Established by the Equality Party of Azerbaijan, the Social Democratic Worker's Party of Georgia
and the Armenian Revolutionary Federation in 1918. Split into Georgia, Azerbaijan and Armenia in
the same year.
*Coalition formed by the Equality Party of Azerbaijan, the Social Democratic Worker's Party of
Georgia and the Armenian Revolutionary Federation 1918.4.22-.5.26
Established by the Social Democratic Worker's Party (Menshevik) in 1918. In 1921, the Mensheviks
were overthrown by Russia, who installed a soviet government under the one-party rule of the
Communist Party. The country was incorporated into Transcaucasus in 1922.
*Social Democratic Worker's Party (commonly known as Menshevik) 1918.5.26-1921.2.25
*Communist Party 1921.2.25-1922.3.12
In 1922 Russia merged Georgia, Azerbaijan and Armenia into this regime under the one-party rule
of the Communist Party. The regime was incorporated into USSR in the same year.
*Communist Party 1922.3.12-.12.30
Georgia (1991.4.9- )
Originally a union republic of USSR, Georgia declared independence in 1991.
*Round Table-Free Georgia 1991.4.9-1992.1.6
*Citizens Union 1995.11.26-2003.11.23
*Burdzhanadze-Democratic Alliance 2003.11.23-2004.1.25
*New National Movement 2004.1.25-
In 1991 Dudayev, leader of the National Congress of the Chechen People, revolted and declared
the independence of Chechen-Ingush from Russia. In 1992 Ingushetia seceded from Chechen and
reverted to Russian rule. In 2000 this regime was destroyed by Russia.
*National Congress of the Chechen People 1991.11.1-1996.4.21
Abkhazia (1992.7.23- )
Originally an autonomous republic of Georgia, Abkhazia unilaterally declared independence in 1992.
*United Abkhazia 2005.2.12-2011.5.29
Established by the Equality Party (Musavat) of Northern Azerbaijan in 1918. In 1920, the
Musavats were overthrown by Russia, who installed a soviet government under the one-party rule
of the Communists. In 1922 Azerbaijan was incorporated into Transcaucasus.
*Equality Party (commonly known as Musavat) 1918.5.28-1920.4.28
*Communist Party 1920.4.28-1922.3.12
Azerbaijan Autonomous Republic (1945.12.10-1946.12.11)
In 1945 Russia induced the Democratic Party of Southern Azerbaijan to revolt against Iran and
establish this regime. In 1946 Southern Azerbaijan reverted to Iranian rule.
*Democratic Party 1945.12.10-1946.12.11
Azerbaijan (1991.8.30- )
Originally a union republic of USSR, Azerbaijan declared independence in 1991.
*Popular Front 1992.6.16-1993.6.24
*New Azerbaijan Party 1993.10.10-
Established by the Revolutionary Federation (Dashnak) of Eastern Armenia in 1918. In 1920, the
Dashnaks were overthrown by Russia, who installed a soviet government under the one-party rule
of the Communists. In 1922 Armenia was incorporated into Transcaucasus.
*Revolutionary Federation (commonly known as Dashnak) 1918.5.30-1920.12.2
*Communist Party 1920.11.20-1922.3.12
Armenia (1991.9.23- )
Originally a union republic of USSR, Armenia declared independence in 1991.
*Pan-Armenian National Movement 1991.9.23-1998.2.3
*Republican Party 2008.4.9-
Osman-Turkey (c.1281- )
1. Royal Government (c. 1281-1922.11.1)
Founded in c.1281. A constitutional system was introduced in 1876-1878. In 1909 the Committee of
Union and Progress seized power. The monarchical system was finally abolished in 1922.
*New Osmanli Association (commonly known as New Osmanli Party) 1876.12.19-1877.2.5
*Committee of Union and Progress (commonly known as Young Turks) 1909.4.27-1912.7.17
*Committee of Union and Progress 1913.1.23-1918.10.4
2. National Government (1920.4.23- )
In 1919 Kemal staged the national liberation movement and established this government in 1920.
In 1922 the Royal Government was abolished and the country's name was changed to Turkey. In
1923, Turkey came under the one-party rule of the People's Party until 1946 when a multi-party
system was introduced. After a coup in 1980, General Evren established dictatorial rule.
Democracy was restored in 1989.
*People's Party 1923-1924.11
*Republican People's Party [CHP] (previously People's Party) 1924.11-1950.5.22
*Democratic Party [DP] 1950.5.22-1960.5.27
*Justice Party [AP] (previously DP) 1965.10.27-1971.3.26
*Republican Reliance Party 1972.4.17-1973.4.15
*Motherland Party [AnaP] 1989.11.9-1991.11.20
*True Path Party [DYP] (previously AP) 1991.11.20-1993.5.16
*Welfare Party 1996.6.28-1997.6.30
*Democratic Left Party 1999.1.11-2002.11.18
*Justice and Development Party 2002.11.18-
Cyprus (1960.8.16- )
Independent since 1960.
*National Organisation of Cypriot Fighters (commonly known as EOKA) 1974.7.15-..23
*Democratic Party [DIKO] 1977.9.3-1988.2.28
*Democratic Rally [DISY] 1993.2.28-2003.2.28
*Progressive Party of the Working People 2008.2.28-2013.2.28
Northern Cyprus (1975.2.13- )
Installed by Turkey in the northern part of Cyprus in 1975.
*Party of National Unity [UBP] 1975.2.13-2005.4.24
*Republican Turkish Party-United Forces 2005.4.24-2010.4.23
Iraq (1920.11.11- )
Established in 1920. A constitutional monarchical system was introduced in 1924. In 1958 the
monarchical system was abolished. After a coup staged by the Socialist Arab Rebirth Party in
1968, one-party rule was established in Iraq. Since 1979, Iraq was under the dictatorial rule of
Saddam Hussein, who was overthrown in the Iraqi War staged by USA and Britain in 2003.
*People's Party 1924.8.2-1925.6.26
*Progressive Party [Taq] 1925.6.26-1926.11.21
*Covenant Party [Ahd] 1926.11.21-1928.1.11
*National Brotherhood Party [HIW] 1933.3.20-.11.9
*Liberal Party 1946.2.23-.6.1
*Nation's Socialist Party 1947.3.29-1948.1.29
*Constitutional Union Party [ID] 1949.1.6-.12.10
*United National Front 1957.6.20-.12.15
*Socialist Arab Rebirth Party [Ba'ath] 1963.2.8-.11.18
*National Accord 2004.6.1-2005.5.3
*Islamic Dawah Movement 2005.5.3-
Syria (1918.9.30-1920.7.28; 1922.6.28-1958.2.1)
Established in 1918. After gaining independence in 1944, Syria was in political turmoil, with
the appearance of several military dictators. Between 1953 and 1954, the Arab Liberation
Movement exercised one-party rule. In 1958 Syria merged with Egypt to form the United Arab
*Nationalist Bloc 1943.8.17-1949.3.30
*Socialist National Party 1949.3.30-.8.14
*Arab Liberation Movement 1953.7.11-1954.2.25
*National Party 1955.9.6-1958.2.1
Syria (1961.9.28- )
In 1961 Syria seceded from the United Arab Republic. After a coup in 1963, Syria came under the
prolonged rule of the Socialist Arab Rebirth Party. In 1970 H. al-Assad seized power and started
the dictatorial rule of the Assad Family, who established a one-party system in 1972.
*Socialist Arab Rebirth Party 1963.3.9-
Transjordan-Jordan (1921.3.21- )
Founded in 1921. Originally called Transjordan, the country's name was changed to Jordan in
1949. In 1928 an Organistaion Law was enacted and a modernized government was established. With
the implementation of a constitution in 1952, a constiutional monarchical system was introduced.
Partisan activities were prohibited until 1992, when a multi-party system was adopted.
Lebanon (1926.9.1- )
Founded in 1926. In 1936, a special political system in which the Christians and Muslims share
powers was developed.
Israel (1948.5.14- )
Founded in 1948, Israel was initially under the prolonged rule of the Palestinian Workers' Party
between 1948 and 1977, since when the Labour Party and the Likud Bloc ruled alternately.
*Palestinian Workers' Party (commonly known as MAPAI) 1948.5.17-1968.1
*Labour Party [Avoda] (developed from MAPAI) 1968.1-1977.4.22
*Likud Bloc [Likud] 1977.6.21-1984.9.14
*Forward [Kadima] (split from Likud) 2005.11.21-2009.3.31
In 1988 the Palestine Liberation Organisation established the Government-in-exile of State of
Palestine, which was reorganised into the Palestinian National Authority in 1994. Since then the
Palestinian National Authority exercised home rule on the Palestinian autonomous regions set up
by Israel. In 2013, the National Authority unilaterally declared reestablishment of the State of
*Liberation Movement (commonly known as Fatah) 1988.11.14-
Saudi Arabia (1932.9.22- )
Founded in 1932. With the promulgation of a provisional constitution in 1960, a constitutional
system was introduced. But the King retained much power.
Oman-Muscat (1624- )
Founded in 1624. With the promulgation of the Basic Law in 1996, a constitutional system was
introduced. But the Sultan (monarch) retained much power.
Kuwait (1752- )
Founded in 1752. With the promulgation of a constitution in 1962, a constitutional system was
introduced. But the Emir (monarch) retained much power.
Bahrain (1783- )
Founded in 1783. With the promulgation of a constitution in 1973, a constitutional system was
introduced. But the Emir (monarch) retained much power.
Qatar (1868.9.12- )
Founded in 1868. With the promulgation of a provisional constitution in 1974, a constitutional
system was introduced. But the Emir (monarch) retained much power.
United Arab Emirates (1971.12.2- )
Formed by the merger of 6 gulf emirates which gained independence in 1971. The Emirs (monarchs)
retained much power.
[Northern] Yemen (1926.9.2-1990.5.22)
Founded in 1926. In the wake of a military coup in 1962, the monarchical system was abolished.
After that, [Northern] Yemen was under military dictatorship. From 1978 onwards, Saleh was in
power. In 1990, [Northern] Yemen merged with [Southern] Yemen to form the Republic of Yemen.
*General People's Congress 1978.7.18-1990.5.22
[Southern] Yemen (1967.11.30-1990.5.22; 1994.5.21-.7.7)
After gaining independence in 1967, [Southern] Yemen was initially in political turmoil. With
the formation of the National Front in 1975, a one-party system was introduced. In 1990, [
Southern] Yemen merged with [Northern] Yemen to form the Republic of Yemen. In 1994, the
Socialist Party revolted and restored this regime in [Southern] Yemen but was crushed by the
Republic of Yemen in the same year.
*National Liberation Front [NLF] 1967.11.30-1975.10
*National Front [NF] (developed from NLF) 1975.10-1978.10.11
*Socialist Party [HIY] (previously NF) 1978.10.11-1990.5.22
Yemen (1990.5.22- )
Established with the merger of [Northern] Yemen and [Southern] Yemen in 1990.
*General People's Congress 1990.5.22-
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