Romania (1862.1.22- )
In 1834, the two principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia situated in the present Romania enacted
the organistaion laws and established the modernized governments. During the revolution in 1848,
the Wallachian government was forced to enact a constitution and introduced a constitutional
system. With the amalgamation of Wallachia and Moldavia to form Romania in 1862, the country
finally adopted a constitutional monarchical system. Between 1862 and 1918, the Conservatives,
Moderates and Liberals took turns to form cabinets. In 1940, Antonescu, in alliance with the Iron
Guard, seized power in a coup and established fascist one-party rule, which was replaced by
Antonescu's personal dictatorship when he suppressed the Iron Guard in 1941. In 1944 Antonescu
was overthrown. In 1945 the leftist parties formed a coalition government and finally abolished
the monarchical system in 1947. Romania came under one-party rule when the Communist Party and
the Social Democratic Party merged to form the Workers' Party in 1948. Between 1965 and 1989
Romanai was under the dictatorial rule of Ceausescu, who was overthrown by popular uprising in
1989. Thereafter a multi-party system was introduced and Romania was ruled by the left wing
(National Salvation Front) and the right wing alternately.
*Conservative [Con] 1862.2.15-.6.24
*Moderate [Mod] 1862.6.24-1863.10.24
*Liberal [Lib] 1863.10.24-1865.2.6
*Conervative Progressive Party [PCP] 1918.3.15-.10.24
*National Liberal Party [PNL] 1918.12.14-1919.10.1
*National Party 1919.12.9-1920.3.19
*People's Party [PP] 1920.3.19-1921.12.18
*Conservative Democratic Party 1921.12.18-1922.1.19
*National Peasant's Party [PNT] 1928.11.11-1933.11.14
*Front of National Renasisance [FRN] 1939.3.7-1940.6.22
*Party of the Nation (previously FRN) 1940.6.22-.9.14
*Iron Guard 1940.9.14-1941.1.23
*National Democratic Front 1945.3.6-1948.2
*Workers' Party 1948.2-1965.7
*Communist Party (previously Workers' Party) 1965.7-1989.12.22
*National Salvation Front [FSN] 1989.12.26-1992.4.7
*Democratic National Salvation Front [FSDN] (split from FSN) 1992.4.7-1993.7.10
*Party of Social Democracy [PDSR] (developed from FDSN) 1993.7.10-1996.11.29
*National Peasant's Party-Christian and Democratic 1996.11.29-2000.12.20
*Social Democrat Party (developed from PDSR) 2001.6.16-2004.12.20
*Democratic Party 2004.12.20-2007.4.20; 2007.5.23-
Moldova (1991.8.27- )
Originally a union republic of USSR, Moldova declared independence in 1991. In the early post-
independence years, Moldova was under strongman rule, which was replaced by a parliamentary
cabinet system in 2001.
*Communist Party [PCM] 1991.8.27-1994.4.8
*Party of Communists (previously PCM) 1994.4.8-1995.7.15
*Party of Revivial and Conciliation 1995.7.15-1997.1.15
*Party of Communists 2001.4.19-2009.9.25
*Liberal Democratic Party 2009.9.25-
Bulgaria (1879.7.8- )
1. Royal Government (1879.7.8-1946.9.15)
Founded in 1879, Bulgaria initially adopted a constitutional monarchical system. In 1923 A.
Tsankov seized power through a coup. Between 1934 and 1935, Bulgaria was under the one-party
rule of the Link. In 1935 Tsar Boris III assumed absolute power. In 1945 the Workers' Party
seized power and abolished the monarchical system in 1946.
*Conservative [Con] 1879.7.17-.12.6
*Liberal [Lib] 1880.4.5-1881.5.9
*People's Liberal Party [NLP] 1887.9.1-1894.5.31
*People's Party [NP] 1894.5.31-1899.1.30
*Democratic Party [DP] 1901.3.5-1902.1.4
*Progressive Liberal Party [PLP] 1902.1.4 -1903.5.19
*Liberal Party 1913.7.17-1918.6.21
*Peasant People's League [BZNS] 1919.10.6-1923.6.9
*Constitutional Bloc [KB] 1923.8-.c.11
*Democratic Harmony (previously KB) 1923.8-1931.6.29
*People's Bloc 1931.6.29-1934.5.19
*Militray Union 1935.1.22-.4.21
*Fatherland Front 1944.9.9-1945.11
*Workers' Party (previously Communist Party) 1945.11-1946.9.15
2. Supreme Military Revolution Committee (1923.9.23-..29)
Established by the Communists during the September Uprising in 1923. The uprising was soon
suppressed by the Royal Government.
*Communist Party [BKP] 1923.9.23-..29
3. Republican Government (1946.9.15- )
One-party rule was established by the Workers' Party in 1946, with Zhivkov being in power
between 1954 and 1989. One-party rule came to an end in 1990, when a multi-party system was
introduced. Between 1990 and 2001, Bulgaria was under the alternate rule of the Socialist Party
and the Union of Democratic Forces.
*Workers' Party 1946.9.15-1948.12.18
*BKP (previously Workers' Party) 1948.12.18-1990.4.3
*Socialist Party [BSP] (previously BKP) 1990.4.3-.12.7
*Union of Democratic Forces [SDS] 1991.11.8-1992.12.30
*National Movement Simeon II 2001.7.24-2005.8.16
*Citizens for European Development of Bulgaria 2009.7.27-2013.3.13
In 1918 the Peasant People's League revolted and established this regime in Radomir. The revolt
was soon crushed by Bulgaria and the regime collapsed.
/Montenegro, Crnagora/ (c.1360-1499; 1515-1918.12.1)
Founded in c.1360. A modernized government was established in 1855 when a general code was
enacted. With the promulgation of a constitution in 1905, a constitutional monarchical system was
introduced. In 1918 Montenegro was incorporated into Serbia-Croatia-Slovenia.
*True People's Party [PNS] 1905.12.19-1906.11.24
*Radical Party 1906.11.24-1907.2.1
*People's Party [NS] 1907.2.1-.4.17
Serbia (1804.2.14-1813.10.3; 1815.11.21-1915.11; 1918.11.1-.12.1)
Founded in 1804. A constitutional monarchical system was adopted with the promulgation of a
constitution in 1835. In 1918 Serbia merged with Slovenia-Croatia-Serbia to form the Kingdom of
*Conservative Party [CP] 1861.10.21-1867.11.15
*Liberal Party [LS] 1867.11.15-.12.3
*Progressivde party [NP] 1873.11.3-1875.2.3
*Serbian Progressive Party [SNS] 1875.10.8-1876.5.6
*People's Radical Party [SNRS] 1888.1.13-.5.9
In 1918 Croatia declared independence from Hungary and established this regime. In the same year
the regime merged with Serbia to form the Kingdom of Serbia-Croatia-Slovenia.
The Kingdom of Serbia-Croatia-Slovenia came into being with the merger of Serbia, Montenegro and
Slovenia-Croatia-Serbia in 1918. The regime initially adopted a constitutional monarchical
system under which the cabinets were basically formed by Serbian People's Radical Party and the
Democratic Party alternately. But in 1929, King Aleksandar suspended the constitution and assumed
absolute power. The country's name was also changed to Yugoslavia in the same year. In 1941
Yugoslavia was partitioned by the Axis Powers.
*Serbian People's Radical Party [SNRS] 1918.12.1-1919.8.16
*Democratic Party [DS] 1919.8.16-1920.2.19
*Slovenian People's Party 1928.7.28-1929.1.7
*Radical Union Party 1934.12.22-1939.2.5
In 1941 Germany induced Croatia to secede from Yugoslavia and established this regime under the
one-party rule of Ustasha. In 1945 the regime was destroyed by Yugoslavia.
After the partition of Yugoslavia by the Axis Powers in 1941, a regime was established in the
region of Serbia. In 1944 this regime was destroyed by USSR and Yugoslavia.
1. Puppet Government (1941.7.12-1945.4)
In 1941 Italy occupied Montenegro and installed this government. In 1943 Montenegro was occupied
by the Germans, who were expelled in 1944. In 1945 this government collapsed.
*Peasant's Federal Movement 1941.7.13-..?
*National Movement 1941-1943.10.19
2. Resistance Government (1943.11.15-1945.12.2)
Established by the Communists, who rose against the foreign invaders in 1943. Montenegro
reverted to Yugoslavia in 1945.
*Communist Party 1943.11.15-1945.12.2
Yugoslavia-Serbia and Montenegro (1943.12.4-2006.6.5)
Established by the Communist Party in 1943. With the liberation of the whole country in 1945,
the Communist Party formally abolished the monarchical system and established one-party rule,
with Tito being in power between 1945 an 1980. The federation disintegrated when the constituent
republics declared independence in 1991 and 1992. In 1992, the remaining member-states of the
former Yugoslavia, Serbia and Montenegro, reorganised the country as the Federal Republic of
Yugoslavia, whose powers were shared by the two constituent states. In 2003 Yugoslavia was
further reorganised as a confederate state whose name was changed to Serbia and
Montenegro. In 2006 the confederation disintegrated.
*Communist Party [KPJ] 1943.12.4-1952.11.7
*League of Yugoslav Communists (previously KPJ) 1952.11.7-1990.5.26
*Period in which the Serbs and Montenegrins shared powers 1992.4.27-
*Socialist Party of Serbia [SPS] 1993.6.25-1997.6.25
*Democratic Party of Serbia 2000.10.7-2003.3.7
*Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro [DPS] 2003.3.7-
*Socialist People's Party of Montenegro 1998.5.19-2003.3.17
Serbia (2003.2.4- )
In 2003 Yugoslavia was reorganised as a confederate state under which Serbia is one of the
constituent states. With the disintegration of the confederation in 2006, Serbia became an
*Democratic Party [DS] 2003.2.4-.3.12
*Democratic Party of Serbia (split from DS) 2004.3.31-2007.7.7
*Socialist Party 2012.7.27-
Montenegro (2003.2.4- )
In 2003 Yugoslavia was reorganised as a confederate state under which Montenegro is one of the
constituent states. In 2006 Montenegro declared independence.
*Democratic Party of Socialists 2003.2.4-
Slovenia (1991.6.25- )
Originally a constituent republic of Yugoslavia, Slovenia declared independence in 1991.
*Christian Democrats 1991.6.25-1992.5.14
*Liberal Democracy of Slovenia [LDS] 1992.5.14-2000.6.7
*People's Party-Christian Democrats 2000.6.7-.8.4
*New Slovenia-Christian People's Party 2000.8.4-.11.30
*Social Democratic Party [SDS] 2004.12.3-2008.11.21
*Social Democrats 2008.11.21-2012.2.10
*Positive Slovenia 2013.3.20-
Croatia (1991.6.25- )
Originally a constituent republic of Yugoslavia, Croatia declared independence in 1991. In the
early post-independence years, Croatia was under strongman rule, which was replaced by a
parliamentary cabinet system in 1999.
*Democratic Union [HDZ] 1991.6.25-2000.1.27
*Social Democratic Party [SDP] 2000.1.27-2003.12.23
Kosovo (1991.10.19- )
In 1991 Kosovo seceded from Yugoslavia and established this regime. In 1999 Yugoslav army
withdrew from Kosava, which was then put under the administration of the United Nations. In 2000
this regime recognized the administration of the United Nations and became an autonomous region
under the protection of the United Nations
*Democratic League 1992.5.24-1999.5.5; 1999.6-2000.2.1
*Democratic Party 2002.3.4-2004.12.3
*Alliance for the Future of Kosovo [AAK] 2004.12.3-2005.3.8
Republic of Bosnia and Hercegovina (1992.3.3-1994.5.31)
Originally a constituent republic of Yugoslavia, Bosnia declared independence in 1992. The
Bosnian War soon broke out. As the Serbs and Croats in Bosnia established their own independent
states, the territory of this regime contracted to the regions controlled by the Bosniacs (also
called Muslims). In 1994 this regime merged with Herceg to form the Federation of Bosnia and
*Party of Democratic Action 1992.3.3-1994.5.31
Federation of Bosnia and Hercegovina (1994.5.31- )
Commonly called Muslim-Croat Federation, this regime was established with the merger of the
Republic of Bosnia and Hercegovina and Herceg. As the Bosnian War ended in 1996, this regime
formed a confederation with Srpska.
Bosnia and Hercegovina (1996.10.5- )
In 1996 the Muslim-Croat Federation and Srpska formed a confederation, with the position of
chief of state rotated by the Serbs, Croats and Bosniacs and the two constituent states
Albania (1912.11.28-1916.2.24; 1918.12.28- )
In 1912 Albania gained indepedence from the Osmanli Turks. In 1914 a constitutional monarchy was
set up. In 1921 Zogu seized power and established dictatorial rule, which was replaced by a
democratic government after a revolution in 1924. In the same year, Zogu resumed dictatorial
rule which came to an end in 1939, when the Italian invaders established fascist rule in
Albania. In 1943 Germany occupied Albania and installed a puppet government. In 1944 the Germans
were expelled by the Communists, who then controlled the whole country. In 1946 the monarchy was
formally abolished and replaced by the one-party rule of the Communists, with Hoxha being in
power between 1946 and 1985. In 1990 a multi-party was introduced. Thereafter, Albanis was ruled
by the Workers' Party and the Democratic Party alternately.
*Fascist Party 1939.4.11-1943.2.13
*Communist Party [PCS] 1944.5.26-1948.11
*Workers' Party [PPS] (previously PCS) 1948.11-1991.6
*Socialist Party [PSS] (previously PPS) 1991.6-.12.10
*Democratic Party [PDS] 1992.4.13-1997.3.11
Greece (1822.1.24- )
1. First Republic (1822.1.24-1833.2.6)
In 1822 Greece declared independence from the Osmanli Turks and established this regime. In 1833
a monarchical system was established.
2. Royal Government (1833.2.6-1924.3.16)
A constitutional monarchical system was set up with the promulgation of the Basic Law in 1843.
Between 1865 and 1909 the cabinets were basically formed by the Nationalist Party and the Liberal
Party alternately. With the deposition of the King in 1923, a Regency was set up. In 1924 it was
replaced by the Second Republic.
*Nationalist Party [NP] 1865.3.14-.11.1
*Liberal Party [KF] 1875.5.8-.10.27
*People's Party [LK] 1921.4.8-1922.9.29
*Progressive Liberal Party 1924.2.19-.3.12
*Republican Union 1924.3.12-..16
3. Second Republic (1924.3.16-1935.10.10)
The Second Republic was overthrown by Kondilis, the former Premier, who staged a coup and
restored the Royal Government in 1935.
*Republican Union [RU] 1924.3.16-.7.24
*Conservative Democratic Party 1924.10.7-1925.6.26
*National Radical Party 1926.8.23-.12.4
4. Royal Government (1935.10.10-1941.6.2)
In 1936 I. Metaxas, the Prime Minister, seized power and established dictatorial rule. With the
invasion of Greece by the Axis Powers, this government exiled to Britain in 1941.
5. Puppet Government (1941.5.7-1944.10.13)
Installed by Germany in 1941 and destroyed by the Allies in 1944.
6. Political Committee of National Liberation (1944.3.10-.9.2)
In 1944 the Communists set up the Political Committee of National Liberation as a governing body
in liberated areas in Greece. The Committee was united with the Government-in-exile in the same
*Communist Party [KKE] 1944.3.10-.9.2
7. Royal Government (1944.10.13-1973.6.1)
In 1944 the Government-in-exile returned to Greece. After the coup staged by General
Papadopoulos in 1967, Greece came under military rule. The monarchy was finally replaced by the
Third Republic in 1973.
*Center Union [EK] 1944.10.18-1945.1.3
*National Unionist Party 1945.11.1-..22
*National Progressive Center Union [EPEK] 1950.4.15-.8.21
*Hellenic Union [ES] 1952.11.19-1955.10.4
*National Radical Union [ERE] 1958.5.17-1961.9.20
*Liberal Democratic Center 1965.9.17-1966.12.22
8. Provisional Democratic Government (1947.12.24-1949.8.28)
Established by the Communists who revolted in northern Greece in 1947, this government was
expelled by the Royal Government in 1949. Later the Communists abandoned armed struggle.
9. Third Republic (1973.6.1- )
After the collapse of the military government in 1974, a democractic government adopting the
parliamentary cabinet system was set up. Thereafter, Greece is basically under the alternate
rule of the New Democracy and Pan-Hellenistic Socialist Movement.
*New Democracy [ND] 1974.7.23-1981.10.21
*Pan-Hellenistic Socialist Movement [PASOK] 1981.10.21-1989.7.2
In 1903 the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organisation revolted against Osmanli rule and
established this regime. The revolt was suppressed by Osman soon.
*Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organisation 1903.8.3-..13
Established by the Communists in Vardar Macedonia in 1945 and was incorporated into Yugoslavia
in the same year.
*Communist Party 1945.4.30-.12.2
Macedonia (1991.9.18- )
Originally a constituent republic of Yugoslavia, Macedonia declared independence in 1991. Since
then, Macedonia was under the alternate rule of the League of Communists-Party for Democratic
Change and the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organisation-Democratic Party of Macedonian
*League of Communists-Party for Democratic Change [SKM-PDP] 1992.8.17-1995.4
*Social Democratic Party [SDSM] (previously SKM-PDP) 1995.4-1998.11.30
*Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organisation-Democratic Party of Macedonian National Unity
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