AFRICA NORTH


Egypt

Egypt-United Arab Republic (1769-1773.4.13; 1805.7.9- )

Established by Ali, a Mamluk bey (warlord) ruling Egypt in 1768, but reconquered by the Osmanli Turks in 1773. In 1806 Muhammad Ali, viceroy of Egypt under Osmanli suzerainty, established hereditary rule in Egypt, which became a vassal state of the Osmanli Empire. In 1881, Arabi, leader of the National Popular Party, revolted and seized power in 1882. The nationalist government was overthrown by Britain in the same year and Egypt came under British control since then. A constitutional monarchical system was introduced in 1923 when a constitution was enacted. After the Free Officers' Movement seized power in 1952, the monarchical system was abolished in 1953. In 1958 Egypt and Syria merged to form the United Arab Republic, but Syria withdrew from the Republic in 1961. In 1962 one-party rule of the Arab Socialist Union was established. In 1971 the country's name was changed back to Egypt. After the adoption of a mulit-party system in 1976, Egypt continues to be under the prolonged rule of the National Democratic Party.

*National Popular Party 1882.2.2-.6.17
*Liberal Constitutional Party [LCP] 1921.3.16-1922.11.30
*Nationalist Party (commonly known as Wafd Party) [WM] 1924.1.26-.11.24
*Federal Party 1924.11.24-1926.6.7
*LCP 1926.6.7-1928.3.16
*WM 1928.3.16-.6.27
*LCP 1928.6.27-1930.1.1
*WM 1930.1.1-.6.20
*People's Party [HS] 1930.6.20-1933.9.22
*Union Party [IP] 1933.9.22-1936.5.9
*WM 1936.5.9-1939.8.18
*IP 1939.8.18-1940.6.28
*WM 1942.2.5-1944.10.10
*Saadist Institutional Party [SIP] 1944.10.10-1946.2.17
*HS 1946.2.17-.12.9
*SIP 1946.12.9-1949.7.26
*WM 1950.1.12-1952.1.27
*IP 1952.1.27-.3.2
*Liberation Rally [LR] 1952.7.26-1957.7
*National Union [NU] (previously LR) 1957.7-1962.12
*Arab Socialist Union [ASU] (previously NU) 1962.12-1978.7
*National Democratic Party (developed from ASU) 1978.7-2011.2.10
*Freedom and Justice Party 2012.6.30-2013.7.3


Libya

Libya (1951.12.24- )

Established in 1951 as a constitutional monarchy, which was replaced by the dictatorial rule of O.M. al-Qaddafi in 1969. In 1971 O.M. al-Qaddafi established one-party rule of the Arab Socialist Union. With the establishment of the "Jamahiriya" in 1977, the governments of each level as well as the ruling party were replaced by the people's congresses and people's committees in each level. After O.M. al-Qaddafi was overthrown in 2011, party politics was resumed in 2012.

*Arab Socialist Union 1971.6-1977.3.2
*National Front Party 2012.8.10-2013.5.28


Tunisia

Tunisia (c.1628- )

In c.1628 Murad I became the Bey of Tunisia under the suzerainty of Osmanli Empire. With the promulgation of a constitution in 1861, a constitutional monarchical system was introduced. In 1957 the monarchical system was abolished and replaced by the one-party rule of the Neo-Destour Party until 1981, when a multi-party system was introduced. Since then, the Constitutional Democratic Rally Party remains in power. The period between 1957 and 1987 saw the prolonged rule of Bourguiba. The Constitutional Democratic Rally Party lost the regime in 2011.

*Neo-Destour Party [NDP] 1956.4.14-1964.3
*Destourien Socialist Party [PSD] (previously NDP) 1964.3-1988.2
*Constitutional Democratic Rally Party (previously PSD) 1988.2-2011.1.15
*Congress for the Republic 2011.12.13-


Algeria

Government-in-exile of Algerian Republic (1958.9.19-1962.7.3)

Established by the Front for National Liberation (FLN) in Egypt (later moved to Tunisia) in 1958. In 1962 Algeria gained independence from France formally.

*Front for National Liberation 1958.9.19-1962.7.3

Algeria (1962.7.3- )

Between 1963 and 1989, Algeria was under the one-party rule of the FLN. The introduction of a multi-party system in 1989 brought about political turmoil and Algeria was under military rule between 1992 and 1994. Civilian rule was resumed in 1994.

*Front for National Liberation [FLN] 1962.7.3-1977.10
*Front for National Liberation Party [PFLN] (previously FLN) 1977.10-1988.11
*FLN (previously PFLN) 1988.11-1992.1.14
*Revolutionary Socialist Party 1992.1.16-.6.29
*FLN 1992.7.2-1994.1.31
*National Rally for Democracy 1994.1.31-1999.4.27


Morocco

Morocco (1957.8.14- )

In 1956 Alawi declared independence from France and Spain. In 1957 the country's name was formally changed to Morocco and a constitutional monarchical system was established.

*Independence Party [PI] 1958.5.12-1960.5.20
*Front for the Defence of Constitutional Institutions-Social and Democratic Party 1963.11.13- 1965.6.7
*National Rally of Independents 1972.11.2-1979.3.22
*Constitutional Union 1979.3.22-1983.11.30
*Socialist Union of Popular Forces 1998.2.4-2002.10.9
*PI 2007.9.19-2011.11.29
*Justice and Development Party 2011.11.29-


Somalia

Somaliland-Somalia (1960.6.26- )

In 1960 British Somaliland declared independence from Britain. When Italian Somalia declared independence from Italy in the same year, the two former colonies were amalgamated into Somalia. In 1969 General Siyad seized power. He formed the Revolutionary Socialist Party in 1976 and exercised one-party rule in 1979. Siyad was overthrown by the United Somali Congress in 1991. Since then Somalia was torn by internal strife and was governed by warlords. In 2006 the Transitional Federal Government originally in exile was moved to Somalia and became the only government with international recognition.

*Youth League 1960.6.26-1969.10.15
*Revolutionary Socialist Party 1976.7-1991.1.27
*Salvation Democratic Front 2006.2.26-2008.12.29
*Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia 2009.1.31-2012.8.20
*Peace and Development Party 2012.9.16-

Djibouti (1977.6.27- )

Djibouti declared independence in 1977. Between 1977 and 1999 Djibouti was under the prolonged rule of Gouled, who installed the one-party rule of the People's Rally for Progress in 1981. The one-party system was replaced by a multi-party system in 1992.

*African People's League for Independence [LPAI] 1977.6.27-1979.3.4
*People's Rally for Progress (developed from LPAI) 1979.3.4-

Somaliland (1991.5.24- )

In 1991 Somali National Movement occupied the northern part of Somalia and established this regime.

*Somali National Movement [SNM] 1991.5.24-2001
*Allied People's Democratic Party (previously SNM) 2001-2010.7.27
*Peace, Unity and Development Party 2010.7.27-


Ethiopia

Ethiopia (1117- )

Founded in 1117. With the promulgation of a constitution in 1931, Ethiopia became a constitutional monarchy. After the military seized power in 1974, the monarchical system was abolished in 1975. One-party rule began with the formation of the Workers' Party (EWP). In 1990 a multi-party system was introduced. But the EWP Government was finally overthrown in 1991.

*Workers' Party 1984.9-1991.5.21
*People's Democratic Movement [EPDM] 1991.7.29-1994.1
*Amhara National Democratic Movement (previously EPDM) 1994.1-1995.8.22
*Tigray People's Liberation Front 1995.8.22-2012.8.20
*Southern Ethiopian People's Democratic Movement 2012.9.21-

Eritrea (1991.5.24- )

Established by the People's Liberation Front in 1991, Eritrea gained independence from Ethiopia in 1993. Since 1994 Eritrea is under the one-party rule of the People's Front for Democracy and Justice.

*People's Liberation Front [EPLF] 1991.5.24-1994.2
*People's Front for Democracy and Justice (previously EPLF) 1994.2-


East Sudan

[Eastern] Sudan (1956.1.1- )

In 1956 [Eastern] Sudan declared independence from Britain. In 1969 General Nimeiry seized power. With the formation of the Socialist Union in 1972, one-party rule befell the country. After Nimeiry was overthrown in 1985, the country was in political turmoil and was under prolonged military rule.

*United National Front 1965.7.8-1969.5.25
*Socialist Union [SSU] 1972.1-1971.7.19
*SSU 1971.7.22-1985.4.6
*Democratic Unionist Party 1986.5.6-1989.6.30

South Sudan (2011.7.9- )

Originally part of [Eastern] Sudan, Southern Sudan gained independence in 2011 and was renamed South Sudan.

*Sudan People's Liberation Movement 2011.7.9-


Central Sudan

Chad (1958.11.28- )

In 1958 Chad became an autonomous Republic of France. Full independence was granted in 1960. Between 1960 and 1975, Chad was under the dictatorship of Tombalbaye, leader of the Progressive Party. One-party rule started in 1962. In 1966 a civil war broke out, culminating in the overthrow of Tombalbaye in 1975. In 1982, Habre seized power. With the formation of the National Union for Independence and Revolution in 1984, one-party rule was once again established in Chad. After Deby, leader of the Patriotic Salvation Movement, seized power in 1990, a multi-party system was introduced and the civil war ended.

*Progressive Party [PPT] 1958.11.28-1959.2.11
*Rally for Chadian Self-employed and Peasants 1959.2.11-.3.12
*PPT 1959.3.26-1973.9
*National Movement for the Cultural and Social Revolution (previously PPT) 1973.9-1975.4.13
*National Liberation Front-People's Armed Forces [FROLIANT-FAP] 1979.3.23-.4.29
*People's Movement for the Liberation of the Chad 1979.4.29-.9.3
*FROLIANT-FAP 1979.9.3-1982.6.7
*National Liberation Front-Armed Forces of the North [FROLIANT-FAN] 1982.6.7-1984.6
*National Union for Independence and Revolution (previously FROLIANT-FAN) 1984.6-1990.12.1
*Patriotic Salvation Movement 1990.12.2-

Central Africa (1958.12.1- )

In 1958 Central Africa became an autonomous Republic of France. Full independence was granted in 1960. Between 1962 and 1981, Central Africa was under the one-party rule of the Movement for the Social Evolution of Black Africa. After a coup in 1966, political power was seized by Bokassa, who declared himself Emperor in 1976. After Bokassa was overthrown in 1979, the republic was restored. In 1981 another coup put Kolingba into power. One-party rule started in 1987 with the formation of the Democratic Rally. A multi-party system was finally introduced in 1991.

*Movement for the Social Evolution of Black Africa 1958.12.8-1981.9.1
*Democratic Rally 1987.2-1993.10.22
*Liberation Movement of the Central African People 1993.10.22-2003.3.15
*National Convergence "Kwa Na Kwa" 2009-2013.3.24
*Union of Democratic Forces for Unity 2013.3.24-2014.1.10

Cameroon (1959.1.1- )

In 1959 Cameroon became an autonomous Republic of France. Full independence was granted in 1960. Since independence, Cameroon has been under the successive rule of two strongmen: Ahidjo (1960-1982) and Biya (1982- ), who ruled under the one-party system dominated by the National Union. After the introduction of a multi-party system in 1990, the People's Democratic Rally remained in power.

*Cameroon Union [UC] 1959.1.1-1966.9.1
*National Union [UNC] (developed from UC) 1966.9.1-1985.3.24
*People's Democratic Rally (previously UNC) 1985.3.24-


Niger-Nigeria

Niger (1958.12.19- )

In 1958 Niger became an autonomous Republic of France. Full independence was granted in 1960. Between 1959 and 1974, Niger was under the one-party rule of the Progressive Party (PPN). After the overthrow of the PPN Government, Niger came under military rule. After a brief one-party rule by the National Movement for the Development of Society in 1989-1990, a multi-party system was introduced. However, political turmoil continued and military rule was resumed for several times.

*Progressive Party 1958.12.19-1974.4.15
*National Movement for the Development of Society [MNSD] 1988.8-1993.3.27
*Democratic and Social Convention 1993.3.27-1996.1.27
*National Independents Union for Democratic Renewal 1997.3-1999.4.9
*MNSD 1999.12.22-2010.2.18
*Party for Democracy and Socialism 2011.4.7-

Nigeria (1960.10.1- )

Nigeria declared independence from Britain in 1960. After independence, Nigeria was in political turmoil and was under prolonged military rule.

*Northern People's Congress [NPC] 1960.10.1-1966.1.15
*National Party (developed from NPC) 1979.10.1-1983.12.31
*People's Democratic Party 1999.5.29-


West Sudan

[Western] Sudan-Mali (1958.11.24- )

In 1958 [Western] Sudan became an autonomous Republic of France. In 1959 it was annexed with Senegal to form Mali Federation. Full independence was granted in 1960. But in the same year the federation split into [Western] Sudan and Senegal, with the former's name changed to Mali. After a coup in 1968, Mali came under the prolonged rule of Traore, who established a one-party system dominated by the Democratic Union of the Malian People in 1979. With the overthrow of the Democratic Union in 1991, a multi-party system was introduced.

*Sudanese Union-African Democratic Rally 1958.11.24-1968.11.19
*Democratic Union of the Malian People 1979.3-1991.3.26
*Pan-African Party for Liberty, Solidarity and Justice 1992.6.8-2002.6.8
*Coalition for Change and Democracy 2002.6.8-2012.3.22
*Alliance for Democracy in Mali-Pan-African Party for Liberty, Solidarity and Justice 2012.4.12-2013.9.4
*Rally for Mali 2013.9.4-

Mauritania (1958.11.28- )

In 1958 Mauritania became an autonomous Republic of France. Full independence was granted in 1960. Between 1961 and 1978 Mauritania was under the one-party rule of the People's Party, whose rule was replaced by military rule in 1978. Since 1984 the country has been under the prolonged rule of Taya, although a multi-party system was finally introduced in 1991.

*Gathering Party [PRM] 1958.11.28-1961.12
*People's Party (developed from PRM) 1961.12-1978.7.10
*Social and Democratic Republican Party 1992.4.18-2005.8.3
*Union for the Republic 2009.8.5-

Upper Volta-Burkina Faso (1958.12.11- )

In 1958 Upper Volta became an autonomous Republic of France. Full independence was granted in 1960. Between 1960 and 1966 Upper Volta was under the one-party rule of the Democratic Union, whose rule was replaced by the prolonged rule of General Lamizana between 1966 and 1980. The country was in political turmoil since 1980. In 1984 the country's name was changed to Burkina Faso. Since 1987 the country has been ruled by the Popular Front.

*Democratic Union 1958.12.11-1966.1.4
*National Movement for Renewal 1966.1.4-1980.11.25
*Popular Front [FP] 1987.10.15-1991.12.24
*Organization for People's Democracy-Worker's Movement [ODP-MT] (previously FP) 1991.12.24-1996.2.5
*Congress for Democracy and Progress (developed from ODP-MT) 1996.2.5-

Government-in-exile of Saharawi Arab Democratic Republic (1976.2.29- )

In 1976 Morocco and Mauritania occupied the northern and southern parts of Western Sahara, respectively. The Popular Front for the Liberation of Seguia el-Hamra y Rio de Oro established this government-in-exile in the same year.

*Popular Front for the Liberation of Seguia el-Hamra y Rio de Oro (commonly known as Polisario) 1976.2.29-


Gulf of Guinea Region

Togo (1956.8.30- )

In 1956 Togo became an autonomous Republic of France. Full independence was granted in 1960. Between 1962 and 1963 Togo was under the one-party rule of the Unity Party. In 1963 a multi-party system was introduced. In 1967 General Eyadema seized power. One-party rule was resumed with the formation of the Rally of the Togolese People. The political system once again changed to the multi-party system in 1990, but the government is still in the hands of Eyadema's family.

*Party of Togolese Progress 1956.9.12-1958.5.16
*Unity Committee [CUT] 1958.5.16-1961.3
*Unity Party (previously CUT) 1961.3-1963.1.13
*People's Movement 1963.5.5-1967.1.13
*Rally of the Togolese People 1969.11.30-

Ghana (1957.3.6- )

In 1957 Ghana declared independence from Britain. Upon independence, Ghana adopted a parliamentary cabinet system, which was replaced by the presidential system in 1960. Between 1964 and 1966 Ghana was under the one-party rule of the Convention People's Party (CPP). But in 1966 the CPP Government was overthrown by a coup. Civilian rule and the parliamentary cabinet system was resumed in 1969. The civilian government was once again overthrown in 1972, since when Ghana was under military rule for several times, with General Rawlings being in power between 1981 and 2001. Civilian rule was not resumed until 2001.

*Convention People's Party 1957.3.6-1966.2.24
*Progressive Party 1969.9.3-1972.1.13
*Popular National Party 1979.9.24-1981.12.31
*National Democratic Congress [NDC] 1992.6.10-2001.1.7
*New Patriotic Party 2001.1.7-2009.1.7
*NDC 2009.1.7-

Dahomey-Benin (1958.12.4- )

In 1958 Dahomey became an autonomous Republic of France. Full independence was granted in 1960. Initially the country was torn by internal strife between three regional factions (southern, northern and central). In 1961 the Democratic Union established one-party rule, but was overthrown in 1963. In 1970 the three factions agreed to share powers by forming the Presidential Council. In 1972 General Kerekou staged a coup and established dictatorial rule. As the country's name was changed to Benin in 1975, one-party rule by the Popular Revolutionary Party commenced. The political system was finally changed to the multi-party system in 1990.

*Democratic Party 1958.12.4-1959.5.22
*Democratic Rally [RDD] 1959.5.22-1960.11
*Democratic Union (developed from RDD) 1960.11-1963.10.27
*Democratic Party 1964.1.25-1965.11.27
*Popular Revolutionary Party 1975.11.30-1990.12
*Party for the Rebirth of Benin 1991.4.4-1996.4.4
*Action for Renewal and Development 1996.4.4-2006.4.6

Ivory Coast (1958.12.4- )

In 1958 Ivory Coast became an autonomous Republic of France. Full independence was granted in 1960. Between 1960 and 1993 Ivory Coast was under the prolonged rule of Houphouet-Boigny, leader of the Democratic Party, the only legal party until 1990, when a multi-party system was introduced. However, the political status was unstable thereafter.

*Democratic Party 1958.12.4-1999.12.24
*Popular Front 2000.10.26-2011.4.11
*Rally of the Republicans 2011.4.11-


Senegambia-Guinea

Liberia (1847.7.26- )

Upon independence from USA in 1847, the political scene of Liberia was dominated by the American Blacks. Between 1878 and 1980 the country was under the prolonged rule of the True Whig Party, whose rule was overthrown by Doe, a native Black, in 1980. Between 1980 and 1990 Doe exercised dictatorial rule. With the outbreak of the civil war in 1989, Liberia was torn by civic strife.

*Administration Party 1848.1.3-1868.1.6
*Republican Party [RP] 1868.1.6-1870.1.3
*True Whig Party [TW] 1870.1.3-1871.10.26
*TW 1871.11.4-1872.1.1
*RP 1872.1.1-1878.1.7
*TW 1878.1.7-1980.4.12
*National Democratic Party 1984.7-1990.9.9
*People's Party 1990.11.22-1994.3.7
*National Patriotic Party 1997.8.2-2003.10.14
*Action Party 2003.10.14-2006.1.16
*Unity Party 2006.1.16-

Guinea (1958.10.2- )

Upon independence from France in 1958, Guinea was under the prolonged rule of A.S. Toure (1958-1984), who installed a one-party system dominated by the Democratic Party. The Democratic Party was overthrown in 1984 and a multi-party system was introduced in 1992.

*Democratic Party 1958.10.2-1984.4.3
*Party of Unity and Progress 1992.3.27-2008.12.23
*Rally of the Guinean People 2010.12.21-

Senegal (1958.11.25-1959.4.4)

In 1958 Senegal became an autonomous Republic of France. In 1959 Senegal was amalgamated with [Western] Sudan to form Mali Federation.

*Progressive Union 1958.11.25-1959.4.4

Senegal (1960.8.20- )

In 1960 Senegal parted from [Western] Sudan. After independence, Senegal was under the successive rule of two strongmen: Senghor (1960-1980) and Diouf (1981-2000), who ruled under the one-party system dominated by the Progressive Union. The one-party system which was established in 1963 was gradually replaced by a multi-party system in 1976. But the Socialist Party remained in power until 2000.

*Progressive Union [UPS] 1960.8.20-1976.12
*Socialist Party (previously UPS) 1976-2000.4.1
*Democratic Party 2000.4.1-2012.4.2
*Alliance for the Republic 2012.4.2-

Sierra Leone (1961.4.27- )

In 1961 Sierra Leone declared independence from Britain. Between 1978 and 1991 Sierra Leone was under the one-party rule of the All People's Congress. After the introduction of the multi-party system in 1991, Sierra Leone was in political turmoil and came under military rule for several times. Civilian rule was not resumed until 1998.

*People's Party [SLPP] 1961.4.27-1967.3.17
*All People's Congress [APC] 1967.3.21
*APC 1968.4.26-1992.4.30
*SLPP 1996.3.29-1997.5.25
*SLPP 1998.3.10-2007.9.17
*APC 2007.9.17-

Gambia (1965.2.18- )

Upon independence from Britain in 1965, Gambia was under the prolonged rule of Jawara, who was finally overthrown in 1994.

*People's Progresive Party 1965.2.18-1994.7.22
*Alliance for Patriotic Reorientation and Construction 1996.8.26-

Guinea-Bissau (1973.9.24- )

In 1973 the African Independence Party of Guinea and Cape Verde (PAIGC) declared the independence of Portuguese Guinea and established one-party rule. Upon independence of Cape Verde in 1975, PAIGC became the joint ruling party of Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde. After the coup staged by Premier Vieira in 1980, the PAIGC of the two countries split. In 1991 a multi-party system was introduced into Guinea-Bissau.

*African Independence Party of Guinea and Cape Verde [PAIGC] 1973.9.24-1999.5.7
*Party for Social Renewal 2000.2.17-2003.9.14
*PAIGC 2005.10.1-2012.4.12; 2012.5.10-

Cape Verde (1974.12.19- )

In 1974 Cape Verde became an autonomous Republic of Portugal. Upon independence in 1975, Cape Verde was under the rule of PAIGC. In 1981 the Cape Verde branch of PAIGC broke off relation with the Guinea-Bissau headquarters and formed the African Party of Independence of Cape Verde, exercising one-party rule. In 1990 a multi-party system was introduced.

*African Independence Party of Guinea and Cape Verde [PAIGC] 1975.7.8-1981.1
*African Party of Independence of Cape Verde [PAICV] (split from PAIGC) 1981.1-1991.3.22
*Movement for Democracy [MPD] 1991.3.22-2001.3.22
*PAICV 2001.3.22-2011.9.9
*MPD 2011.9.9-


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