A Chronology of World Political History
(1001 - 1200 C.E.)

DateHistorical Event
11th Century The Mayan city-states of Mayapan, Chichen Itza and Uxmal formed the League of Mayan City- States.
c.11th Century Some members of the Hmong-Mien speaking peoples began to migrate from southern China to Vietnam, Laos and other areas in Indochinese Peninsula.

The Yugras established a number of principalities including Konda, Pelym, etc. in Khanty-Mansi region. The Nenets moved into the Yamal-Nenets region (now under Russia).

The Hausas founded the Kingdom of Rano in northern Nigeria.

The Persians founded the Kingdom of Malindi in the eastern coastal region of present day Kenya.

Rise of the Kingdom of Culhuacan and the Kingdom of Coatlinchan in central Mexico.
early 11th Century Muhammad ibn Suri, Chief of the Gurids, founded the Ghurid Regime in the southern part of Central Asia.
c. early 11th Century Qarakhanid Regime conquered the city-states of Karasahr, Kucha, Shule and Khotan.
1st Half of 11th Century Chola conquered Andaman and Nicobar Islands on the eastern part of Indian Ocean.

As Novgorod expanded in the northwest direction, it led to prolonged conflicts between Novgorod and the Finns and Karelians.

Abd al-Rahman rose against Cordoba and founded the Toledo Regime in central Iberia. Since then Cordoba was torn by political disintegration and there emerged a number of Islamic local regimes in Iberia, collectively called the Taifas Regimes.
1002 Carniola seceded from Carinthia and established the Principality of Carniola in present day Slovenia.
1003 Lambert I founded the County of Louvain in present day central Belgium.
1004 The Salian House started to rule Franconia.
1004.9M Khitan invaded [Northern] Song. In the twelfth lunar month the two countries concluded peace by which [Northern] Song paid tributes to Khitan to exchange for peace.
c.1005.1 The Qarakhanid Regime subjugated the Samanid Regime, whose territory was then divided by the Qarakhanid and Ghaznavid Regimes: the former occupied Transoxania while the latter occupied Khurasan.
1007 King Dharmavamsa of [Earlier] Mataram invaded Srivijaya and was defeated. In a counterattack launched by Srivijaya against [Earlier] Mataram, Dharmavamsa was killed and [Earlier] Mataram collapsed. Prince Airlangga of [Earlier] Mataram fled.
1008 King Bagrat III of Abkhazia inherited Kartli and amalgamated the two countries into the Kingdom of Georgia.
c.1008 Ala al-Daula founded the Kakuyid Regime in central Iran.
1009 Ly Cong Uan, a military officer of Dai Co Viet, overthrew the Earlier Le Dynasty and established Dai Co Viet (Later Ly Dynasty).
c.1009 King Za Kosoi of Songhai moved the capital Gao. Thereafter Songhai was also called Kingdom of Gao.
c.1010 Ali, Governor of Ceuta under Cordoba, made northwest Africa and southern Iberia a de facto hereditary kingdom and founded the Malaga Regime, with Malaga in southern Iberia being the capital.

Gunguma, Chief of the Hausa, founded the Kingdom of Zazzau in central-north Nigeria.
1012 Zawi, a royal member of the Zirid Regime, started to rule Granada in southern Iberia and founded the Granada Regime.
1013 King Sven I of Denmark became King of England concurrently (called Sweyn) and established England (Danish Dynasty). Thereafter England was under alternate rule of the Danish Dynasty and Saxon Dynasty.
1015 Hammad, a Prince of the Zirid Regime, started to rule Kara in southeastern Algeria and founded the Hammadid Regime.
1015.7.15 Upon death of Grand Prince Vladimir I of Kiev, his sons contended for the throne and led to the Second Kievan Dynastic War. In 1019 Yaroslav restored peace.
c.1015 Olav II restored the Kingdom of Norway and reunified the country.
1016.6.28 Ali, ruler of Malaga, overhthrew Cordoba (Later Umayyad Dynasty). He made himself Caliph of Cordoba and established Cordoba (Hammudid Dynasty). Since then Cordoba was under alternate rule of the Hamudid Dynasty and Later Umayyad Dynasty.
1016.11.30 Cnut, Chief of the Danes, seized the English throne and restored England (Danish Dynasty).
1018 Nefis, a slave of the Ziyadid royal court, overthrew the Ziyadid Regime. He crowned himself and established the Zabid Sevile Regime.

[Eastern] Rome annihilated [Western] Bulgaria and annexed its territory.
1019 Prince Airlangga of [Earlier] Mataram returned to Java and restored [Earlier] Mataram.

King Cnut of Endland succeeded to the Danish throne (called Knud I). During his reign he conquered the region of North Sea and formed the "First Hegemonic Empire of North Sea".
c.1019 Mundhir I founded the Saragossa Regime in northeastern Iberia.
c.1021 al-Mansur rose against Cordoba and founded the Valencia Regime in eastern Iberia.
1022 Nripakama, Chief of the Hoysalas, founded the Hoysala Regime in Mysore.

al-Muayyad Najah, a slave of the Zabid royal court, overthrew the Zabid Servile Regime. He crowned himself and established the Najahid Regime.
c.1022 Abdallah al-Mansur rose against Cordoba and founded the Badajoz Regime in western Iberia.
c.1023 Muhammad I rose against Cordoba and founded the Seville Regime in southern Iberia.
1024 Prince Stjepan of Croatia fled to Hungary, which installed him as Prince of Slavonia and founded the Principality of Slavonia in present day Croatia.
c.1024 Salih, Chief of the Arabs, occupied Aleppo in northwestern Syria and founded the Mirdasid Regime.
c.1027 Umberto I founded the Savoy Regime in northwestern Italy.
1029 Nong Quanfu, Chief of the Zhuang people, established the Changqi Empire at the present day Sino-Vietnamese border area.
c.1030 Samanta Sena, Chief of the Senas, founded the Sena Regime in Bengal.
1031.11.30 Upon Caliph Hisham III of Cordoba, Cordoba (Later Umayyad Dynasty) collapsed. Since then there were no Cordoba Caliphs. In the next month, Jahwar, Vizier of Cordoba, made himself King and established Cordoba (Jahwarid Dynasty).
1032.9.6 Upon death of King Rodolphe III of Burgundy, who bequeathed his kingdom to Germany in his will, Germany annexed the Second Kingdom of Burgundy. Since then the territory of the Second Kingdom of Burgundy was called Arles and was nominally possessed by the German Kings. The title of "King of Arles" also became a respectful title of certain German Kings, but with titular effect only.
1032.12M Li Yuanhao became ruler of [Western] Xia (He changed his title to Emperor in the tenth lunar month of 1038). During his reign [Western] Xia became a local power in Xinjiang and engaged in prolonged warfare with [Northern] Song.
1034.4.25 Upon death of Duke Mieszko II of Poland, Kazimierz I succeeded to the throne. Torn by internal strife among the feudal lords, the Polish Civil War broke out. In 1037 when a peasant uprising broke out throughout the country, Kazimierz I was expelled and the Duchy collapsed. In 1039 Kazimierz I restored the Duchy and reunified Poland in 1040.
1034.11.25 Upon death of King Malcolm II of Scotland, King Duncan of Strathclyde inherited the Scottish throne, thus annexing Strathclyde into Scotland.
1035 Faroe Islands became a Norwegian dependency.

Arnold founded the Styria Regime in central Austria.

Muhammad, a royal member of Malaga, founded the Algeciras Regime in southern Iberia.
1035.10.18 Upon death of Sancho III of Navarre, his three sons inherited Aragon, Navarre and Castile, respectively. The Iberian Christian world returned to a situation of political disintegration.
1036 Vladimir, a royal member of Kiev, made himself Prince of Novogorod and founded the Ptrincipality of Novgorod.
c.1038 Toghril I, Chief of the Seljuk Clan of the Oughuz Turks (also called the Turkmen), rose against Ghaznavid rule and founded the Great Seljuk Regime in Khurasan.
1039 Dai Co Viet destroyed Changqi and killed its emperor Nong Quanfu.
1040 Petur Delyan of Bulgaria rose against [Eastern] Rome and restored the Bulgarian Empire, which collapsed again in the next year.
1041 Nong Zhigao, prince of the former Changqi Empire, rebelled against Dai Co Viet and became an independent power in the present day Sino-Vietnamese border area.
c.1041 The Qarakhanid Regime split into two parts: [Eastern] Qarakhan ruled Xinjiang and Farghana; [Western] Qarakhan ruled Transoxania.

Qawurd, a royal member of the Great Seljuk Regime, started to rule Kirman in eastern Iran and founded the Kingdom of Kirman. Since then the Seljuk Clan established a number of secessionist regimes in various parts of West Asia.
1042 Abdallah ibn Yasin, a religious leader of the Sanhaja Berbers, founded the Murabit Sect and started a rebellion. He crowned Yahya as King (Sultan) and established the Murabit Regime in Morocco (commonly called the Almoravid Regime by the Westerners).
c.1042 Guillaume I of the Hauteville House, Chief of the Normans, founded the Apulia Regime in southern Italy.
1044 Anawratha became King of Pagan and established Pagan (Anawratha Dynasty). During his reign Anawratha unified most regions of Burma.

Gotshalk, Chief of the Obodrits (also called the Polabian Slavs and called the Wendens by the Germans) founded the Principality of Obodrit in northern Germany.
1044.10M [Northern] Song concluded peace with [Western] Xia, by which [Northern] Song paid tributes to [Western] Xia to exchange for peace.
1045 The city of Milan in northwestern Italy gained independence and established the Milan Regime.
c.1047 Ali, ruler of Sana under the Fatimid Regime, declared independence and founded the Sulaihid Regime in Sana.
1049 King Airlangga of [Earlier] Mataram abdicated and split his Kingdom into the Kingdom of Janggala and the Kingdom of Kediri.
mid-11th Century Fall of Kimek under foreign invasion.

Massive migration of the Arab Banu Hilal and Banu Sulaym Tribes into Maghrib. Thereafter, the Arabs replaced Berbers as the dominant ethnic group in Maghrib.
c.1050 Poland installed Siemomysl as Duke of Pomerania and founded the Duchy of Pomerania in northwestern Poland.
2nd Half of 11th Century Alberto Azzo II founded the Margravate of Este in northern Italy and married Kunigunde, the heiress of the "Elder House of Welf" in Bavaria, thus forming the Este-Welf House (also called the "Younger House of Welf").
1052 Nong Zhigao made himself Emperor and established the Danan Empire, which was destroyed by [Northern] Song in 1053.
1054 Dai Co Viet was renamed the Dai Viet Empire.

Upon death of Grand Prince Yaroslav of Kiev, his five sons inherited the regime, ruling the Principality of Novgorod, Principality of Smolensk, Principality of Chernigov, Principality of Volynia and Principality of Pereyaslavl, respectively. Since then there emerged a number of feudal states in Russia.

Opposing the Roman Pope's claim to jurisdication over the Norman clergy in southern Italy, a heated dispute occurred between Michael I, the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople and Leo IX, the Roman Pope, resulting in Leo IX's declaration of the excommunication of Michael I. The Christian Church thus formally split into the Roman Catholic Church and the Greek Orthodox Church (also called the Eastern Orthodox Church), with the former recognizing the Roman Pope as its head while the latter recognizing the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople as its head.
1055 The Arabian royal court sought help from Sultan Toghril I of the Great Seljuk Regime to oppose the Buyids. By defeating the Buyids and capturing Baghdad, Toghril I was granted the title of "King of the East and the West" by the Arabian royal court. Thereafter the Great Seljuk Regime replaced the Buyids as the overlord of the Arabian royal court.

Albrecht I founded the County of Tyrol in western Austria.
1057 Under the pretence of seizing the Tripitaka scriptures from Thaton, Pagan staged the Burmese Religious War and conquered Thaton.
1058 Oluf founded the Duchy of Schleswig in the present day borderline region between Denmark and Germany.
1062 Istria seceded from Carinthia and founded the Margaravate of Istria in present day Croatia.
1063.9.4
Upon death of Sultan Toghril I of Great Seljuk, Alp-Arslan succeeded to the throne. During his reign he expanded the territory of his regime in West Asia.
1064 Waleran I founded the Limburg Regime in present day northern Belgium.
1066.1M Khitan once again changed its name to Liao Empire.
1066.12.25
Duke Guillaume II of Normandy conquered England ("Norman Conquest"), seized the English throne (called William I (the Conqueror)) and established England (Norman Dynasty).
1069.2M Appointed by Emperor Zhao Xu (Shen Zong) of [Northern] Song as the Chief Minister, Wang Anshi started to carry out reforms.
1071 The Great Seljuks defeated [Eastern] Rome in the Battle of Manzikert and conquered the majority of the latter's territory in Asia Minor.

The Normans captured Bari in southern Italy and expelled the [Eastern] Romans from southern Italy.
c.1071 Danishmend founded the Danishmendid Regime in Sivas in the northeastern part of Asia Minor. Since then there emerged a number of local Islamic regimes in Asia Minor, collectively called the Ghazi Regimes.
1072 Voitech, a noble in western Bulgaria, rose against [Eastern] Rome. In the next year he installed Konstantin Bodin (renamed Petur), a royal member of Dioclea as Emperor and restored the Bulgarian Empire, which was soon annihilated by [Eastern] Rome.

Apulia invaded Sicily and defeated the Saracens (i.e. Muslims) there. They installed Roger I as the Count of Sicily and founded the Sicily Regime (Hauteville Regime).
1072.11.24 Sultan Alp-Arslan of Great Seljuk was assassinated. Malik-Shah I succeeded to the throne. During his reign he appointed Nizam al-Mulk as the Vizier and Great Seljuk became a hegemonic empire in West Asia.
1073 Death of Zhou Dunyi(10171073), a thinker of [Northern] Song. During his lifetime he founded the Neo-Confucianism, a school of thought that combined Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism. His famous works included Explanation of the Diagram of the Supreme Polarity.

Chola annexed Eastern Chalukya. Since then Chola was also called the Chola-Chalukya Kingdom.
1073.4.22
Ilderbrando succeeded as Roman Pope and was renamed Gregory VII. During his reign he carried out reforms, aiming at establishing the supremacy of the Papacy.
1075 Madog ap Bleddyn, Rhirid ap Bleddyn, Cadwgan ap Bleddyn and Iorwerth ap Bleddyn, royal members of Gwynedd, started to rule Powys in central Wales and founded the Principality of Powys.
1076 In an attempt to strengthen the King's authority, German King Heinrich IV engaged in the Investiture Struggle (i.e. the dispute over the right of installing bishops) with Roman Pope Gregory VII. As a result, Heinrich IV deposed Gregory VII, while Gregory VII deposed and excommunicated Heinrich IV. The German feudal lords rebelled against Heinrich IV. In January in the next year, Heinrich IV was compelled to seek for absolution from Gregory VII, who then absolved and restored Heinrich IV in February.

The Murabits conquered Ghana, which then became a vassal state of the Murabits. A large number of Soninkes of Ghana migrated southwards. The power of Ghana declined and its dependences regained independence.
1077 Prince Mihajlo I of Dioclea changed his title to King of Zeta and renamed his regime as the Kingdom of Zeta.
c.1077 Sulaiman, a Great Seljuk royal member, started to rule Rum (The Arabs and Turks called Asia Minor "Rum", which was a distortion of "Rome") and founded the Kingdom of Rum.
1078 Local princely rulers on the Arabian Peninsula annihilated the Qarmatian Republic. Since then Qatar and Bahrain were under the ruled by Arabian local princely rulers.
c.1078 Prince Tutush of Great Seljuk started to rule Syria and founded the Kingdom of Syria .
1079 Archbishop Egilbert of Trier in southern Germany gained the status of Elector. The Trier Archbishopric then became an important German state.

The Hohenstaufen House started to rule Swabia.

Godred I, Chief of the Norsemen, founded the Kingdom of Man on the Isle of Man in the northwestern side of England.
1080 Ruben I, leader of the Armenian remnants who migrated to Cicilia of Asia Minor, a Prince of the former Armenian Kingdom, founded the Armenian Regime ([Lesser] Armenia).

Pope Gregory VII excommunicated King Heinrich IV of Germany again. When Heinrich IV captured Rome in 1083, Gregory VII solicited help from Duke Robert Guiscard of Apulia, who captured Rome and expelled Heinrich IV in 1084. But then Robert Guiscard sacked Rome and took Gregory VII captive in Salerno.
c.1080 Chandradeva, Chief of the Rathor Tribe in India, founded the Gahadavala Regime in Varanasi in northern India.
1081 The city of Pisa in northern Italy gained independence and founded the Pisa Regime.
1081.4.4 The [Eastern] Roman military nobility crowned Alexius I as Emperor and established [Eastern] Rome (Comnenus Dynasty). C
1083 Konrad I founded the Wurttemberg Regime in southwestern Germany.
1085.3M Upon death of Emperor Zhao Xu (Shen Zong) of [Northern] Song, Zhao Xu (Zhe Zong) succeeded to the throne. Grand Dowager Empress Gao became the Regent and stopped all reform measures. In the next year she appointed Sima Guang, who opposed the reforms, as the Chief Minister. Sima Guang resumed the old systems, which later led to a Factional Struggle between the reformers and the conservatives.
1086 The Bogomil Revolt broke out in Thrace and Bulgaria under [Eastern] Rome. The rebels were supported by the Pecheneg Confederacy and the Kipchak-Cuman Confederacy. In 1087 [Eastern] Rome bribed the Kipchak-Cuman Confederacy to ally with it.
1086.11M Upon abdication of Emperor Sadahito of Japan, he set up a shadow government in the monastery and continued to rule as a Regent. Since then the dictstorship of the Fujiwara Clan was replaced by the cloistered rule of the abdicated Emperors. Japan entered the Period of Insei .
1088 The city of Lucca in northern Italy gained independence and founded the Lucca Regime .
c.1090 al-Hasan I, the founder and Grand Master of the Assassins (a branch of the Ismaili Sect) started to rule Alamut in northern Iran and established the Ismaili Regime.
1091 The joint force of [Eastern] Rome and the Kipchak-Cuman Confederacy annihilated the Pecheneg Confederacy and suppressed the Bogomil Revolt.
1094 Emperor Duan Zhengming of Dali abdicated to become a monk and passed the throne to Gao Shengtai, who changed the name of the country to Dazhong Empire. In the next year, Gao Shengtai died and passed the throne to Duan Zhengchun in his will. Duan Zhengchun restored the Dali Empire, which was then called [Later] Li by historians.
1095 Syria split into Syria (Damascus Government) and Syria (Aleppo Government).

In the Synod of Clermont, the Roman Papacy called on the Christians to organise Crusades to rescue the "Holy Land" (Palestine). In the next year the Papacy launched the First Crusade and conquered part of Syria.

Castile installed Henri, a royal member of [Western] Burgundy, as Count of Portugal and founded the Portuguese Regime in western Iberia.
1095.c2 Godfried I inherited Louvain. He changed the royal title to Duke of Brabant and renamed his country as the Duchy of Brabant.
1096 Gerard Ib founded the Gelders Regime in eastern Netherlands.
1097 Yaroslav I, a royal member of Chernigov, founded the Principality of Riazan in western Russia.
1098 Bohemond I, a Crusade general and a Prince of Apulia, started to rule Antioch in northern Syria and founded the Antioch Regime. Since then there emerged four Crusader States in Syria-Palestine in opposition to the local Muslim regimes.

The Italian cities Venice, Genoa and Pisa obtained great advantages from participating in the Crusade. Thereafter the three cities founded colonies in Meditarranean Sea and Black Sea regions.
1098.3.10 Baudouin I, a Crusade general, made himself Count of Edessa and founded the County of Edessa in northern Syria.
1099 Rum moved the capital to Konya (the ancient Iconium). Thereafter Rum was called the Kingdom of Konya or the Kingdom of Iconium.

The First Crusaders captured Jerusalem. On 7.17 Duke Godefroi VI of [Lower] Lorraine assumed the title of King of Jerusalem (called Godefroi) and established the Kingdom of Jerusalem, which became the suzerain of the Syrian Crusader States. Godefroi took on the title of "Defender of the Holy Sepulcher".

The Italian city Genoa gained independence and founded the Genoese Regime.
c.1100 Hermann I founded the Baden Regime in southwestern Germany.

Biram, Chief of the Hausas, founded the Kingdom of Biram in northern Nigeria.

Manqo I, Chief of the Incas, founded the Kingdom of Inca in Peru.
c. late 11th Century Nyakhate Clan of the Soninkes founded the Kingdom of Diara in Zara.
12th Century Pomerania split into two parts. The eastern part was called Pomerelia while the western part retained the name of Pomerania.
c.12th Century The Mossi-Dagombas founded the Kingdom of Mamprusi in present day northern Ghana.

The Aymaran speaking peoples (including the Lupaca, Colla, etc.) established a number of small kingdoms in present day Bolivia.
c. early 12th Century The Habsburg House started to rule Habsburg in present day Switzerland.
1101 Count Raimond IV of Toulouse assumed the title of Count of Tripoli (called Raimond I) and founded the Tripoli Regime in western Syria.
1102 King Kalman of Hungary assumed the title of King of Croatia. Since then Croatia became a dependent state of Hungary.
c.1102.8 Sokmen I, Chief of the Turks, founded the Artuq Regime in present day northern Iraq and eastern Turkey.
1104 Tughtigin, Governor of Damascus under Syria, rebelled and assumed the title of Vassal King (Atabeg), thus founding the Burid Regime. A number of Atabeg Secessionist Regimes began to emerg in the territories ruled by the Seljuk Clan.
c.1105 Centred around Milan and Pavia, the city communes in northern Italy formed the League of Milan and the League of Pavia, respectively.
1106 Gottfried founded the Holstein Regime in northwestern Germany.
1108 The city of Laon in northwestern France paid a large sum of money to purchase the right of self-rule from the Bishop of the Bishopric in which it was situated, and offered gifts to King Louis VI in order to obtain the charter. Thereafter a number of French cities obtained charters and became chartered cities independent of the local feudal lords. In 1112 the Bishop of the Bishopric in which Laon was situated abolished the self-rule of Laon and bribed Louis VI to abolish the charter of the city. The Laon Burghers' Uprising broke out in which the Bishop was killed. Louis VI united with the feudal lords in northwestern France to suppress the uprising, but was defeated. Laon thus preserved the right of self-rule.
1113.2.15 The Knights of Saint John Hospitaller of Jerusalem (called the Hospitallers in short) was established in Jerusalem.
1115 Upon death of Margrave Matilda of Tuscany, she bequeathed her Margravate to the Salian House of Germany. Claiming that Matilda had promised to bequeathe her territory to the Papal States, the Roman Papacy disputed the sovereignty of Tuscany with the Salian House. The cities in Tuscany took the opportunity to declare independence.
1115.1M Wanyan Akutta, Chief of the Wanyan Tribe of the Jurchens, founded the Jin Empire in northeastern China.
1116 Blagochestivogo founded the Kingdom of Maldives on the Maldive Islands on eastern Indian Ocean.
1117 Marari, Chief of the Agaus, founded the Empire of Ethiopia (Zagwe Dynasty).
1118.4.18 Sanjar, ruler of Khurasan under Great Seljuk, succeeded as Sultan of Great Seljuk. Prince Mahmud II occupied Iraq and western Iran and founded the Kingdom of Iraq. By now Great Seljuk only retained the territories in Khurasan and Central Asia.
c.1118 The Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (called the Templars in short) was established in Jerusalem to protect the Christian pilgrims.
c.1121 Muhammad ibn Tumart, head of the Muwahhid Sect in Morocco, rose against the Murabit Regime and founded the Muwahhid Regime (called the Almohad Regime by the Westerners).
1122 The Roman Papacy convened the Synod of Worms to settle the investitude struggle and decided to sign the Concordat of Worms with Germany, by which all bishops were to be elected by the conference of clergy. But the German Kings reserved the right to interfere with the choice of the candidates.
1122.3M Jin Empire attacked Liao. Emperor Yelu Yanxi of Liao fled westwards. Yelu Dashi, Li Chuwen and Xiao Gan, the Liao senior officials, installed Yelu Chun as Emperor and established the [Northern] Liao Government.
1123 Albrecht of the Ascanian House founded the Anhalt Regime in northern Germany.
1124 The city of Geneva in western Switzerland became a free city and established the Geneva Regime. A number of free cities with independent status began to emerged in the territories under German rule.
1124.2M Yelu Dashi, a senior official of Liao, assumed the title of King in Xinjiang and established the [Western] Liao Government (also called [Qara]khitai). Later [Western] Liao conquered [Eastern] Qarakhan and placed its political centre in present-day Kyrgyzstan.
1125.8.30 Duke Lothar of Saxony became German King (called Lothar II). Thereafter a power struggle started between the Guelfs (later led by the House of Welf), who supported the Pope and the Ghibellines (later led by the Hohenstaufen House) who supported the German King.
1127 Zangi, Governor of Mosul and Aleppo under Iraq, rebelled and assumed the title of Vassal King (Atabeg), thus establishing the Zangid Regime.
1127.2M Jin Empire deposed Emperor Zhao Huan of [Northern] Song and overthrew [Northern] Song. In the fourth lunar month of the same year, Jin Empire took the two former Emperors Zhao Ji and Zhao Huan, and the [Northern] Song royal court captive.
1127.5M Prince Zhao Gou of [Northern] Song crowned himself Empire in Nanjing and established the [Southern] Song Government.
1130 The Norwegian Civil War broke out due to succession disputes.

Nikolaus I founded the Duchy of Mecklenburg in northeastern Germany.

The Wettin House started to rule Meissen.
1130.9M Jin Empire installed Liu Yu as Emperor of Qi and set up the Qi Empire ([Puppet] Qi) in northern China as a buffer state between Jin and [Southern] Song. In 1137 Jin abolished the state of [Puppet] Qi and governed northern China directly.
c.1130 Upon death of Sultan Tumart of the Muwahhid Regime, Abd al-Mumin succeeded to the throne. During his reign the power of the Muwahhids reached its apex.
1134 Prince Yury of Rostov assumed the title of Prince of Suzdal (called Yury I) concurrently and founded the Principality of Suzdal in western Russia.
1136 Outbreak of the Chenla-Champa Hundred Years' War between Chenla and Champa.

Albrecht I, the Nord Margrave, changed his title to Margrave of Brandenburg and founded the Brandenburg Regime.
c.1136 Muzaffar I founded the Kingdom of Kedah in northwestern Malaya.

Eldiguz, Governor of Arran under Iraq, assumed the title of Vassal King (Atabeg) and founded the Eldiguzid Regime.
1138.3.7 Konrad VI, leader of the Ghibellines and Duke of Franconia, became German King (called Konrad III) concurrently and established Germany (Hohenstaufen Dynasty).
1138.10.28 Duke Boleslaw III of Poland abdicated and installed his sons as local rulers ruling Duchy of Mazovia, Duchy of Cracow (commonly called the Duchy of Little Poland), Duchy of Greater Poland and Duchy of Silesia, respectively. He also promulgated an statute stipulating that the eldest member of the Piast House shall become the Grand Duke of Poland and Duke of Cracow as well as the suzerain of the feudal regimes.
1139.c7.16 Updon death of Duke Walram of [Lower] Lorraine, the position of Duke of [Lower] Lorraine was abrogated and the territory of [Lower] Lorraine was annexed by Brabant. Thereafter the region of Lorraine refers only to [Upper] Lorraine.
1141.11M [Southern] Song concluded peace with the Jin Empire (Shaoxing Peace) by which Huai River was set as the border of the two countries.
c.1142 Tashufin succeeded as Murabit Sultan. During his reign he conquered Maghrib and southern Iberia.
1143 Christian I founded the County of Oldenburg in northwestern Germany.

The Roman burghers revolted against the Papacy and established the Commune of Rome in opposition to the Papal States. In 1155 Germany suppressed the revolt.
1144 Count Geoffroi IV of Anjou became Duke of Normandy (called Geoffroi) concurrently and established Normandy (Plantagenet Dynasty). Thereafter the Count of Anjou inherited Aquitaine, Poitou and England, thus forming the Anjou Hegemonic Empire.
c.1144 Vladimirko Volodarich, a royal member of Kiev, founded the Galicia Regime in western Ukraine.
1146.c9 The Zangid Regime split into Zangid (Mosul Government) and Zangid (Damascus Government).
1147 The Roman Papacy launched the Second Crusade. In 1149 the Crusaders retreated due to failure on the battlefield.

The Roman Papacy caused a number of German feudal states and Denmark to attack the Obodrits in eastern Germany and conquered some pagan tribes. This crusade came to be called the Wendish Crusade, which was part of the Northern Crusades (a collective term for a series of expeditions waged by the Central and Northern European Christian states against the pagan peoples in East Europe).
c.1147.4.3 The Muwahhids annhilated the Murabits. Thereafter the Muwahhids replaced the Murabits' hegemonic status in Maghrib and southern Iberia.
c.1148 Sonqur rebelled against Great Seljuk and started to rule Fars in Iran. He assumed the title of Vassal King (Atabeg) and founded the Salghurid Regime.
1149.12M Prince Wanyan Liang of the Jin Empire staged a coup and seized the throne.
mid-12th Century Sweden launched the First Swedish Crusade against the Finns in present day Finland.
1150 The Nabhan Tribe in Oman rebelled against Great Seljuk and founded the Nabhani Regime .
c. 2nd Half of the 12th Century The Shonas founded the Kingdom of Zimbabwe in Great Zimbabwe in present day Zimbabwe.
1151 Walram I founded the County of Nassau in southern Germany.
1152.3.4
Friedrich I (Barbarossa) became German King. During his reign he invaded north Italy for several times and interfered into the internal affairs of the Papacy.
1154.12.19 Count Henri of Anjou became King of England (called Henry II) concurrently and established England (Plantagenet Dynasty).
1155.6.18 Friedrich I assumed the title of "Holy Roman Emperor". The respectful title of "Holy Roman Emperor" thus formally emerged.
1156 Bijjala, Chief of the southern clan of Kalachuris, overthrew [Later] Chalukya and founded the Kalyana Kalachuri Regime.

Konrad inherited the County Palatine of Lorraine and changed the royal title to Count Palatine of the Rhine, thus forming the County Palatine of the Rhine (commonly called the Palatinate).

Germany changed the title of Heinrich II from Ost Margrave to Duke of Austria and founded the Austrian Regime (Babenberg Dynasty).
1156.7M Akihito, an abdicated Japanese Emperor, conspired to stage a coup. Emperor Masahito summoned Minamoto Yoshitomo and Taira Kiyomori to oppose Akihito and a civil war (Hogen Rebellion) broke out. Akihito was defeated and forced to go into exile.
1157 Andrei I founded the Vladimir Regime in western Russia.

Valdemar I succeeded as King of Denmark and established Denmark (Valdemar Dynasty).
c.1157 The Great Seljuk Regime collapsed amid a revolt of the Oughuz People.
1159 Ali overthrew Najahid Regime and founded the Mahdid Regime and conquered most territory of Yemen.
1159.4M Minamoto Yoshitomo, a Japanese warlord, staged a coup and imprisoned the abdicated Emperor Masahito. Taira Kiyomori, another warlord, rose against Minamoto Yoshitomo and a civil war (Heiji Rebellion) broke out. In the first lunar month of the next year, Minamoto Yoshitomo was defeated and killed and Taira Kiyomori seized control of the imperial court. The Period of Insei of Japan came to an end and Japan was under the dictatorship of de facto rulers again. Real power was held by the Taira Clan.
1161.9M Emperor Wanyan Liang of the Jin Empire invaded [Southern] Song. After he was defeated by [Southern] Song in the twelfth lunar of the same year, a coup took place in the Jin Empire and Wanyan Liang was killed.
1163 Silesia split into the Duchy of Breslau and the Duchy of Oppeln, which further split into smaller states subsequently.

Count Alfonso (later called Alfonso II) of Barcelona inherited Aragon and annexed the two countries into the Kingdom of Aragon-Catalonia (Barcelona Dynasty).
1167 The cities in northern Italy formed the First Lombard League in opposition to Germany. The War of the Lombard League broke out.
1169.3 Prince Andrei I of Vladimir defeated Kiev. In the same year Andrei I changed his title to Grand Prince of Vladimir. Since then Vladimir replaced Kiev as the suzerain of the Russian feudal states.
al-Nasir I (commonly called Saladin), a Fatimid military officer and Chief of the Kurds, occupied Cairo and founded the Ayyubid Regime (Egyptian Government). He also seized control of the Fatimid royal court. On 1171.9.6 al-Nasir I overthrew the Fatimid Regime.
1170 Chong Chung Pu, a Koryo military officer, staged a coup and seized control of the royal court.
c.1170 Prince Oranmiyan of Ife led a group of people to migrate to Benin in southern Nigeria and founded the Kingdom of Benin.
1173 Turan-Shah, an Ayyubid Prince, conquered Yemen and overthrew the Madhid Regime. In c.1174.2 he started to rule Yemen and established Ayyubid Regime (Yemeni Government). Members of the Ayyubid Clan began to establish a number of secessionist governments in various parts of West Asia in opposition to the Egyptian Government.

Beginning of a chaotic period of Bohemia.
1176.1M Outbreak of the Mang I-Mang So I Rebellion in Koryo. In the first lunar month of the next year, the Koryo Government started a negotiation with Mang I. But he restarted the rebellion later. After he was captured by the Government army, the rebellion failed.
1177.5M The poor peasant in northwestern Koryo started a rebellion. They formed the Northwestern Rebellious Army and captured Pyongyang, the western capital. In the tenth lunar month of the next year, the Koryo Government suppressed the rebellion.
1180 Grand Duke Kazimierz II of Poland abolished the stipulation that the positions of the Polish Grand Duke and Duke of Cracow shall be taken by the eldest member of the Piast House. Since then the positions became hereditary.
1180.5M Minamoto Yorimasa, a Japanese warlord, rose against the Taira Clan and thus started the Minamoto-Taira Civil War. Minamoto Yorimasa was soon defeated and killed. In the eighth lunar month of the same year, the Minamoto Clan, led by Minamoto Yoritomo, started another revolt against the Taira Clan. In the first lunar month of the next year, Taira Kiyomori, de facto ruler of Japan, died. But the civil war continued.
1180.9 The House of Wittelsbachstarted to rule Bavaria.
1180.9.24 Alexius II succeeded as [Eastern] Roman Emperor. The Regent, Dowager Empress Maria (of Antioch) favoured the Latins (i.e. the French and Italians) in her service.
c.1180 Kulin, local ruler of Bosnia under Hungary, declared independence and founded the Bosnian Regime.
1182 An Anti-Latin Uprising broke out in Constantinople in which a large number of Latins were slaughtered. In October of the next year Emperor Alexius II was forced to proclaim Andronicus I as Co-Emperor. In November Andronicus I compelled Alexius II to kill the Dowager Empress Maria (of Antioch). Alexius II was also killed later.
1182.9 Konrad-Ota, a royal member of Bohemia, was made Margrave of Moravia and founded the Margravate of Moravia. After Konrad-Ota succeeded as Duke of Bohemia in 1189, Moravia came under Bohemian control.
1183.6.25 Germany signed the Peace of Constance with the First Lombard League whereby the First Lombard League recognized the suzerainty of Germany. But Germany had to give up the right of appointing officials in the cities.
c.1183 al-Adil I, Prince of the Ayyubid Regime (Egyptian Government) started to rule Aleppo and established Ayyubid Regime (Aleppo Government).
1184 The Kalyana Kalachuri Regime collapsed. Somesvare IV restored [Later] Chalukya.

Issac Ducas Comnenus, Governor of Cyprus under [Eastern] Rome, declared independence and founded the Cypriot Regime.

Svyatopolk seceded from Turov and founded the Principality of Pinsk in southern Belarus.
1185 The Normans invaded [Eastern] Rome, which was then torn by civil strife. On 9.12 of the same year, Issac II, a noble in Constantinople, revolted. He killed Emperor Andronicus I and overthrew the Comnenus Dynasty. Issac II crowned himself Emperor and established [Eastern] Rome (Angelus Dynasty) .

Petur II, a Bulgarian noble, rebelled against [Eastern] Rome and established Bulgaria (Asen Dynasty) (called the Second Bulgarian Empire by historians).
1185.3M Minamoto Yoritomo annhilated the Taira Clan. In the eighth lunar month of the same year, Minamoto Yoritomo seized control of the imperial court. In the seventh lunar month of 1192, he was granted the title of "Seiidaishogun" (Shogun for short) and formally set up the Kamakura Bakufu (i.e. military government) in Kamakura. End of the Heian Period of Japan.
c.1185 Bhillama, Chief of the Yadavas, founded the Yadava Regime in Devagiri in central India.
1186 England annhilated Tara and conquered part of Ireland.

N'Dya-N'Dya, Chief of the Wolofs, founded the Kingdom of Walo in present day Senegal. Thereafter the Wolofs founded a number of regimes in the Senegambia region.
c.1186 al-Afdal, Prince of the Ayyubid Regime (Yemeni Government), started to rule Damascus and established Ayyubid Regime (Damascus Government). He was also the suzerain of the Ayyubid governments.
1187.10.4 The army of the Ayyubid Regime (Egyptian Government) captured Jerusalem. Thereafter the Kingdom of Jerusalem retreated to Acre.
1189 The city of Hamburg in northern Germany gained the status of free city and founded the Hamburg Regime.
1189.9.3
Duke Richard of Normandy became King of England (called Richard I (Lionheart)) concurrently. In the same year the Roman Papacy launched the Third Crusade, which was led by King Friedrich I of Germany, King Richard I of England and King Philippe II of France and was thus called the "Royal Crusade" by historians.
1190 Chenla conquered Champa and partitioned it into the Kingdom of Vijaya and the Kingdom of Panrang.

Jatavarman Kulasekhara founded the Kingdom of Pandya ([Later] Pandya) in southern India.

The German Crusaders in Acre formed the Order of the Knights of the Hospital of Saint Mary of the Teutonic House in Jerusalem (briefly called the Teutonic Order).
1192 King Suryavarman of Panrang conquered Vijaya. He changed his title to King of Champa and reunited Panrang and Vijaya into the Kingdom of Champa. Chenla released the former King of Champa, Jaya Indravarman IV, who attacked Champa but was defeated and killed.

Otakar I became Duke of Bohemia. In 1198 he restored peace and order in Bohemia and changed his title to King of Bohemia. The chaotic period of Bohemia ended.

The Hohenzollern House started to rule the Burgrave of Nurnberg in central Germany.

King Richard I of England concluded peace with Sultan al-Nasir I of the Ayyubid Regime (Egyptian Government) whereby the Ayyubid Regime allowed the Christian pilgrims to go to Jerusalem freely. The Crusaders retreated and the Third Crusade ended.
1194 Supported by Pisa and Genoa, Germany invaded southern Italy and Sicily and overthrew Sicily (Hauteville Dynasty) and the Norman rule there. On 12.25 of the same year King Heinrich VI of Germany assumed the title of King of Sicily (called Enrico) and established Sicily (Hohenstaufen Dynasty).
c.1194 Hunac Ceel, Chief of the Cocom Clan of Mayapan, became King of Mayapan and established Mayapan (Cocom Dynasty). Mayapan conquered Chichen Itza and established its hegemony among the Mayan city-states.
1196 Choi Chung Hon, a Koryo military officer, seized control of the royal court. Thereafter real power of the Koryo royal court was held by the Choi Family.
c.1196 Abu-Muhammad Abd al-Haqq I, Chief of the Marin Tribe of the Zenata Berbers, rose against the Muwahhid Regime and founded the Marinid Regime in Morocco. Since then there emerged three powerful states in Maghrib, thus beginning the Period of the Three Kingdoms of Maghrib .
1197 The cities in Tuscany united to establish the Florence Regime, which was ruled by the nobility.
1198 The Roman Papacy launched the Livonian Crusade (being part of the Northern Crusades) against the pagan ethnic groups in the Baltic region.
1198.1.8
Lotario dei Conti di Segni became Roman Pope and took the regnal title of Innocent III. During his reign the power of the Pope rose to its apex and overwhelmed the monarchs of the Christian world. He also set up the Inquisition and organised the Crusades and orders of chivalry, so as to extend the influence of the Papacy.
1198.3.8 With the support of France, Duke Philipp of Swabia of the Hohenstaufen House (the Ghibellines) assumed the title of German King. On 6.9 of the same year, supported by England, Duke Otton of Aquitaine of the House of Welf (the Guelfs) also assumed the title of German King (called Otto IV) and established Germany (Welf Dynasty) in opposition to the Hohenstaufen Dynasty. The Ghibelline-Guelf Civil War thus broke out in Germany. When Philipp was assassinated on 1208.6.21, the Hohenstaufen Dynasty of Germany collapsed and the Civil War ended.
1199.5.27 John (Lackland) became King of England, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Normandy, Count of Anjou and Count of Poitou (called Jean).
1200 Muhammad II became King of Khwarizm. During his reign he established his hegemony in Central Asia and Iran.
c.1200 The Malla Clan started to rule Nepal.

The Dajus founded the Daju Regime in Darfur in the western part of East Sudan.

Dakka I, Chief of the Hausas, founded the Kingdom of Zamfara in northern Nigeria.
c. late 12th Century Kemoko, Chief of the Sosos, founded the Kingdom of Soso in West Sudan.

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