-1763.4.16
*Whg 1763.4.16-1768.10.14
*Tor 1768.10.14-1782.3.22
*Whg 1782.3.27-1783.12.19
*Tor 1783.12.19-1806.1.23
*Whg 1806.2.11-1809.10.4
*Tor 1809.10.4-1830.11.22
*Whg 1830.11.22-1834.7.16
*Liberal Party [Lib] (previously Whg) 1834.7.16-.11.17
*Tor 1834.11.17-.12.10
*Conservative Party [Con] (previously Tor) 1834.12.10-1835.4.18
*Lib 1835.4.18-1841.8.30
*Con 1841.8.30-1846.6.30
*Lib 1846.7.6-1852.2.23
*Con 1852.2.23-.12.19
*Peelite Party 1852.12.19-1855.2.6
*Lib 1855.2.6-1858.2.20
*Con 1858.2.20-1859.6.12
*Lib 1859.6.12-1866.6.28
*Con 1866.6.28-1868.12.3
*Lib 1868.12.3-1874.2.20
*Con 1874.2.20-1880.4.23
*Lib 1880.4.23-1885.6.23
*Con 1885.6.23-1886.2.1
*Lib 1886.2.1-.7.25
*Con 1886.8.3-1892.8.15
*Lib 1892.8.15-1895.6.25
*Con 1895.6.25-1905.12.5
*Lib 1905.12.5-1922.10.23
*Con 1922.10.23-1924.1.22
*Labour Party [Lab] 1924.1.22-.11.4
*Con 1924.11.4-1929.6.5
*Lab 1929.6.5-1935.6.7
*Con 1935.6.7-1945.7.26
*Lab 1945.7.26-1951.10.26
*Con 1951.10.26-1964.10.16
*Lab 1964.10.16-1970.6.19
*Con 1970.6.19-1974.3.4
*Lab 1974.3.4-1979.5.4
*Con 1979.5.4-1997.5.2
*Lab 1997.5.2-2010.5.11
*Con 2010.5.11-

Ireland (1916.4.24-..29; 1919.1.21- )

Established by the Republican Brotherhood during the Easter Rising against British rule in 1916 and crushed by Britain soon. In 1919 the Sinn Fein unilaterally declared the independence of Ireland and restored this regime. In 1920 Britain partitioned Ireland into Southern Ireland and Northern Ireland. In 1922 Southern Ireland became a British dominion. Thereafter it was under the alternate rule of the Republican Party and the United Ireland Party. Ireland gained full independence in 1931 and its dominion status ended in 1949.

*Republican Brotherhood 1916.4.24-..29
*Sinn Fein 1919.1.22-1922.7.17
*United Ireland Party [FG] 1922.8.25-1932.3.9
*Republican Party [FF] 1932.3.9-1948.2.18
*FG 1948.2.18-1951.6.13
*FF 1951.6.13-1954.6.2
*FG 1954.6.2-1957.3.20
*FF 1957.3.20-1973.3.14
*FG 1973.3.14-1977.7.5
*FF 1977.7.5-1981.6.30
*FG 1981.6.30-1982.3.9
*FF 1982.3.9-.12.14
*FG 1982.12.14-1987.3.10
*FF 1987.3.10-1994.12.15
*FG 1994.12.15-1997.6.26
*FF 1997.6.26-2011.3.9
*FG 2011.3.9-


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