A Chronology of World Political History
(1401 - 1500 C.E.)

DateHistorical Event
15th Century The Malays of Malay Peninsula and Sumatra migrated to the island of Luzon in northern Philippines and founded the Kingdom of Luzon (also called the Kingdom of Maynila).

Emergence of a number of local regimes in southern Yemen.

The Nordic countries and Russian feudal states expanded their influences to the region occupied by the Sami (also called the Lapps) in the northern tip of Scandinavia. Thereafter, the Sami region gradually came under control of the Nordic countries and Russia.
c.15th Century Rise of the Kingdom of Tidore on Mulucca Islands of present day Indonesia.

Some Eastern Slavs wandered off to southern Russia and Ukraine and evolved into the Cossacks.

Serfdom became obsolete in England. Thereafter, serfdom was gradually abolished in Western Europe.
early 15th Century A number of princely states appeared in Nepal. They were grouped into the Baisi Confederacy and Chaubisi Confederacy.
c.1401 Dilavar Khan, Governor of Malwa under Delhi, declared independence and founded the Sultanate of Malwa.
1402 Oljei, a senior official of [Northern] Yuan, overthrew [Northern] Yuan. In the next year Oljei made himself King (Khan) and established the Mongol Khanate, composed of two main tribes - Tartars and Oirats. Although the government was controlled by the Tartars, the Oirats enjoyed a semi-independent status.

Timur, de facto ruler of [Western] Chaghatai, made himself Sultan and founded the Timurid Regime, thus ending [Western] Chaghatai.
1402.7.28 Timur defeated the Osmanlis in the Battle of Angora and captured Bayezid I, the Osmanli Sultan. Thereafter Timur reinstated the Ghazi Regimes destroyed by the Osmanlis. Upon death of Bayezid I in 1403, the Osmanli Princes, Mehmed I, Suleyman I and Musa, contended for the throne and started the Civil War of the Three Osmanli Princes. On 1413.7.5 Mehmed I reunified the country and put an end to the civil war.
c.1403 Parameswara, the former King of Singapura, founded the Kingdom of Malacca in the southwestern part of Malay Peninsula.
1405 Yourous, Chief of the Berbers, founded the Kingdom of Agadez in northern Niger.
1405.6M
The Ming Empire sent Zheng He, a eunuch, to lead a fleet to visit the countries along South China Sea and Indian Ocean with a view to showing off the strength of China. Thereafter Zheng He went on voyages for several times. Beginning of the Era of Great Voyages (called Great Geographical Discoveries by Westerners).
1405.12.15 The Canary Islands on the eastern part of the Atlantic Ocean became a protectorate of Castile-Leon. Castile-Leon began to build up colonies in various parts of the world. A colonial empire began to evolve.
c.1405 Muhammad, Chief of the Bruneis, founded the Brunei Regime in northern Kalimantan.
1407 Duke Louis I of Orleans engaged in a power struggle with Duke Jean of [Western] Burgundy. The French ruling class thus split into the Orleanists and the Burgundians. After Louis I was assassinated on .11.23 of the same year, Count Bernard VII of Armagnac succeeded as leader of the Orleanists, who were thus also called the Armagnacs.
1407.5M The Ming Empire destroyed Dai Ngu and annexed northern Vietnam. In the tenth lunar month of the same year, Tran Ngoi, a member of the former Dai Viet royal family, rose against Ming Empire and restored the Dai Viet Empire (Tran Dynasty). In the twelfth lunar month of 1413 the regime was annihilated by Ming.
c.1407 Muzaffar I, Governor of Gujarat under Delhi, declared independence and founded the Sultanate of Gujarat.
1409
Tsongkhapa, a Tibetan religious leader, reformed the doctrine of the Kadam School of Tibetan Buddhism and founded the Gelug School.

Sabr-ud-Din II, a royal member of the former Kingdom of Awfat, founded the Kingdom of Adal in Somalia.
1409.6.26 The Council of Pisa decided to depose the Pope Gregory XII of Rome and Pope Benedict XIII of Avignon and elected Philargos as the Pope (renamed as Alexander V), who established the Bologna Holy See. However, Gregory XII and Benedict XIII refused to step down thus leading to the triple schism of the Papacy.
1410.5.18 Upon death of Elector Palatine Ruprecht III of Rhine, his country was divided among his four sons. Rhineland entered the period of political fragmentation.
1410.5M The Ming army defeated the Mongols. The Mongol Khan fled westwards to the Oirat Tribe for refuge. The power of the Tartar Tribe of Mongol thus passed to the Oirats.
1410.7.15 The joint forces of Poland and Lithuania defeated the Teutonic Order in the Battle of Tannenberg (also called the Battle of Grunwald). On .2.1 of the next year, Poland and Lithuania signed the First Peace of Thorn with the Teutonic Order. The Teutonic Order's eastward expansion was stopped. The Lithuanian Crusade (as well as the Northern Crusades) was thus ended.
1412 The Ming fleet led by Zheng He destroyed Rayigama on the island Ceylon. Parakramabahu VI inherited Gampola. Moving the capital to Kotte, he renamed his country as the Kingdom of Kotte.
1412.5.31 Martin, King of Aragon-Catalonia and King of Sicily, died without an heir. Aragon-Catalonia (Barcelona Dynasty) and Sicily (Barcelona Dynasty) thus came to an end. In the same year, Prince Fernando I of Castile-Leon succeeded as King of Aragon-Catalonia and established Aragon- Catalonia (Trastamara Dynasty). The Trastamara House thus governed the two most powerful states in Spain and laid the foundation of the future unification of Spain. King Fernando I of Aragon-Catalonia became King of Sicily concurrently. Since then the Sicilian throne was occupied by foreign rulers.
1413 Caboche of Paris staged a revolt and forced the Government to enact the Cabochian Ordinance, which provided for the establishment of three councils to conduct public business. The revolt was crushed when the Armagnacs attacked Paris.
1414 Khidr Khan, the Timurid Governor of Multan and Lahore, overthrew Delhi (Tughluq Dynasty). On .7.19 of the same year, he established Delhi (Sayyid Dynasty).

The Council of Constance was summoned to settle the controversy within the Church. On 1415.5.29 the Council dissolved the Bologna Holy See. On .7.4 of the same year, Pope Gregory XII of Rome resigned. The Roman Holy See was also dissolved.
1415 When Hus, leader of the Bohemian religious reform, attended the Council of Constance, he was declared heresy by the Council. Hus' execution in June antagonized the Bohemians.
1415.8.21 Prince Enriques (the Navigator) of Portugal led a fleet to land at Ceuta of Morocco, where he established the first Portuguese colony. Portugal began to build up colonies in various parts of the world. The Portuguese Colonial Empire began to evolve.
c.1416 Nyagse, Chief of the Mossi-Dagomba, founded the Kingdom of Dagomba in present day northern Ghana.
1417.4.18 Burgrave Friedrich of Nurnberg became Elector of Brandenburg (called Friedrich I) and established Brandenburg (Hohenzollern Dynasty). Since then the Hohenzollern Family became powerful in northern Germany.
1417.11.11 The Council of Constance elected Colonna as the Pope (renamed as Martin V) and declared the reunification of the Roman Catholic Church and restoration of the Roman Holy See, thus ending the Period of Great Schism of the Church. Pope Benedict XIII of Avignon, who still refused to step down, was isolated by the Church. The Avignon Holy See continued to exist until the death of Benedict XIII on 1423.5.23.
1418 Le Loi of Vietnam started a rebellion against the Ming Empire in Lam Son in northern Vietnam (Lam Son Rebellion). In the eighth lunar month of 1427, Le Loi installed Tran Cao, a member of the former Dai Viet royal family as leader. In the tenth lunar month, Le Loi negotiated peace with the Ming Empire, which conferred the title of King of An Nam upon Tran Cao and established the Kingdom of An Nam, with Le Loi being the de facto ruler.
1419.8.16 The Bohemian Hussites started a rebellion in the capital Prague and expelled King Vaclav IV. In the next year, Ziska, leader of the Hussites, started a national rebellion against Germany (Hussite Wars). The Hussites split into the Taborites and Calixtines. Germany and the Roman Papacy organised the Bohemian Crusade to suppress the rebellion. Upon death of Ziska in 1424, Procop succeeded as leader of the Taborites and Hussites.
1420 The Livonian Order formed the Livonian League (also called the Livland League) with the dioceses and cities in Livonia.

Venice seized the region of Dalmatia from Croatia.

France was defeated and signed the Treaty of Troyes with England by which King Charles VI of France was forced to recognize King Henry V as his successor and regent and the territory to the north of River Loire was given to England.

Madeira Islands became a Portuguese colony.
c.1420 Nyatsimba Mutota, Chief of the Karanga Tribe of the Shonas, founded the Kingdom of Monomotapa in present day Zimbabwe and Mozambique.
1421.5.26 Murad II became Osmanli Sultan. During his reign he staged the unification war in Asia Minor. After conquering the Ghazi Regimes therein, Murad II further invaded Southeast Europe.
1422 King Henry V of England and King Charles VI died. Henry VI succeeded to the English throne. On .10.21 of the same year, he also assumed the title of King of France and established France (Lancaster Dynasty). Duke John of Bedford was appointed as Regent of France. On .10.31 Charles VII succeeded as King of France in southern France.
1423.1.6 Margrave Friedrich IV of Meissen became Elector of Saxe-Wittenberg (called Friedrich I ) and incorporated Meissen and Thuringia into Saxe-Wittenberg. Since then the Wettin Family became the ruling family of Saxe-Wittenberg.
1425 [Middle] Pegu concluded peace with Ava and ended the Forty Years' War.
1425.2 Upon death of Prince Vasily I of Moscow, Vasily II succeeded to the throne. Yury II (and his sons later) contended for the throne and the Muscovite Dynastic War broke out. In 1453 Vasily II put an end to the turmoil.
1427 The Azore Islands became a Portuguese colony.
c.1427 Prince Hajji I of the Golden Horde started to rule the Cimean Peninsula and founded the Crimean Khanate. Since then there emerged a number of Tartan minor regimes in Russia.
1428
Duke John of Bedford besieged Orleans. In 1429.4 Jeanne (d'Arc) of France organised the civilians to resist the English army. In .5 Jeanne defeated John and saved Orleans. She was thus called the "Maid of Orleans". In 1430 Jeanne was captured by the Burgundians, who sold her to the English army. In 1431.5 Jeanne was burned by the English army.
1428.1M Le Loi, de facto ruler of An Nam, killed King Tran Cao. In the fourth lunar month of the same year, Le Loi crowned himself as Emperor of Dai Viet and established the Dai Viet Empire (Later Le Dynasty).
c.1428 Jayayakshamalla succeeded as King of Nepal. During his reign he conquered the princely states and reunited Nepal.

Yahya I, Chief of the Wattasid Clan of the Marinid Regime, seized power. Thereafter the Marinid Regime was under the de facto rule of the Wattasid Clan.
1429 Sho Hashi, Chief of the Chuzan Tribe on Ryukyu Islands in the southwestern part of Japan, unified Ryukyu Islands and founded the Kingdom of Ryukyu.
1430s Aztec formed Aztec Triple Alliance with Texcoco and Tlacopan.
c.1430 Ruhinda founded the Kingdom of Ankole in the southwestern part of present day Uganda.
1431 In the Council of Basel, the Roman Catholic Church compromised with the Hussites. The Calixtines deserted the Taborites and made contact with the Council. In 1433 the Calixtines united with Germany and defeated the Taborites. Procop was killed in the battle. In 1436 the Council of Basel signed the Compactata of Prague with the Calixtines, thus ending the Hussite Wars.
1432 Engelbrektsson of Sweden instigated a peasants' uprising. In 1435 he seized the power. After Engelbrektsson was assassinated in 1436, the uprising was suppressed.
c.1432 Chenla moved the capital to Phnom Penh and the country was renamed as the Kingdom of Cambodia.
1433 Zheng He, a eunuch of the Ming Empire, completed his seventh voyage to South China Sea and Indian Ocean. Thereafter the Ming Empire stopped sending envoys to visit the countries along South China Sea and Indian Ocean. But the migration from the coastal areas of southern China to Southeast Asia continued. There appeared a community of Overseas Chinese in Southeast Asia.
1434 Cosimo, leader of the Medici Family, a Floretine banker, seized power in Florence. Since then the Medici Family became hereditary rulers of Florence (the Medici "Dynasty"). Under their rule, the Medici Family lent great support to the cultural activities. Italy thus became the centre of the European Renaissance.
1435 Said Mohammed, religious leader of the Mushasha Family in Arabistan (also called Khuzistan) in Iran, rebelled against the Timurid Regime and became ruler of Arabistan. Thereafter members of the Mushasha Family became hereditary rulers of Arabistan.
1435.1M Zhu Qizhen became Ming Emperor. In the ninth lunar month of the same year, he conferred great power upon Wang Zhen, a eunuch. Since then many Ming Emperors put eunuchs in very important positions, resulting in serious corruption.
1436 France recovered Paris. In 1453 France defeated England, which lost all French territories. King Henry VI of England then gave up the French throne and Guyenne, thus ending the Hundred Years' War.
1438 Ulugh Muhammad, the former Khan of the Golden Horder, started to rule Kazan in central European Russia and founded the Khanate of Kazan. C

France promulgated the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges asserting the authority of the church council was superior to the Roman Pope and maintained the autonomy of the French church with regard to the Roman Papacy. Such a situation was called Gallicanism by historians.
1438.3.18 Archduke Albrecht V of Austria became German King (called Albrecht II) concurrently. Since then the German throne was mainly occupied by the Archdukes of Austria.
1439 Esen became Chief of the Oirat Tribe and de facto ruler of Mongol. During his rule he unified the Mongol tribes. In 1453.8M he made himself Mongol Khan.

[Eastern] Roman Emperor John VIII attended the Council of Florence. To secure assistance from the Roman Papacy, John VIII proclaimed the subordination of the Greek Orthodox Church to the Roman Papacy. The Eastern and Western churches were thus reunified (Florentine Union).

The Pragmatic Sanction of Mainz was promulgated in Germany. The Sanction deprived the Roman Papacy part of its authority and put the German Church under the control of the German King and the feudal lords.
1440 The nobles and towns in Prussia formed the Prussian Union.
1440.3.8 King Wladislaw III of Poland became King of Hungary (called Ulaszlo I) concurrently and established Hungary (Jagiellon Dynasty). King Wladislaw III of Poland began to reside in Hungary, leaving the administration of Poland to the hands of the Polish magnates. Later Poland became a hierarchical monarchy under the dictatorship of the nobles.
c.1440 Aholuho Adja, Chief of the Ajas, founded the Kingdom of Allada in present day southern Benin.
1441 The Portuguese colonists started the black slave trade. Later the other Western colonial empires also took part in this kind of activity. From 16th Century onwards, a large number of black slaves were transported to the American Continent. These black slaves became ancestors of the North American Black People and Latin American Black People (also called Afro-North Americans and Afro-Latin Americans).
c.1441 Uxmal allied with the Mayan City-states to conquer Mayapan. Since then the Mayan City-States were engaged in prolonged wars and the power of the Mayans declined.
1442.6.2 Naples (Anjou Dynasty) came to an end. Alfonso V, King of Aragon-Catalonia (also King of Sicily) became King of Naples (called Alfonso I) concurrently and established Naples (Trastamara Dynasty). The Trastamara Hosue governed both Sicily and Naples, thus laying the foundation of the future unification of the two countries.
1443 The Roman Papacy launched an Anti-Osmanli Crusade against the Osmanli Regime. The army composed of soldiers from the East European countries and was led by King Wladislaw III of Poland (who was also King Ulaszlo I of Hungary). On .6.12 of the next year the Crusaders signed the Truce of Adrianople with the Osmanli Regime by which Serbia recovered its lost territories.
1444.3.2
Scanderbeg, Chief of the Albanians, allied with the local princes and formed the League of Albanian Princes (also called the Lezhe League) in opposition to Osmanli rule.
1444.9
In violation of the Truce, Wladislaw III attacked the Osmanli Turks and was killed by the Osmanli army in the Battle of Varna on .11.10. Poland was then torn by internal strife. Hungary (Jagiellon Dynasty) collapsed. In the same year Archduke Ladislaus of Austria became King of Hungary (called Laszlo V) concurrently. Hunyadi became the Regent of Hungary.
1447 Francesco Sforza, Captain-General of the Milanese mercenaries, seized power and established Milan (Sforza Dynasty).
c.1447 Ulugh Beg became Timurid Sultan. During his reign the power of the Timurid Regime reached its apex.
1448 Vukcic, local ruler of Hum under Bosnia, made himself Duke and founded the Duchy of Hum (commonly called the Duchy of Hercegovina, which derived from the word "Herceg", i.e. Duke).

Podiebrad, leader of the Calixtines, seized power in Bohemia. In 1452 Podiebrad captured the city of Tabor and finally crushed resistance of the Taborites. In 1458 Podiebrad succeeded as King of Bohemia.

Portugal started to establish colonies in Sub-Saharan Africa. In 1503 it started to establish colonies in Asia.
1448.1.c5 Upon death of King Christoffer III of Denmark, Denmark (Valdemar Dynasty) came to an end. Count Christian of Oldenburg became King of Denmark concurrently (called Christian I) and established Denmark (Oldenburg Dynasty).
1449 Upon death of the Timurid Sultan Ulugh Beg, the Timurid Regime spilt into the Transoxania Government and the Khurasan Government.
1449.7M When the Mongols invaded the Ming Empire, Ming Emperor Zhu Qizhen led an army to resist the invaders. In the eighth lunar month of the same year, Zhu Qizhen was taken captivity by the Mongols in Tumubao. In the ninth lunar month Zhu Qiyu succeeded to the throne. In the eighth lunar month of 1450 Zhu Qizhen was released.
mid-15th Century Inca conquered the Aymaran small kingdoms.
1450 Cade, an English peasant, instigated a peasants' rebellion in Kent and Sussex. The rebels succeeded in entering London and demanded for reforms. But they were soon suppressed by the Government.
c.1450 Sri Lumay founded the Kingdom of Cebu on the Cebu Island in the central part of the Philippines. Sharif-ul-Hashim founded the Sultanate of Sulu on the Sulu Islands in the southwestern part of the Philippines.

Isingoma Mpuga Rukidi founded the Kingdom of Bunyoro in present day western Uganda.

Prince Ruhinda I of Ankole started to rule the region of Karagwe of present day Tanzania and founded the Kingdom of Karagwe.
2nd Half of 15th Century Wallachia and Moldavia became tributary states of the Osmanli Turks successively.
1451.2.3 Upon death of the Osmanli Sultan Murad II, Mehmed II succeeded to the throne. During his reign he conquered a number of Christian regimes in Asia Minro and Balkan Peninsula.
1451.8.3 Upon death of Duke Elizabeth of Luxemburg, the Limburg-Luexmburg House died out. Luxemburg was annexed by [West] Burgundy (and became part of the Netherlands later).
c.1451 Bahlul Lodi, Governor of Lahore and Sirhind under the Delhi Sultanate, rebelled and overthrew the Sayyid Dynasty. On 1452.1.18 he established Delhi (Lodi Dynasty).

Five Iroquoian tribes in North America (Mohawk, Onondaga, Seneca, Oneida, and Cayuga) united to form the Iroquois Confederacy in present-day USA.
1452.5.18 Germany installed Borso, Seigneur of Ferrara, as Duke of Modena and Reggio and founded the Duchy of Modena and Reggio in northern Italy.
1453.5.29 The Osmanli Turks captured Constantinople and annihilated [Eastern] Rome. Since then Constantinople was popularly called Istanbul. The Osmanli Turks began to expand outside Anatolia and later grew into a transcontinental empire. The Greek Orthodox Church separated from the Roman Catholic Church again, thus ending the Florentine Union.
1454 Mongol Khan Esen was murdered by his subordinates. Thereafter the power of the Oirat Tribe declined and the Tartar Tribe seized control of Mongol again.

az-Zafir Salah-ud-Din Amir I founded the Tahirid Regime in Zabid of Yemen.

Poland promulgated the Statute of Nieszawa, which provided that the declaration of war, the conclusion of peace and the passing of laws must obtain the consent of the local gentry. The powers of the great nobles were thus curtailed.

The Prussian Union rose against the Teutonic Order. Poland supported the Prussian Union and declared war on the Teutonic Order. The Thirteen Years' War thus broke out. In 1466 Poland signed the Second Peace of Thorn with the Teutonic Order by which Prussia was divided into two parts: Poland obtained West Prussia while the Teutonic Order retained East Prussia. Since then the Teutonic Order became a Polish vassal.
1454.4 Milan, Florence and Naples formed the Triple Alliance against Venice and the Roman Papacy. When Milan broke off relation with the other two states in 1455, the Alliance was disbanded.
1455 The Osmanli Turks invaded Serbia and occupied Kosovo.

Duke Richard of York of England (the Yorkists wore white roses) allied with Earl Richard II of Warwick in a rebellion against King Henry VI (belonging to the House of Lancaster, who wore red roses). The War of the Roses broke out.
1456 The East European countries launched the Anti-Osmanli Crusade. Under the command of Regent Hunyadi of Hungary, the Crusaders defeated the Osmanli army. In August of the same year, Hunyadi died.
1457.1M Zhu Qizhen, the former Ming Emperor, allied with the senior officials to stage a coup and force Emperor Zhu Qiyu to abdicate. Zhu Qizhen was then restored to the throne.
1458.1.24 Matyas I, son of Hunyadi, succeeded as King of Hungary. During his reign he carried out reforms which strengthened the power of the country and made Hungary a local power in Central Europe.
1459 King Christian I of Denmark became Count of Holstein concurrently. The Oldenburg Family thus became the ruling family of a large area in northwestern Germany and western Scandinavia. But then the Oldenburg Family began to split and their territories suffered from fragmentation.
1459.6.20 The Osmanli Turks conquered Serbia.
c.1460 The Osmanli Turks destroyed Athens and later conquered Greece.
1461.3.4 Edward, leader of the Yorkists, captured London. He deposed Henry VI and overthrew the Lancaster Dynasty. Edward made himself King (called Edward IV) and established England (York Dynasty).
1461.7.22 Upon death of King Charles VII of France, Louis XI succeeded to the throne. During his reign he tried to unify France. To improve the relation with the Roman Papacy, Louis XI revoked the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges, but maintained control of the French church.
1462.3.27 Ivan III became Prince of Moscow. During his reign he unified most Russian feudal states.
1463 Outbreak of the First Venetian-Turkish War between Venice and the Osmanli Regime. On 1479.1.25 the two countries signed the Treaty of Constantinople by which Venice gave up its dependencies in Southeast Europe. Venice turned to expand in the northeastern direction and formed the Venetian Region later.
1463.6 The Osmanli Turks conquered Bosnia.
1464 Ali succeeded as King of Songhai. Durin his reign he defeated Mali and established the hegemony of Songhai in West Sudan.
1465 [Western] Burgundy formed the League of the Public Weal with the local feudal lords of France in opposition to the unification policy of Louis XI. The War of the League of the Public Weal thus broke out.
c.1465 Girai and Janibeg, Chiefs of the Kazakhs, rose against Uzbek and founded the Kazakh Khanate in northern Central Asia.
1466 Giorgi I started to rule Kakheti of Georgia and founded the Kingdom of Kakheti.

Prince Kasim I of the Golden Horde started to rule Astrakhan in present day southwestern Russia and founded the Astrakhan Khanate.
1467.3M A civil war (Onin War) broke out when two Japanese military officers, Yamana Mochitoyo and Hosokawa Katsumoto, interfered with the succession of the Shogun. Beginning of the Warring States Period of Japan. After the war ended in 1477, the power of the Ashikaga Family declined. Thereafter Japan disintegrated into numerous feudal lordships.
1470 Prince Muhammad of Malacca started to rule Pahang in the central part of Malay Peninsula and founded the Pahang Regime.

Sten Sture I became Regent of Sweden. Since then the Swedish Regency was monopolized by the Sture Family and Sweden became a semi-indepedent state.
1470.10.2 Earl Richard II of Warwick concluded peace with the House of Lancaster. By joining forces to attack London, they expelled King Edward IV. The former King Henry VI was restored to the throne and restored the Lancaster Dynasty. On .4.11 of the next year, Edward IV returned to London and overthrew Henry VI and the Lancaster Dynasty.
c.1470 The Tswanas started to establish native regimes in present day Botswana.
1471.3M Dai Viet conquered Champa. The northern part of Champa was annexed into Dai Viet, while the southern part was divided into three vassal states. King Panlo Tutsuan of Champa fled to the mountainous areas and attempted to restore his kingdom. But he was soon captured by Dai Viet.
1471.5.27 Prince Wladyslaw of Poland succeeded as King of Bohemia (called Vladislav II) and established Bohemia (Jagiellon Dynasty).
1472 By marrying Zoe Paleologus, the former [Eastern] Roman Princess, Prince Ivan III of Moscow claimed that he inherited the legitimacy of [Eastern] Rome and called Moscow the third Rome.
c.1472 Muhammad I, de facto ruler of the Marinid Regime, made himself Sultan and founded the Wattasid Regime.
1474 Rise of the Kingdom of Udarata in Kandy in central Ceylon.

King Louis XI of France formed the Union of Constance against [Western] Burgundy.
1474.12 Isabel I and his husband Fernando V succeeded as King of Castile-Leon concurrently.
1475 Sharif Muhammad Kabungsuan, leader of the Islamic mission from Malay Peninsula, founded the Maguindanao Sultanate on the Mindanao Island in the southern part of Philippines.
1477.1.5 Having defeated [Western] Burgundy, France annexed the main territory of [Western] Burgundy and [Eastern] Burgundy. In the same year Marie succeeded as Duke of [Western] Burgundy, ruling only the Netherlands. Marie married Maximilian I, crown prince of Austria and governed the Netherlands with Maximilian I.
1479 Batu Mongke(Dayan Khan) succeeded as Mongol Khan. During his reign he temporarily unified the Mongol tribes.

The Osmanli Turks destroyed the League of Albanian Princes.
1479.1.19 King Fernando V of Castile-Leon became King of Aragon-Catalonia (called Fernando II) concurrently. A personal union was thus formed between Castile-Leon and Aragon-Catalonia. Some historians regarded this year as the founding year of the Spanish Kingdom.
1480 Allied with Lithuania, the Golden Horde launched an attack against Moscow. As Lithuania failed to fulfil its obligation as an ally, the Golden Horde was finally defeated by the coalition army of Moscow and Crimea. Thereafter Moscow was free from the control of the Golden Horde.
c.1480 Agyen Kokobo, Chief of the Akans, founded the Kingdom of Twifo-Heman in present day southern Ghana. Since then the Akans established a number of regimes in the Gulf of Guinea Region.

Changamire I, Chief of the Changas, rebelled against Monomotapa and founded the Kingdom of Rozwi in present day Zimbabwe.
1481 Don-yo Dorje, leader of the Rimpung Family in Posterior Tibet, seized control of the Pagmotru royal court. Since then the Pagmotru Regime was under the de facto rule of the Rimpung Family.
1482.1.21 Portuguese colonists invaded present-day Ghana and named the place Gold Coast. They established the Portuguese Gold Coast Colony.
1482.3.27 Duke Marie of [Western] Burgundy died. The Netherlands became a territory under the Habsburg Family.
1482.c3 The Barid Family seized control of the Bahmanid royal court.
c.1482 Nepal split into the Katmandu Regime and the Bhatgaon Regime.
1484 Prince Aleksandre I of Georgia started to rule Imereti and founded the Kingdom of Imereti .
1485 Saluva Narasimha, Chief of the Saluva Clan of Vijayanagar, overthrew the Yadava Dynasty and established Vijayanagar (Saluva Dynasty).

Henry, Earl of Richmond of England, revolted. On .8.22 he overthrew the York Dynasty and thus ended the War of the Roses. Henry crowned himself (called Henry VII) and established England (Tudor Dynasty). During his reign he established the absolute monarchical system.
1485.8.26 Saxe-Wittenberg split into [Western] Saxe-Wittenberg and [Eastern] Saxe- Wittenberg, ruled by Ernst (his title being the Elector) and Albrecht V (his title being the Duke), respectively. The Wettin House of Saxony thus split into the Ernestine Branch and the Albertine Branch.
1486 Minkyinyo, local ruler of Toungoo in central-south Burma, founded the Kingdom of Toungoo .

Maximilian I, Crown Prince of Austria, was chosen as King of the Romans. Since the "King of the Romans" became the title of the prospective German King.
1487 The Ikko Sect, a Buddhist sect in Kaga Province of Japan, staged a revolt. They established the Ikko Sect Rebellious Regime in Kaga.
1488 22 Swabian cities and parts of the German princely states and ecclesiastic states formed the Third Swabian League.
1488.2 Dias, a Portuguese explorer, discovered the Cape of Good Hope in South Africa and thus opened up a new route connecting the Atlantic and Indian Oceans.
c.1488 Shaibani, Chief of the Uzbeks, restored the Uzbek Khanate in Central Asia.
1489.2.26 Venice conquered Cyprus.
1490s When the Incas attempted to invade Araucania of present day Chile, it met strong resistence of the Mapuche. In the Battle of the Maule, the Mapuche defeated the Incas and stopped the Incas from further expanding southwards.
1490 Ahmad Nizam Shah I, ruler of Ahmadnagar, Imad-ul-Mulk, ruler of Berar and Yusuf Adil Shah, ruler of Bijapur under the Bahmanid Regime, revolted and established the Ahmadnagar Sultanate , Berar Sultanate and Bijapur Sultanate in the Deccan Region.

King Kostantine II of Georgia changed his title to King of Kartli and renamed his country as the Kingdom of Kartli. Georgia thus split into Imereti in the west, Kartli in the middle and Kakheti in the east.
1490.7.15 King Vladislav II of Bohemia became King of Hungary (called Ulaszlo II) and restored Hungary (Jagiellon Dynasty). The Iogaila Family of Lithuania (called the Jagiello Family in Poland and the Jagiellon Family in Bohemia and Hungary) thus governed Lithuania, Poland, Bohemia and Hungary and became a powerful dynasty in northeastern Europe.
1491 Giorgi I, ruler of Guria and Liparit I, ruler of Mingrelia under Imereti, declared independence and founded the Principality of Guria and Principality of Mingrelia in western Georgia.
1492.10.12
A Castile-Leon fleet, under the leadership of Colombo, a Genoese explorer, reached the Carribean Sea in America. This event was recognized as the discovery of a "New Continent" (i.e. America). As Colombo mistakenly thought that he had reached India, the islands on Caribbean Sea were called the West Indies and the Native Americans were called Indians.
c.1492 The coalition army of Castile-Leon and Aragon-Catalonia conquered Granada, thus wiping out all the Taifas Regimes in Iberia and completing the Reconquista Movement.
1493 The peasants in Alsace of Germany formed the Union Shoe and conspired an uprising, but were suppressed after their plan was uncovered.

The Serers founded the Kingdom of Saalum in present day Senegal. Thereafter the Serers founded a number of regimes in Senegambia.
1493.4.12
Muhammad I, a military officer of Songhai, overthrew King Baru Bokar Dao and established Songhai (Askiya Dynasty). Baru Bokar Dao fled to Ayorou in present day Niger and founded the Kingdom of Ayorou. During the reign of Muhammad I, Songhai became a hegemonic empire in West Sudan.
1493.5.4 Castile-Leon and Portugal agreed upon a demarcation line of their respective sphere of interest in the Western Hemisphere. On .6.7 of the next year, they signed the Treaty of Tordesillas, which moved the demarcation line westwards. This line was often called the Tordesillas Line.
1493.8.19 Maximilian I succeeded as Archduke of Austria and King of Germany. In 1496 Maximilian I reunified the House of Habsburg.
1494 France united with Milan and invaded Italy, leading to the First Italian War. Thereafter the Italian states and the major powers in Central and West Europe were engaged in a series of wars, collectively called the Italian Wars. In the next year France attacked Naples. The Roman Papacy formed the First Holy League with Austria, Aragon-Catalonia, Venice and Milan and expelled the French army from Italy.
France invaded Florence. Savonarola, a priest, revolted and replaced the rule of the Medici Family by a theocracy. On 1498.5.23 the Florentine nobles overthrew Savonarola.
c.1494 The Manyikas seceded from Monomotapa and founded the Kingdom of Manyika in present day Mozambique.
1496.8.4 Castile-Leon founded the city of Santo Domingo in the eastern part of the Hispaniola Island (under present-day Dominican Republic) as a colonial settlement. Castile-Leon (and later Spain) started to build up colonies on the Caribbean islands, which later included present-day Cuba, Dominican Republic (formerly known as Santo Domingo), Puerto Rico, etc. The White peoples of a number of European countries began to migrate to the American Continent and dominated the Continent later.
c.1496 Ali Mughayat founded the Aceh Sultanate in northern Sumatra.
1497.5.2 Cabot, a Venetian explorer, attempted to open up the "Northwest Passage" to East Asia for England. As a result he discovered the island of Newfoundland in North America on .6.24 of the same year.
1497.9.17 Castile-Leon occupied Melilla in Morocco.
1498.4.7 France (Valois Dynasty) ended. Duke Louis II of Orleans became King of France (called Louis XII) and established France (Valois-Orleans Dynasty) and incorporated Orleans into France.
1498.5.22 da Gama, a Portuguese explorer, sailed to India and thus opened up a new route from West Europe to East Asia.
1499 The Osmanli Turks conquered Montenegro and thus completed the conquest of the Balkan Peninsula.

Outbreak of the Second Venetian-Turkish War between Venice and the Osmanli Regime. The war came to an end in 1502.
1499.9.22 The Swiss cantons of the Everlasting League (including Schwyz, Nidwalden, Uri, Bern, Lucerne, Obwalden, Zurich, Zug, Glarus, Fribourg and Solothurn) compelled Austria to sign the Treaty of Basel and recognized the independence of the cantons. The cantons united into the Swiss Confederation and retained the status of independent entities.
1500 France and Aragon-Catalonia launched a joint attack against Naples (the Second Italian War). In 1502 the two countries controlled Naples. But disagreement about the partition of Naples led to conflict between the two countries. After France was defeated in 1503, Aragon- Catalonia occupied Naples solely.
1500.4.10 France conquered Milan and overthrew the rule of the Sforza Family.
1500.4.22 Cabral, a Portuguese explorer, discovered Brazil in South America.
c.1500 Prince Raden Patah of Majapahit rebelled and founded the Kingdom of Demak in central Java.

Koi1 I founded the Kingdom of Cochin in Kerala in southern India.

Sukda founded the Kingdom of Mandara in present day northern Cameroon.

Kuntun-krunku founded the Kingdom of Akim in present day southern Ghana.

Mwaaka, Chief of the Lundas, founded the Kingdom of Lunda in the Congo Region.

Muhammad I founded the Kingdom of Anjouan on the Anjouan Island of the Comoros.

Decline of the Mississippian Culture in the eastern part of North America, which marked the end of the Mississippian Period of North America.
c. late 15th Century The English nobility started to buy off and enclose the land of the communes and peasants and convert them into pastures for raising sheep (the Enclosure Movement). This development laid the foundation of future capitalist agriculture.

The Serers founded the Kingdom of Sine in present day Senegal.

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