||As President Rawlings of Ghana stepped down, civilian rule was restored in Ghana.
|George Walker Bush succeeded as USA President. During his presidency he adopted the
Unilateralist policy in an attempt to establish USA's hegemony in the world.
|Thaksin, leader of the Thais Love Thais Party, succeeded as the Prime Minister of
||The Commonwealth of Independent States Customs Union was reorganised as the Eurasian
Economic Community (EURASEC).
||Having murdered King Birendra of Nepal and several royal members, Prince Dipendra was shot
unconscious. Dipendra was proclaimed as King of Nepal. On ..4 of the same month, Dipendra died.
The former King Gyanendra was restored to the throne. During his reign he restored the
King's political power. Nepal's democracy suffered a setback.
||Participating states of the GUAM Alliance signed a charter and established the GUAM Organization for
Democracy and Economic Development.
||Uzbekistan joined the Treaty on Deepening Military Trust in Border Regions. The
Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) was established.
||Simeon Koburgotski, (previously called Simeon II), former Tsar of Bulgaria,
succeeded as Premier, thus ending the alternate rule of the Socialist Party and the Union of
||al-Qaeda, an Afghan terrorist organisation, launched the "September 11th Terrorist
Attacks" on USA.
||USA launched the "War of Terrorism" and conducted air-raids on Afghanistan. USA
allied with the Anti-Taliban Alliance against the Taliban Government of Afghanistan. On .11.13 of
the same year the Taliban Government collapsed. On .11.17 the Anti-Taliban Alliance established a
||A new constitution of Comoros was ratified. On 2002.1.20, Azali, Head of State of Comoros,
||The Sierra Leone Civil War came to an end.
||The Algerian army killed Zouabri, head of the Armed Islamic Group. Since then the Armed
Islamic Group declined and the Algerian Civil War gradually subsided.
||Ravalomanana made himself President of Madagascar in opposition to President
Ratsiraka, resulting in a situation of two governments and political turmoil in Madagascar. On
.4.30 of the same year, the provinces under Madagascar unilaterally declared independence. From
.6.13 onwards, Ravalomanana regained control of the independent provinces. On .7.5 Ratsiraka was
forced to step down.
||The new constitution of Comoros came into effect. Anjouan, Moheli and Grande Comore became
autonomous islands under Comoros. Anjouan thus reverted under the suzerainty of Comoros.
||The [East] Congo Government and the various opposition forces signed the Sun City Agreement
which provided for a multipartite coalition government. Later, the [East] Congo Government also
concluded peace with Rwanda and Uganda.
||As President Chirac of France was reelected, Premier Jospin resigned, thus ending the third
||East Timor formally gained independence. The Democratic Republic of East Timor was
||Azali, former Head of State of Comoros, was inaugurated as popularly-elected President. During
his tenure he carried out constitutional reforms.
||The Organization of African Unity was reorganised as the African Union (AU).
||The Ivory Coast Patriotic Movement started a rebellion. The First Ivorian Civil War broke out. The country
split into two parts when the Patriotic Movement seized control of the northern part. In December of the same year, the
Patriotic Movement formed the New Forces with the other rebels.
||USA discovered that [North] Korea was secretly developing nuclear weapons. The Korean Nuclear Crisis resumed.
King Gyanendra of Nepal dissovled the Parliament and reestablished an absolute monarchy.
Bozize, a Central African military officer, started a revolt.
||President Moi of Kenya stepped down and Kenya African National Union lost the ruling party status.
||Yugoslavia was reorganised as a confederation and was renamed the State Union of Serbia and
||Non-Arab ethnic groups in the Darfur region of [East] Sudan rose against the [East] Sudanese
Government, which marked the beginning of the War in Darfur.
||Bozize, a Central African rebel leader, seized power.
||Alleging that Iraq was storing weapons of mass destruction, USA and Britain launched the
Iraqi War and invaded Iraq. On .4.9 of the same year, the coalition army captured Baghdad
and overthrew President Saddam. Military rule was then established in Iraq. Resistance movements
sprang up throughout Iraq. On .7.13 a Governing Council was set up in Iraq.
||President Buyoya of Burundi stepped down and was succeeded by Ndayizeye. During his
tenure Ndayizeye was committed to making peace between the Hutus and Tutsis.
||Various parties of Liberia signed the Accra Comprehensive Peace Agreement, thereby
ending the Second Liberian Civil War.
||The Alliance of Democratic Forces for the Liberation of [East] Congo formed a transitional
government with various parties, thus ending the one-party rule and the Second Congo War.
||Large-scale mass movements broke out in Georgia. On ..23 of the same month, President
Shevardnadze was forced to resign (the Rose Revolution).
||French Polynesia became an overseas country of France.
||The USA and British occupation troops transferred power to the Iraqi Government.
||[North] Korea, [South] Korea, China, USA, Russia and Japan started to hold the Six-Party
Talks on the Korean Peninsula with a view to resolving the Korean Nuclear Crisis.
||Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed, a warlord of Somalia, was inaugurated as President. On .11.3
of the same year in Kenya, he formed the Somali Transitional Federal Government, which
was recognized by certain neighbouring countries but was in exile.
||Alleging that Premier Yanukovych of Ukraine was engaged in fraudulence in the last
presidential election, Yushchenko, former Premier, launched an anti-governmental mass
campaign (the Orange Revolution). In the same month, the Parliament nullified the
election results. In December another presidential election was held and was won by Yushchenko.
On 2005.1.23 Yushchenko succeeded as President of Ukraine.
||The [Eastern] Sudanese Government concluded peace with the Southern Sudanese guerillas, thus
ending the Second Sudanese Civil War.
||Upon death of President Eyadema, his son Faure succeeded to the presidency, but was
forced to step down under international pressure on ..4 of the same month. After he won the
presidential election held in April, he returned to the presidency on .5.4.
||Fomer Premier al-Hariri of Lebanon was assassinated. On ..21 of the same month mass
campaigns against Syria broke out in Lebanon requesting for the withdrawal of the Syrian troops.
On .4.27 Syria was compelled to pull out all its troops from Lebanon (the Cedar Revolution
). Lebanon was thus freed from the occupation of all foreign armed forces.
||Large-scale mass campaign against President Akayev broke out in Kyrgyzstan. On ..23 of the
same month, Akayev fled abroad (the Tulip Revolution).
||President Taya of Mauritania was ousted in the wake of a coup. Thereafter Mauritania was beset
by political turmoil.
||The Indonesian Government concluded peace with the Free Aceh Movement whereby both parties
||Nkurunziza became a popularly-elected President of Burundi. The Burundian Civil War
officially came to an end.
||Mass anti-governmental protests arose in Thailand. Thereafter, anti-governmental and pro-governmental protests led to
political crisis in Thailand. On .9.19 military leader Sonthi staged a coup and ousted Prime Minister Thaksin and
his Thais Love Thais Government. Thailand reverted to military rule.
||The Somali Transitional Federal Government was moved to Baidoa in Somalia. On .12.21 of the
same year, the joint forces of the Somali Transitional Federal Government and Ethiopia captured
the capital Mogadishu. On ..29 the Transitional Federal Government was moved to Mogadishu and
became the first internationally recognized Somali government that is able to control the capital
ever since 1991.
||The Second Popular Movement broke out in Nepal against the autocratic rule of King
Gyanendra. On .5.19 of the same year, the parliamentary cabinet system was adopted in Nepal.
||President Kerekou of Benin stepped down and ended his prolonged rule.
||Montenegro declared independence.
||The State Union of Serbia and Montenegro was formally dissolved. Serbia became an independent state.
||Two rival governments appeared in Palestine, with the West Bank under the control of the
Palestinian National Liberation Movement (commonly called Fatah) and Gaza Strip under the
control of the Islamic Resistance Movement (commonly called Hamas).
||F. Castro R., President of the Council of State of Cuba, being unable to perform his duties,
delegated his authority to his brother Raul Modesto Castro Ruz who became the Acting
President of the Council of State. On 2008.2.24 R.M. Castro R. officially succeeded to the
||The Nepalese Government reached a peace agreement with the Communist Party (Maoist), thus
ending the Nepalese Civil War.
||Bainimarama, a Fijian military officer, staged a coup to seize power. On 2007.1.5 he became
the Prime Minister.
||Bhutan and India revised the Treaty of Friendship by which Bhutan ceased to be a client
state of India.
||The Ivory Coast Government concluded a peace agreement with the New Forces, thus ending the civil war.
||Anti-government mass campaign broke out in Burma. Later a large number of monks joined the
protests, which was thus called the Saffron Revolution (also called the Cassock
Revolution). On .9.27 of the same year, the Burmese Government began to crack down on the
||As Thailand reverted to civilian rule, the People's Power Party (previously Thais Love Thais Party) assumed
||Kosovo unilaterally declared independence again.
||The first party cabinet appeared in Bhutan. On .7.18 of the same year a constitution was enacted in
Bhutan, which marked the beginning of the constitutional system of Bhutan.
||The South American countries established the Union of South American Nations
(UNASUR) with a view to promoting regional cooperation.
||The monarchical system was officially abolished in Nepal.
||In an attempt to resume control of South Ossetia and Abkhazia, Georgia staged the Second
South Ossetia War (also called Russo-Georgian War). Later, Russia, in support of South Ossetia
and Abkhazia, also got itself involved in the war. On ..16 of the same month, Russia and Ossetia
signed a ceasefire agreement.
||President Musharraf of Pakistan stepped down, which marked the end of military rule in Pakistan.
||People's Alliance for Democracy (commnonly called the Yellow Shirts), an opposition group of Thailand,
organized mass protests against the Government of the People's Power Party. Later conflicts arose between the Alliance and
the pro-governmental National United Front of Democracy Against Dictatorship (commnonly called the Red
Shirts) and led to serious political crisis. The ruling People's Power Party was forced to step down on .12.2 and was
replaced by the Democratic Party, which was supported by the Red Shirts, on .12.15.
||A financial crisis named the "Financial Tsunami" broke out in USA and led to a global economic crisis.
||Turkmenistan put an end to its one-party system.
||The Conservative Democratic Party of Switzerland was established from a splinter group from the People's Party.
The Swiss Government thus changed from a 4-party coalition to a 5-party coalition.
||As President Gayoom stepped down, a democratic system was established in Maldives.
|A group of Chinese pro-democracy activists including Liu Xiaobo issued the the Charter
requesting the Government to carry out various reforms, thus launching the Charter 08 Campaign. The
campaign was suppressed by the Government in the same year.
||President Conte of Guinea died. On ..24 of the same month, military officer Camara staged a coup and
|Obama was inaugurated as USA President and became the first African American President
||The Sri Lankan government forces defeated the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, putting an end to the Sri Lankan
||Four newly emerging and fast growing developing economies - Brazil, Russia, India and China (commonly called the
BRIC states) held the first summit, which laid the foundation of their future cooperation.
||A financial crisis broke out in Greece and subsequently spread to other European countries, developing into the
"European Sovereign Debt Crisis".
||Yanukovych succeeded as President of Ukarine. During his presidency, he adopted pro-Russian policies.
||The Thai Red Shirts organized mass protests against the Government of the Democratic Party. The protest was finally
crushed by the army. Thereafter, the conflicts between the Red Shirts and the Yellow Shirts gradually subsided.
||With the dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles, Curacao and Sint Maarten became
self-governing countries of Netherlands. Bonaire, Saba and Sint Eustatius became special municipalities of
||Outtara was elected President of Ivory Coast. A political crisis set in when the incumbent President Gbagbo refused to
accept the election results.
||Anti-governmental campaign broke out in Tunisia. On 2011.1.14 President Ali fled the country (Tunisian
Revolution, also called the Jasmine Revolution). Subsequently civil uprisings spread to various countries in Middle
East (the Arab Spring).
||Civilian rule was restored in Guinea.
||Anti-governmental campaign broke out in Yemen and quickly evolved into armed conflicts (Yemeni Uprising
||Anti-governmental campaign broke out in Egypt. On .2.10 President Mubarak announced transfer of political power
and was forced to resign on ..11 (Egyptian Revolution).
||Anti-governmental campaign broke out in Syria. Amid suppression by the government, the campaign later evolved
into the Syrian Civil War.
||Anti-governmental campaign broke out in Bahrain and quickly evolved into armed conflicts (Bahraini Uprising
). In May of the same year the Government cracked down on the uprising. Thereafter Bahrain was still beset by
||Anti-governmental campaign broke out in Libya. Amid suppression by the government, the campaign soon developed
into the Libyan Civil War. On .3.5 the rebels formed the Transitional National Council in Benghazi.
||The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation intervened in the Libyan Civil War by supporting the Libyan rebels' resistance
against the government.
||President Outtara of Ivory Coast formed the Republican Forces with the New Forces to oppose
Gbagbo. The Second Ivorian Civil War broke out.
||Thein Sein became President of Burma, whick marked the end of military rule in Burma. Thein Sein began
to carry out democratic reform and released political prisoners.
The Ivory Coast Republican Forces captured Gbagbo, thus ending the civil war.
||Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa held a summit meeting, thus expanding the BRIC states to the
||USA special forces attacked and killed bin Laden, head of the Afghan terrorist orgainsation al-Qaeda, in Pakistan.
||Southern Sudan gained independence from [Eastern] Sudan and was renamed South Sudan.
||The Libyan rebels captured the capital Tripoli and toppled al-Qaddafi's government. After al-Qaddafi was killed on
.10.20, the Libyan Civil War came to an end.
||USA troops withdrew completely from Iraq, ending the Iraqi War.
||The National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad made up of the Tuaregs started a rebellion in northern Mali
(Northern Mali Conflict). On .3.22 President A.T. Toure of Mali was ousted in a coup. On .4.6 the National
Movement unilaterally declared establishment of the independent State of Azawad. But later further conflict broke
out between the National Movement and the Islamist groups in Azawad.
||President Saleh of Yemen left his country and ended his autocratic rule.
||A National Constititional Conference attended by the various political forces in eastern and southern Somaliawas
was held in Garowe to conclude peace. On ..18 of the same month the Somali Transitional Federal Government recognized
Puntland and Galamdug as autonomous states. On 2013.8.28 the Transitional Federal Government also recognized Jubaland
as an autonomous state.
||A multi-party system was adopted in Syria upon implementation of the new constitution. But the Socialist Arab Rebirth
Party remained in power and the civil war continued.
||Morsi was inaugurated as a popularly elected president of Egypt.
||The Palestinian National Authority unilaterally declared reestablishment of the State of Palestine.
||The Syrian rebels formed an interim government.
||Badr and other opponents of President Morsi of Egypt organized the Egyptian Tamarod Movement, which
developed into widespread anti-governmental campaign on .6.30 of the same year.
||The Egyptian military staged a coup and ousted President Morsi (Egyptian Coup d'etat). Violent clashes
broke out between Morsi's supporters (Muslim Brotherhood being the main force) and the military. On .8.14 of the
same year Morsi's supporters were suppressed by the military.
||A popular movement (called Euromaidan) against President Yanukovych's pro-Russian policies broke out in
Ukraine. The movement later developed into a widespread anti-governmental campaign. On 2014.2.22 Yanukovych fled to
||Pro-Russian forces in Crimea began to seize control of the Crimean Peninsula and force Ukrainian troops to
withdraw, which led to the Crimean Crisis. On .3.17 of the same year Crimea unilaterally declared
independence from Ukraine. On ..21 Crimea was annexed to Russia, causing tension between Russia and the Western
||In opposition to the Cross-Strait Service Trade Agreement signed between Taiwan and Mainland China, Taiwan
students staged the Sunflower Student Movement and occupied the Legislative chamber. On .4.6 of the same year
the Legislative Yuan promised to postpone review of the Agreement. On ..10 the participating students vacated the