Denmark (c.803-1332.8.2; 1340- )
Founded in c.803. A constiutional monarchical system was adopted with the promulgation of a
constitution in 1849. In 1901 the parliamentary cabinet was finally established. Since 1924,
Denmark was basically under the alternate rule of the left wing (Social Democracy) and the
central-right wing. Germany occupied Denmark in 1940 and replaced the Danish government with
German direct rule in 1943. With the Germans expelled by the Allies in 1945, Denmark regained
*Conservative Party [Con] 1852.1.27-1856.10.18
*National Liberal [NL] 1857.5.13-1859.12.2
*Farmers Friend 1859.12.2-1860.2.8
*Right Party 1875.6.11-1901.7.24
*Liberal Party-Left [LP-V] 1901.7.24-1909.10.28
*Radical Left Party [RV] 1909.10.28-1910.7.4
*Radical Party 1913.6.21-1920.3.30
*Social Democracy [SD] 1924.4.23-1926.12.13
*Conservative People's Party [KF] 1926.12.13-1929.4.28
Sweden (c.820- )
Founded in c.820, Sweden adopted the parliamentary cabinet system with the promulgation of a
constitution in 1720 and was then under the alternate rule of the Caps and the Hats. In 1772
King Gustav III abrogated the constitution and resumed absolute powers. The parliamentary system
was finally restored in 1809. Between 1932 and 1976 Sweden was under the prolonged rule of the
Social Democratic Workers' Party.
*Liberal Party [LP] 1858.4.7-1870.6.3
*Conservative Party [HP] 1870.6.3-1874.4.8
*Farmer's Party 1880.4.19-1883.6.13
*Protectionary Majority Party [PMP] 1889.10.12-1891.7.10
*New Farmer's Party [NL] 1891.7.10-1900.9.12
*Liberal Coalition Party [LS] 1905.11.8-1906.5.29
*Moderate Coalition Party [MS] (previously HP) 1906.5.29-1911.10.7
*Social Democratic Workers' Party [SAP] 1920.3.10-.10.27
*National Liberal Alliance [F] 1926.6.6-1928.10.1
*Agrarian Alliance 1936.6.19-.9.28
*Centre Party [CP] 1976.10.7-1978.10.13
*People's Party Liberals 1978.10.13-1979.10.9
Norway (c.872-1000; c.1015- )
Founded in c.872, Norway was under Danish rule since 1387. During the independence movement in
1814, a constiutional monarchical system was introduced with the promulgation of a constitution.
In the same year Norway was occupied by Sweden. In 1882 the parliamentary cabinet system was
adopted. In 1905 Norway declared independence from Sweden. Between 1873 and 1928 the cabinets
were basically formed by the Conservative Party and the Liberal Party alternately. In 1940
Germany invaded and installed a puppet government in Norway. The Germans were expellded by the
Allies in 1945. Thereafter, Norway was under the alternate rule of the left wing (Labour Party)
and the central-right wing.
*Conservative Party [H] 1873.7.21-1884.6.26
*Liberal Party [LP] 1884.6.26-1889.7.13.
*Moderate Left Party 1910.2.2-1912.2.20
*Labour Party [DNA] 1928.1.28-.2.15
*Agrarian Party [AP] 1931.5.12-1933.3.3
*National Socialist Party [NS] 1940.4.9-..15
*Centre Party (previously AP) 1965.10.12-1971.3.17
*Christian People's Party [KFp] 1972.10.18-1973.10.16
Iceland (1918.12.1- )
Established in 1918. Adopting a constiutional monarchical system but under the control of
Denmark. In 1941 Iceland declared independence from Denmark. The monarchical system was
abolished in 1944, since then Iceland was under the alternate rule of the Independence Party,
Social Democratic Party and Progressive Party.
*Home Rule Party 1918.12.1-1922.3.7
*Conservative Party [CP] 1922.3.7-1927.8.28
*Progressive Party [FSF] 1927.8.28-1942.5.16
*Independence Party [SSF] (previously CP) 1942.5.16-.12.16
*Social Democratic Party [SD] 1947.2.4-1949.12.6
*Social Democratic Alliance 2009.2.1-
Finland (1581- )
1. Foreign Rule (1581-1917.3.15)
Finland had been under Swedish rule since the 12th Century. A Grand Duchy was formally
established when King Johan III crowned himself Grand Duke of Finland in 1581. In 1772 a
constitutional monarchical system was adopted with the promulgation of a constitution. In 1809
Sweden ceded Finland to Russia, whose rule over Finland ended in 1917.
*Finnish Party [SP] 1908.8.1-1909.11.13
2. National Government (1917.3.26- )
Established in 1917. Initially adopting the constitutional monarchical system, which was finally
replaced by the republican system in 1919. From 1956 onwards, Finland was basically under the
joint or alternate rule of the central-ring wing and left wing (Social Democratic Party).
*Social Demoractic Party [SDP] 1917.3.26-.8.17
*Young Finnish Party 1917.8.17-1918.5.27
*National Coalition Party (previously SP) [KOK] 1918.5.27-1919.4.17
*National Progressive Party [ED] 1919.4.17-1925.3.1
*Agrarian League [ML] 1925.3.1-1931.3.1
*Centre Party [KESK] (previously ML) 1965.10-1981.10.27
3. Soviet Government (1918.1.28-.4.25)
Established by the Communists who seized power in Helsinki in 1918 and was crushed by the
National Government in the same year.
*Communist Party 1918.1.28-.4.25
Faroe Islands (1948.3.30- )
Being a Danish overseas dependent territory since 1814, Faroe Islands became a self-governing
country of Denmark in 1948. Between 1967 and 1994 the country was under the prolonged rule of the
Social Democratic Party.
*Unionist Party [SF] 1948.5.12-1959.1.8
*Social Democratic Party [JF] 1959.1.8-1963.1.4
*People's Party [FF] 1963.1.4-1967.1.12
Founded in 1260. A constitutional monarchical system was adopted with the promulgation of a
constitution in 1831. Annexed by Germany in 1871.
Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel (1345-1806.11.10; 1813.11.6-1871.1.18)
Founded in 1345. A constitutional monarchical system was adopted with the promulgation of a
constitution in 1832. Annexed by Germany in 1871.
Hanover (1692.12.19-1803.6.1; 1813.11.6-1866.9.20)
Founded in 1692. A constitutional monarchical system was adopted with the promulgation of a
constitution in 1833. Annexed by Prussia in 1866.
Founded in 1525. A constitutional monarchical system was adopted with the promulgation of a
constitution in 1848. As Prussia unified Germany in 1871, King Wilhelm I of Prussia retitled
himself German Kaiser (Emperor).
German Confederation (1815.6.20-1866.8.24)
Formed by German states in 1815. After revolutions broke out in various German states in 1848, a
Parliament was convened in Frankfurt. A constitution was enacted and a central authority was set
up. The constitutional movement failed in 1849 and the confederation was dissolved in 1866.
Germany (1871.1.18-1945.5.23; 1949.5.23- )
1. Second Reich (1871.1.18-1918.11.10)
In 1871 a unified German Empire adopting a constitutional monarchical system was established. In
1918 the Second Reich was overthrown.
*Cathoilic Centre Party [Z] 1917.12.2-1918.10.5
*Social Democratic Party [SPD] 1918.11.9-..10
2. Republican Government (1918.11.10-1933.1.30)
With the implementation of the Weimar Constitution, Germany adopted the parliamentary cabinet
system in 1919. Between 1923 and 1932, Germany was basically ruled by the Catholic Centre Party
and the Social Democratic Party alternately. This government came to an end when the National
Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP) came into power.
*People's Party [DVP] 1923.8.13-.11.30
3. Royalist Government (1920.3.13-..17)
Established by Kapp, leader of the royalists, who staged a revolt in 1920. The revolt was soon
*All-German Union 1920.3.13-..17
4. Third Reich (1933.1.30-1945.5.23)
After NSDAP came to power in 1933, fascist rule befell Germany in the same year. The Third Reich
was finally overthrown by the Allies in 1945. Thereafter, Germany was under the military rule of
Britain, France, USA and USSR.
*National Socialist German Workers' Party (commonly known as Nazi Party) 1933.1.30-1945.5.1
5. [West] Germany (1949.5.23-1990.10.3)
Established in the occupation zone under the joint rule of USA, Britain and France in 1949. The
parliamentary cabinet system was adopted and Germany was basically ruled by the rightist
coalition (Christian-Democratic Union being the main party) and the Social Democratic Party. In
1990 this government reunified Germany.
*Christian-Democratic Union [CDU] 1949.9.15-1969.10.21
6. [East] Germany (1949.10.7-1990.10.3)
Established by USSR in the Soviet occupation zone under the one-party rule of the Socialist
Unity Party in 1949. With the outbreak of the pro-democracy movement in 1989, the one-party rule
came to an end. In 1990 [East] Germany reunified with [West] Germany.
*Socialist Unity Party [SED] 1949.10.7-1989.12.16
*Socialist Unity Party-Party of Democratic Socialism [SED-PDS] (previously SED) 1989.12.16-
*Party of Democratic Socialism (previously SED-PDS) 1990.2.4-.4.12
7. Unified Government (1990.10.3- )
Since the reunification of Germany in 1990, the political scene was dominated by the political
parties of the original [West] Germany.
Bavaria (889-1706.4.29; 1714.3.6-1871.1.18)
Founded in 889. A constitutional monarchical system was adopted with the promulgation of a
constitution in 1818. Annexed by Germany in 1871.
Wurttemberg (1083-1519; 1534-1871.1.18)
Founded in 1083. A constitutional monarchical system was adopted with the promulgation of a
constitution in 1819. Annexed by Germany in 1871.
Founded in c.11-0. A constitutional monarchical system was adopted with the promulgation of a
constitution in 1818. Annexed by Germany in 1871.
Founded in 1816. Nassau adopted a constitutional monarchical system. The state was annexed by
Prussia in 1866.
Hesse-Kassel (1567.3.31-1807; 1813.10.30-1866.9.20)
Founded in 1567. A constitutional monarchical system was adopted with the promulgation of a
constitution in 1831. Annexed by Prussia in 1866.
Founded in 1567. A constitutional monarchical system was adopted with the promulgation of a
constitution in 1820. Annexed by Germany in 1871.
In 1919 the Communist Party of Germany revolted in Munich and established this regime in
conjunction with the Independent Social Democratic Party-Left Wing of Germany. With the revolt
suppressed by Germany, this regime collapsed in the same year.
*Coalition formed by the Communist Party of Germany and the Independent Social Democratic Party-
Left Wing of Germany 1919.4.7-.5.1
Austria-Germany-Austria (1156-1938.3.13; 1945.4.27- )
Founded in 1156, Austria became a constitutional monarchy in 1848. In 1851 the Emperor resumed
absolute power until 1867, when the constitutional system was reintroduced. With the abolition
of the imperial system in 1918, the country's name was changed to Germany-Austria, but was
changed back to Austria in 1919. In 1934 the Fatherland Front established one-party rule, but
was replaced by the National Socialist German Workers' Party installed by Germany in 1938. In
the same year, Austria was annexed by Germany. With the occupation of Austria by the Allies in
1945, the Austrian state was restored. Between 1945 and 1966 Austria was under the joint rule of
the Socialist Party (SPO) and the People's Party (OVP). Since 1966 Austria is ruled by SPO and
*German-Liberal Party [DLP] 1867.12.21-1870.1.15
*Social Democratic Labour Party [SDAP] 1918.11.12-1920.7.7
*Christian Social Party [CS] 1920.7.7-1921.6.21
*Schober Group 1929.9.26-1930.9.30
*Fatherland Front (developed from CS) 1933.3-1938.3.11
*National Socialist German Workers' Party 1938.3.12-..13
*Socialist Party [SPO] (previously SDAP) 1945.4.29-.12.20
*People's Party [OVP] (previously CS) 1945.12.20-1970.4.21
*Social-Democratic Party [SPO] (previously SPO) 1991.6.15-2000.2.4
Liechtenstein (1719.1.23- )
Founded in 1719, Liechtenstein became a constitutional monarchy with the promulgation of a
constitution in 1818. Between 1928 and 1970, the political scene was dominated by the Progressive
Citizens' Party (FBPL). From 1970 onwards, FBPL and the Fatherland Union take turns to form
*People's Party 1922.6.6-1928.6.28
*Progressive Citizens' Party [FBP] 1928.8.4-1970.3.18
*Fatherland Union [VU] 1970.3.18-1974.3.27
Switzerland-Helvetia (1499.9.22- )
Founded in 1499, Switzerland was initially a confederation. When the Helvetic Society staged a
revolution in 1798, France occupied Switzerland and unified the Swiss cantons into the Helvetic
Republic. In 1803 the cantons regained independence and restored the Swiss Confederation, which
implemented a collective government head system. With the promulgation of a new constitution in
1848, the cantons were unified into a federal state. Since 1950 Switzerland has been ruled by a
coalition of the Freethinking-Democratic Party (also called Radical-Democratic Party), Social-
Democratic Party (also called Socialist Party), Christian Democratic People's Party (also called
Christian Democratic Party) and People's Party (also called Democratic Centre Union).
San Marino (10th Century- )
Founded in the 10th Century. Since 1263, San Marino is ruled by two Consuls with parallel power.
In 1906 universal suffrage was granted. Between 1930 and 1943, San Marino was under the
prolonged rule of the Fascist Party. In 1944 the country was occupied by the German army, who
were expelled by the Allies in the same year.
Founded in c.1027, the country's name was changed to Sardinia in 1720. In the wake of a
revolution in 1821, a constitutional monarchical system was adopted. Later the revolution was
suppressed. In 1848 the constitutional system was restored. In 1860 this regime unified the most
part of Italy and changed its name to Italy in 1861.
Founded in 1197, the country's name was changed to Tuscany in 1569 and was twice changed to
Etruria in 1799 and 1801-1808. A constitutional monarchical system was introduced in 1848. The
regime was finally annexed by Sardinia in 1859.
Rome (756-1809.5.17; 1814.3.24-1870.10.17)
The Roman Papal State was founded in 756. During the revolutionary period in 1848, the Papacy
was forced to grant a constitution and adopt a constiutional monarchical system. A revolutionary
government was set up in 1849. With the revolution suppressed by France in the same year, the
Pope resumed absolute power. In 1870 Rome was finally annexed by Italy.
Italy (1861.3.17- )
1. Royal Government (1861.3.17-1946.6.18)
In 1861 King Vittorio-Emanuele II of Sardinia assumed the title of "King of Italy" and
established this regime, which was a constitutional monarchy. In 1922 Mussolini, leader of the
National Fascist Party (PNF), seized power and established fascist rule in Italy. In 1943 the
PNF government was overthrown and the monarchical system was abolished in 1946.
*Center-Right Party [CD] 1861.3.17-.6.6
*Center-Left Party [CS] 1862.3.4-1863.3.24
*Right Party [Des] 1863.3.24-1866.6.17
*Left Party [Sin] 1878.3.23-.12.18
*Liberal party [PL] 1892.5.15-1893.12.10
*Radical Party 1919.6.23-1920.6.16
*Social Reform Party 1921.7.4-1922.2.25
*National Fascist Party [PNF] 1922.10.31-1943.7.25
2. Salo Government (1943.9.15-1945.4.28)
In 1943 Germany occupied northern and central Italy and installed Mussolini, the former Italian
Prime Minister, as head of this government, which was overthrown in 1945.
*Republican Fascist Party (previously PNF) 1943.9.15-1945.4.28
3. Republican Government (1946.6.18- )
The parliamentary cabinet system was adopted in 1946. Between 1946 and 1992, Italy was basically
ruled by the coalition of the Christian Democratic Party (DC) and other parties. After DC lost
its dominant status in the political scene in early 1990s, Italy is ruled by the central-left
and central-right wings alternately.
*Christian Democratic Party [DC] 1946.6.18-1981.6.28
*Republican Party 1981.6.28-1982.11.30
*Socialist Party [PSI] 1983.8.4-1987.4.18
*Forwards Italy [FI] 1994.5.11-1995.1.17
*Olive Tree Coalition [OT] 1996.5.18-1998.10.21
*Democrats of the Left 1998.10.21-2000.4.26
*Democratic Party 2013.4.28-
Two Sicilies (1816.12.8-1860.11.8)
Founded in 1816, Two Sicilies twice adopted the constitutional monarchical system in 1820 and
1848. In 1860 it was annexed by Sardinia.
Malta (1964.9.21- )
In 1964 Malta gained independence from Britain. Thereafter, Malta is under the alternate rule of
the Nationalist Party and Labour Party.
*Nationalist Party [PN] 1964.9.21-1971.6.21
*Labour Party [MLP] 1971.6.21-1987.5.12
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