||As President Rawlings of Ghana stepped down, civilian rule was restored in Ghana.
||George Walker Bush succeeded as USA President. During his presidency he adopted the
Unilateralist policy in an attempt to establish USA's hegemony in the world.
||The Commonwealth of Independent States Customs Union was reorganised as the Eurasian
Economic Community (EURASEC).
||Having murdered King Birendra of Nepal and several royal members, Prince Dipendra was shot
unconscious. Dipendra was proclaimed as King of Nepal. On ..4 of the same month, Dipendra died.
The former King Gyanendra was restored to the throne. During his reign he restored the
King's political power. Nepal's democracy suffered a setback.
||Participating states of the GUAM Alliance signed a charter and established the GUAM Organization for
Democracy and Economic Development.
||Simeon Koburgotski, (previously called Simeon II), former Tsar of Bulgaria,
succeeded as Premier, thus ending the alternate rule of the Socialist Party and the Union of
|al-Qaeda, a terrorist organisation (based in Afghanistan) led by bin Laden
, launched the "September 11th Terrorist Attacks" on USA. On .10.7 of the same
year, USA launched the "War of Terrorism" and conducted air-raids on Afghanistan. USA
allied with the Anti-Taliban Alliance against the Taliban Government of Afghanistan. On .11.13
the Taliban Government collapsed. On .11.17 the Anti-Taliban Alliance established a government.
||The Sierra Leone Civil War came to an end.
||Ravalomanana made himself President of Madagascar in opposition to President
Ratsiraka, resulting in a situation of two governments and political turmoil in Madagascar. On
.4.30 of the same year, the provinces under Madagascar unilaterally declared independence. From
.6.13 onwards, Ravalomanana regained control of the independent provinces. On .7.5 Ratsiraka was
forced to step down.
||As President Chirac of France was reelected, Premier Jospin resigned, thus ending the third
||East Timor formally gained independence. The Democratic Republic of East Timor was
||The Organization of African Unity was reorganised as the African Union (AU).
||The Ivory Coast Patriotic Movement started a rebellion. The First Ivorian Civil War broke out. The country
split into two parts when the Patriotic Movement seized control of the northern part. In December of the same year, the
Patriotic Movement formed the New Forces with the other rebels.
||USA discovered that [North] Korea was secretly developing nuclear weapons. The Korean Nuclear Crisis resumed.
King Gyanendra of Nepal dissovled the Parliament and reestablished an absolute monarchy.
Bozize, a Central African military officer, started a revolt and seized power on .3.15 of the next year.
||Yugoslavia was reorganised as a confederation and was renamed the Serbia and Montenegro
||Alleging that Iraq was storing weapons of mass destruction, USA and Britain launched the
Iraqi War and invaded Iraq. On .4.9 of the same year, the coalition army captured Baghdad
and overthrew President Saddam. Military rule was then established in Iraq. Resistance movements
sprang up throughout Iraq. On .7.13 a Governing Council was set up in Iraq.
||French Polynesia became an overseas country of France.
||The [East] Congolese Government concluded peace with the various factions of the Rally for
Democracy and thus ended the civil war. On .6.30 of the same year, the Alliance of Democratic
Forces for the Liberation formed a transitional government with various parties, thus ending the
||The "Middle East Quartet" headed by USA proposed the Roadmap for Peace in the Middle East
, a scheme of permanent solution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.
||Large-scale mass movements broke out in Georgia. On ..23 of the same month, President
Shevardnadze was forced to resign (the Rose Revolution).
||The USA and British occupation troops transferred power to the Iraqi Government. But the
political situation of Iraq remained unstable.
||[North] Korea, [South] Korea, China, USA, Russia and Japan started to hold the Six-Party
Talks on the Korean Peninsula with a view to resolving the Korean Nuclear Crisis.
||Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed, a warlord of Somalia, was inaugurated as President. On .11.3
of the same year in Kenya, he formed the Somali Transitional Federal Government, which
was recognized by certain neighbouring countries but was in exile.
||Alleging that Premier Yanukovych of Ukraine was engaged in fraudulence in the last
presidential election, Yushchenko, former Premier, launched an anti-governmental mass
campaign (the Orange Revolution). In the same month, the Parliament nullified the
election results. In December another presidential election was held and was won by Yushchenko.
On 2005.1.23 Yushchenko succeeded as President of Ukraine.
||The [Eastern] Sudanese Government concluded peace with the Southern Sudanese guerillas, thus
ending the Second Sudanese Civil War.
||Fomer Premier al-Hariri of Lebanon was assassinated. On ..21 of the same month mass
campaigns against Syria broke out in Lebanon requesting for the withdrawal of the Syrian troops.
On .4.27 Syria was compelled to pull out all its troops from Lebanon (the Cedar Revolution
). Lebanon was thus freed from the occupation of all foreign armed forces.
||Large-scale mass campaign against President Akayev broke out in Kyrgyzstan. On ..23 of the
same month, Akayev fled abroad (the Tulip Revolution).
||The Indonesian Government concluded peace with the Free Aceh Movement whereby both parties
||The Somali Transitional Federal Government was moved to Baidoa in Somalia. On .12.21 of the
same year, the joint forces of the Somali Transitional Federal Government and Ethiopia captured
the capital Mogadishu. On ..29 the Transitional Federal Government was moved to Mogadishu and
became the first internationally recognized Somali government that is able to control the capital
ever since 1991.
||The Second Popular Movement broke out in Nepal against the autocratic rule of King
Gyanendra. On .5.19 of the same year, the parliamentary cabinet system was adopted in Nepal.
||Montenegro declared independence. With the formal disintegration of Serbia and Montenegro on
..5 of the same month, Serbia also became an independent state.
||Two rival governments appeared in Palestine, with the West Bank under the control of the
Palestinian National Liberation Movement (commonly called Fatah) and Gaza Strip under the
control of the Islamic Resistance Movement (commonly called Hamas).
||The Nepalese Government reached a peace agreement with the Communist Party (Maoist), thus
ending the Nepalese Civil War.
||Bhutan ceased to be a vassal state of India.
||The Ivory Coast Government concluded a peace agreement with the New Forces, thus ending the civil war.
||Anti-government mass campaign broke out in Burma. Later a large number of monks joined the
protests, which was thus called the Saffron Revolution (also called the Cassock
Revolution). On .9.27 of the same year, the Burmese Government began to crack down on the
||Kosovo unilaterally declared independence again.
||The first party cabinet appeared in Bhutan.
||The South American countries established the Union of South American Nations
(UNASUR) with a view to promoting regional cooperation.
||The monarchical system was officially abolished in Nepal.
||In an attempt to resume control of South Ossetia and Abkhazia, Georgia staged the Second
South Ossetia War. Later, Russia, in support of South Ossetia and Abkhazia, also got itself
involved in the war.
||A financial crisis named the "Financial Tsunami" broke out in USA and led to a global economic crisis.
||Turkmenistan put an end to its one-party system.
||As President Gayoom stepped down, a democratic system was established in Maldives.
|A group of Chinese pro-democracy activists including Liu Xiaobo issued the the Charter
requesting the Government to carry out various reforms, thus launching the Charter 08 Campaign. The
campaign was suppressed by the Government in the same year.
|Obama was inaugurated as USA President and became the first African American President
||The Sri Lankan government forces defeated the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, putting an end to the Sri Lankan
||Four newly emerging and fast growing developing economies - Brazil, Russia, India and China (commonly called the
BRIC states) held the first summit, which laid the foundation of their future cooperation.
||A financial crisis broke out in Greece and subsequently spread to other European countries, developing into the
"European Sovereign Debt Crisis".
||With the dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles, Curacao and Sint Maarten became
self-governing countries of Netherlands, while Bonaire, Saba and Sint Eustatius became special municipalities of
||Outtara was elected President of Ivory Coast. A political crisis set in when the incumbent President Gbagbo refused to
accept the election results. On 2011.3.28 Outtara formed the Republican Forces with the New Forces and revolted against
Gbagbo. The Second Ivorian Civil War broke out.
||Anti-governmental campaign broke out in Tunisia. On 2011.1.14 President Ali fled the country (Tunisian
Revolution, also called the Jasmine Revolution). Subsequently civil uprisings spread to various countries in Middle
East (the Arab Spring).
||Anti-governmental campaign broke out in Yemen and quickly evolved into armed conflicts (Yemeni Uprising
||Anti-governmental campaign broke out in Egypt. On .2.10 President Mubarak announced transfer of political power
and was forced to resign on ..11 (Egyptian Revolution).
||Anti-governmental campaign broke out in Syria and later evolved into armed conflicts (Syrian Uprising).
||Anti-governmental campaign broke out in Bahrain and quickly evolved into armed conflicts (Bahraini Uprising
||Anti-governmental campaign broke out in Libya. Amid brutal suppression by the government, the campaign soon
developed into the Libyan Civil War). On .3.5 the rebels formed the Transitional National Council in Benghazi.
||The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation intervened in the Libyan Civil War by supporting the Libyan rebels' resistance
against the government.
The Ivory Coast Republican Forces captured Gbagbo, thus ending the civil war.
||Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa held a summit meeting, thus expanding the BRIC states to the
||Southern Sudan gained independence from [Eastern] Sudan and was renamed South Sudan.
||The Libyan rebels captured the capital Tripoli and toppled al-Qaddafi's government. After al-Qaddafi was killed on
.10.20, the Libyan Civil War came to an end.
||President Saleh of Yemen left his country and ended his autocratic rule.
||The Palestinian National Authority unilaterally declared reestablishment of the State of Palestine.