A Chronology of World Political History
(1981 - 2000 C.E.)

DateHistorical Event
1981.1 The Cape Verde branch of the African Independence Party of Guinea and Cape Verde broke off relation with Guinea-Bissau by forming the African Party of Independence of Cape Verde, which exercised one-party rule in the country.
1981.1.1 USA granted autonomy to Palau, a part of the Caroline Islands, and established the Republic of Palau (also called the Republic of Belau).
1981.1.20 Reagan succeeded as USA President. During his presidency he adotped the neo-conservative policies based on the "Supply-Side Economics", which came to be known as Reaganism. The USA hostages in the USA embassy in Iran were released.
1981.2.6
Museveni rose against President Obote of Uganda and led to the Ugandan Bush War (also called Ugandan Resistance War). Later Museveni formed the National Resistance Army and made himself commander of the Army.
1981.3 Several military officers of the former Nicaraguan Government formed the Democratic Front . In 1982 the Democratic Front started anti-governmental activities. The Nicaraguan Civil War was thus restarted. In September Pastora, one leader of the Sandinist National Liberation Front, organised the Democratic Revolutionary Alliance to oppose the Government of the Sandinist National Liberation Front.
1981.5.21
Mitterand, leader of the French Socialist Party, succeeded as President and ended the prolonged rule of the rightist parties.
1981.5.25 Six coastal countries along the Persian Gulf of the Arabian Peninsula formed the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf.
1981.6.6 The first known case of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (commonly called AIDS) was reported in USA (but according to some studies, AIDS should originate from West Africa in early 20th Century). Since then the disease rapidly spread worldwide and was called "Plague of the 20th Century".
1981.6.27 Hu Yaobang succeeded as Chairman of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party, while real power was held by Deng Xiaoping, Chairman of the Central Military Committee. Thereafter Deng Xiaoping began to suppress the Beijing Spring Movement. On .8.26 of the same year, Deng Xiaoping proposed the idea of "One Country, Two Systems" as a solution to the unification problem of China.
1981.8.24 Under the pretext of combating the South West African guerillas in Angola, South Africa invaded Angola.
1981.9.1 Kolingba, a Central African military officer, staged the September Coup of Central Africa to overthrow President Dacko and seize power.
1981.9.21 Belize gained independence from Britain and established the Dominion of Belize.
1981.10.6 The Egyptian President Sadat was assassinated. On ..14 Mubarak succeeded to the presidency and began his prolonged rule.
1981.11.1 Antigua gained independence from Britain and established the Dominion of Antigua and Barbuda.
1981.12.4 South Africa proclaimed the independence of the black homeland Ciskei and established the Republic of Ciskei without international recognition.
1981.12.13 The Polish Government proclaimed military rule and suppressed the workers' movement, which resulted in an even stronger Solidarity. The military rule was ended on 1983.7.22.
1981.12.31 Rawlings, a military officer of Ghana, seized power again in a coup and started his prolonged rule.
1982 Anti-governmental armed activities against President Siyad appeared in Somalia. The Somali Civil War broke out. Subsequently there emerged several rebellious forces.
1982.1.8 An administrative reform was carried out in Andorra. The executive power was passed from the Parliament to the Cabinet.
1982.1.27 Civilian rule was restored in Honduras.
1982.2 The guerilla groups of Guatemala united to form the National Revolutionary Union.
1982.2.1 Senegal and the Gambia united to form the Confederation of Senegambia.
1982.3.24 Ershad, a Bangladesh military officer, seized power in a coup.
1982.4.2 The Argentine troops occupied Falkland Islands (also called Islas Malvinas), a British dependency on the Atlantic Ocean. The Falkland Islands War broke out. On .6.14 the British troops recovered Falkland Islands and ended the war.
1982.4.30 The United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea endorsed the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, which included provisions pertaining to issues such as the territorial seas, exclusive economic zones, etc. When the Convention took effect on 1994.11.16, the International Seabed Authority was established.
1982.6.6 The Second Israeli Invasion of Lebanon took place. The Israeli troops occupied Southern Lebanon and organised a South Lebanese Army to control the region.
1982.6.18 The Argentine military government collapsed.
1982.7.9 Three anti-Vietnames groups of Cambodia (Khmer Rouge, the United National Front for an Independent, Neutral, Peaceful and Cooperative Cambodia (commonly called the FUNCINPEC) led by Sihanouk and the Khmer People's National Liberation Front led by Son Sann) set up a coalition government to jointly resist the Vietnamese invaders.
1982.8 Israel expelled the Palestinian guerillas from Lebanon. The Palestinian Liberation Organisation moved its headquarters to Tunisia.
1982.8.12 Mexico proclaimed its inability to pay debts. Thereafter a number of Latin American countries also proclaimed their inability to pay debts, leading to the Latin American Debt Crisis.
1982.10.10 Military rule was ended in Bolivia. Thereafter democracy was gradually restored.
1983.1.8 Mexico, Colombia, Venezuela and Panama held a conference in Contadora of Panama in an attempt to resolve the Central American Crisis and formed the Contadora Group.
1983.3.23 USA proclaimed the planned implementation of a Strategic Defense Initiative called "Star War" to develop an anti-ballistic missile system.
1983.6 The [Eastern] Sudanese Government abolished the autonomy of Southern Sudan. In September of the same year, the Southern Sudanese guerilla revolted. The Second Sudanese Civil War broke out.
1983.6.24 The conservative political parties of various countries established the International Democratic Union.
1983.7.23 The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam of Sri Lanka started a rebellion. The Sri Lankan Civil War broke out.
1983.8 Noriega, a Panamanian military officer, came to power. Thereafter conflicts arose between Noriega and the civilian government.
1983.8.4 Sankara, an Upper Volta military officer, launched the "August 4th Revolution" and seized power.
1983.9.19 Saint Kitts and Nevis gained independence from Britain and established the Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis, which was a British dominion.
1983.10.18 Members of the Customs and Economic Union of Central Africa established a larger economic bloc - the Economic Community of Central African States (CEEAC) with other Central African countries.
1983.10.19 Power struggle broke out within the New Jewel Movement of Grenada. Military officer Austin staged a coup to overthrow Prime Minister Bishop and seize power. On ..25 of the same month, USA organised a multinational troops composed of troops from the Caribbean countries to invade Grenada and topple the Government of the New Jewel Movement.
1983.12.10 Military rule was end and democracy was restored in Argentina.
1983.12.31 Buhari, a Nigerian military officer, staged a coup to overthrow the Second Republic.
1984.1.1 Brunei declared independence from Britain.
1984.4.3 Conte, a military officer of Guinea, staged the April Coup of Guinea to overthrow the Government of the Democratic Party and established his personal dictatorship.
1984.6.1 Civilian rule was restored in el Salvador.
1984.6.21 The Latin American countries held a conference in Cartagena to dicuss the debt issue and thus formed the Cartagena Group.
1984.8.4 Upper Volta was renamed as the Burkina Faso Regime.
1984.9 The Ethiopian armed forces established the Workers' Party to carry out one-party rule.
1984.12.12 Taya, former Premier of Mauritania, seized power in a coup and started his prolonged rule.
1984.12.19 China and Britain concluded the Sino-British Joint Declaration, by which Britain was to return Hong Kong to China in 1997.
1985 A sharp rise in the real estate and stock prices began in Japan, culminating in a Bubble Economy, which crashed in 1990 and led to stagnation of the Japanese economy.
1985.3.11
Gorbachev succeeded as General Secretary of the USSR Communist Party. During his tenure he carried out the Perestroika (= New Thinking) Reforms.
1985.4.6 ad-Dahab, an [Eastern] Sudanese military officer, staged the April Coup of [Eastern] Sudan to overthrow President Nimeiry. Since then [Eastern] Sudan was torn by political turmoil. A series of coups took place in [Eastern] Sudan, which came under prolonged military rule.
1985.4.22 Military rule ended and democracy was restored in Brazil, which then entered the Period of the "New Republic".
1985.5 Seven Sunni Mujahideen organisations united to form the Mujahideen Alliance in Pakistan. In 1987.8 eight Shiah Mujahideen organisations united to form the Islamic Party in Iran.
1985.7.29 Peru, Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay formed the Lima Group to support the efforts of the Contadora Group.
1985.8.27 Babangida, a Nigerian military officer, staged a coup to overthrown Buhari, Chairman of the Supreme Military Council and seize power.
1985.12.8 Seven South Asian countries formed the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC).
1986.1 Power struggle within the [Southern] Yemen Socialist Party led to the replacement of Ismail, General Secretary of the Socialist Party by Ali Nasser, Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme People's Council. On ..13 of the same month, faction struggle broke out between Ali Nasser and Ismail ("January 13th Bloody Incident of Aden"). Ismail was killed. On .2.6 of the same year, Ali Nasser was expelled from the Socialist Party. al-Baidh succeeded as General Secretary of the Socialist Party.
1986.1.1 Aruba separated from Netherlands Antilles and became a self-governing country of the Netherlands.
1986.1.14 Civilian rule was restored in Guatemala.
1986.1.20 Lekhanya, military officer of Lesotho, staged a coup to overthrow Prime Minister Jonathan and seize power. Since then Lesotho came under military rule.
1986.1.26 Museveni, Commander of the National Resistance Army, captured the capital Kampala and seized power, ending the Ugandan Bush War. On ..29 of the same month, he made himself President and started his prolonged rule.
1986.2.7 The "Storm of February of Haiti" led to the overhtrow of the Duvalier Family. But Haiti remained under military rule thereafter.
1986.2.15 After President Marcos of the Philippines won the election by bribery, a "People's Power Revolution" broke out against Marcos. After Marcos was forced to step down on ..25 of the same month, democracy was restored in the Philippines.
1986.3.20 The French rightists won the parliamentary elections. Chirac, leader of the Rally for the Republic, became the Premier, thus creating the situation of "Political Cohabition" in which the posts of President and Premier were occupied by the leftist and rightist, respectively.
1986.3.24 Conflicts broke out between USA and Libya in Sidra Bay. On .4.15 of the same year, USA conducted an air-raid on Libya.
1986.8 The National Party of Venda established one-party rule in the regime.
1986.10.21 Marshall Islands became an associated state of USA.
1986.11.3 Micronesia became an associated state of USA. The American Pacific Islands Trust Territory was thus dissolved.
1986.11.13 President Reagan of USA admitted that USA had sold weapons to Iran to exchange for Iran's assistance to release the USA hostages in Lebanon and then used the profits gained in the weapon sale to support the Nicaraguan rightist guerillas. The news aroused public condemnation and came to be known as the "Irangate Scandal".
1986.12 The Chinese students launched a liberalization movement. On .1.16 of the next year, General Secretary Hu Yaobang of the Communist Party was forced to step down owing to his inability to suppress the students' movement. Thereafter the Communist Party launched the Anti-Bourgeois Liberalization Campaign to suppress the students' movement.
1986.12.18 The Contadora Group and the Lima Group were united as the Rio Group to jointly promote peace in Central America.
1987 Kony, a Uganda, founded a new religious group, formed the Lord's Resistance Army and rebelled against President Museveni. Later the guerilla warfare of the Army spread to other countries in central Africa.
1987.4.13 China and Portugal concluded the Sino-Portuguese Joint Declaration, which provided that Portugal shall return Macau to China in 1999.
1987.5.14 Rabuka, a military officer of Fiji, seized power in coup. On .10.7 of the same year, he proclaimed the end of Fiji's dominion status and the establishment of a republic.
1987.7.15 China (Taiwan Government) terminated the martial law that had been in effect for 38 years and actually ended the one-party rule. But the prohibition on party activities was not formally withdrawn until 1989.1.
1987.8.7 Five Central American countries concluded the Procedures for the Establishment of a Firm and Lasting Peace in Central America in Guatemala City to resolve the Central American Crisis.
1987.9.3 Buyoya, a Burundian military officer, staged a coup to overthrow President Bagaza and seize power.
1987.10.15 Compaore, a military officer of Burkina Faso, staged the October Coup of Burkina Faso to overthrow Sankara, Chairman of the National Revolutionary Council. Compaore organised the em>Popular Front and started his prolonged rule.
1987.11.7 Premier Ali of Tunisia staged a "palace coup" to depose President Bourguiba.
1987.12.8 Yassin, a Palestnian religious leader, established the Islamic Resistance Movement (commonly called Hamas) in the areas occupied by Israel and started terrorist attacks on Israel.

USA and USSR concluded the Treaty on the Elimination of Intermediate-Range and Shorter-Range Missiles, which provided for the elimination of all intermediate-range and shorter-range missiles within 3 years. The Treaty marked a major progress in arms reduction.
1988
bin Laden from Saudi Arabia founded the al-Qaeda Organization and participated in the Afghan war against USSR. Later it evolved into a terrorist orgainsation.
1988.2.25 President Chun Doo Hwan of [South] Korea stepped down and was succeeded by Roh Tae Woo , thus ending the military rule.

Power struggle arose between President Delvalle of Panama and Noriega, the de facto ruler.
1988.5.10 After President Mitterand of France won the presidential election, Preimer Chirac resigned and was succeeded by Rocard of the Socialist Party, thus ending the situation of political cohabitation.
1988.7 Nagorno-Karabakh, an autonomous oblast under the Soviet union republic of Azerbaijan, unilaterally proclaimed incorporation into Armenia, another union republic. Conflicts arose immediately with the Azerbaijani Government. The Nagorno-Karabakh War broke out.
1988.7.16
A pro-democracy movement broke out in Burma. On ..23 of the same month, Ne Win, Chairman of the Party of the Socialist Programme, was forced to resign. In September Aung San Suu Kyi formed the National League for Democracy and requested the Government to carry out democratic reforms. On .9.11 the Party of the Socialist Programme was compelled to abandon one-party rule. On .9.18 military officer Saw Maung staged the "September 18th Coup . After seizing power, he established a military dictatorship and suppressed the pro-democracy movement.
1988.8 The Iran-Iraq War ended.
1988.8.17 President Zia-ul-Haq of Pakistan died in an air crash. On .12.2 of the same year, party politics was restored in Pakistan, with the People's Party and the Muslim League ruling alternately.
1988.11.15 The Palestinian Liberation Organisation proclaimed the establishment of the Government-in-Exile of the State of Palestine.
1988.12.22 Angola, Cuba and South Africa reached an agreement which provided for the withdrawal of the Cuban troops from Angola and the independence of South West Africa from South Africa.
1989 The Ethiopian rebellious armed forces united to form the People's Revolutionary Democratic Front. The Ethiopian Civil War broke out.
1989.2.3 Rodriguez, a Paraguayan military officer, staged a coup to overthrow President Stroessner. On .5.15 of the same year Rogriguez succeeded to the presidency. During his tenure, Rodriguez carried out democratic reform.
1989.2.15 The USSR troops completely withdrew from Afghanistan, which marked the end of the Soviet-Afghan War. But the Afghan Civil War ensued. On .2.23 of the same year, the Mujahideen organisations established Afghanistan (Islamic Gvoernment) in opposition to Afghanistan (Government of the People's Democratic Party).
1989.2.17 Five countries of the Maghreb region established the Arab Maghreb Union (AMU).
1989.3.10 The Algerian fundamentalists established the Islamic Front for Salvation. In July of the same year, the Front for National Liberation abandoned one-party rule and adopted a multi-party system. Since then Algeria was torn by political unrest.
1989.4.7 The Polish United Workers' Party abandoned one-party rule and adopted a multi-party system, which marked the beginning of the Peaceful Evolution of USSR and East Europe.
1989.4.15 Hu Yaobang, former General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party, died. Subsequently the popular mourning activities gradually developed into the 1989 Pro-Democracy Movement of China . On .5.19 of the same year, General Secretary Zhao Ziyang of the Communist Party lost power owing to his sympathy with the Pro-Democracy Movement. On .6.4 the Government suppressed the Pro-Democracy Movement ("June 4th Tiananmen Square Incident").
1989.5.29 Yeltsin, a radical reformist of USSR, was elected Chairman of the Presidium of the Russian Supreme Soviet and became a counter to Gorbachev.
1989.6 A multi-party election was held in Poland and was won by the Solidarity. On .8.24 of the same year the Solidarity replaced the United Workers' Party as the ruling party. On .12.31 the Third Polish Republic was established.
1989.6.3 Khomeini, Rahbar of Iran, died. On the next day, President Khamenei succeeded as Rahbar. On .8.3 Rafsanjani, leader of the reformists, succeeded as President. During his presidency he adopted moderate policies.
1989.6.30 al-Bashir, a military officer of [Eastern] Sudan, staged the June Coup of [Eastern] Sudan to seize power.
1989.9.20 de Klerk succeeded as President of South Africa. During his presidency he carried out reforms and abandoned the racist policies.
1989.9.30 The Confederation of Senegambia was dissolved.
1989.10 The Panamanian military men staged a coup in an attempt to overthrow the de facto ruler Noriega, but failed. On .12.20 of the same year, USA invaded Panama and deposed Noriega.
1989.10.7 The Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party was reorganised as the Socialist Party. The one-party system was replaced by a multi-party system. On ..23 the Third Hungarian Republic was established.

A pro-democracy movement sprang up in [East] Germany. On ..18 of the same month, General Secretary Honecker of the Socialist Unity Party was forced to step down. On .11.10 the populace started to demolish the Berlin Wall. On .11.13 the Socialist Unity Party was compelled to form a coalition government with non-party members, thus ending their one-party rule. On .12.16 the Socialist Unity Party was renamed the Socialist Unity Party-Party of Democratic Socialism. On 1990.2.4 it was further renamed the Party of Democratic Socialism.
1989.10.21 A pro-democracy movement sprang up in Bulgaria. On .11.10 of the same year, General Secretary Zhivkov of the Communist Party was forced to step down.
1989.11.6 12 Asia-Pacific countries established the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) in Canberra, capital of Australia.
1989.11.9 President Evren of Turkey stepped down. Turkey resumed the democratic system.
1989.11.17 The "Velvet Revolution" broke out in Czechoslovakia. On ..29 of the same month, the Communist Party proclaimed end of the one-party system and the introduction of a multi-party system. On .12.29 Havel, leader of the Civic Forum, succeeded as President.
1989.12 The National Patriotic Front of Liberia started a rebellion against President Doe. The First Liberian Civil War broke out.
1989.12.16 Anti-governmental demonstrations broke out in Timisoara, a city in western Romania and spread throughout the country subsequently. On ..21 of the same month a popular uprising broke out ( December Incident of Romania). On ..22 President Ceausescu was overthrown. The rebels set up the National Salvation Front and put an end to the one-party system. On ..25 Ceausescu was executed.
1990.1.15 In contention for Nagorno-Karabakh, Armenia and Azerbaijan entered into a war.

End of one-party rule of the Bulgarian Communist Party. On .4.3 of the same year the Communist Party was renamed the Socialist Party. In a multi-party election held in Bulgaria in June, the Socialist Party won and continued to be the ruling party. Thereafter Bulgaria was basically under the alternate rule of the leftist (Socialist Party) and the rightist (Union of Democratic Forces).
1990.2 The First Popular Movement arose in Nepal. On .4.8 of the same year, King Birendra was compelled to agree to the abolition of the panchayat system and the restoration of the multi-party system. On .11.9 a Constitution was promulgated in Nepal, which then adopted a constitutional form of government.
1990.2.7 The Communist Party of USSR proclaimed the end of the one-party system and the introduction of a multi-party system.
1990.3 In a multi-party election held in [East] Germany, the Alliance for Germany (formed by rightist parties such as Christian Democratic Union, Social Union, etc.) won. On .4.12 of the same year, the Alliance for Germany replaced the Party of Democratic Socialism as the ruling party.
1990.3.11 Lithuania unilaterally declared independence from USSR and established the Second Republic of Lithuania, which triggered the independence movements in the Soviet union republics.

Aylwin succeeded as President of Chile, in which civilian rule was restored. But Pinochet continued to serve as Commander-in-Chief of the Army and hold the military power.
1990.3.16 A pro-democracy student movement arose in Taiwan (Wild Lily Student Movement). In July of the same year the Government decided to carry out democratic reforms.
1990.3.21 South West Africa declared independence and established the Republic of Namibia, thus ending the Namibian War of National Liberation. The South West African People's Organization started their prolonged rule.
1990.4 In a multi-party election held in Hungary, the Democratic Forum won. On .5.3 of the same year the Democratic Forum replaced the Socialist Party as the ruling party.
1990.4.20 Czechoslovakia was renamed the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic.
1990.4.25 de Chamorro, leader of the Nicaraguan National Opposition Union, succeeded as President. As the Sandinist National Liberation Front stepped down, democracy was gradually restored in Nicaragua.
1990.5.10 The Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party declared the end of the one-party system and the introduction of a multi-party system. In a multi-party election held in Mongolia in August of the same year, the People's Revolutionary Party won and continued to be the ruling party.
1990.5.17 The Bougainville Revolutionary Army unilaterally declared the independence of the Bougainville Island from Papua New Guinea and established the Republic of Bougainville and the Provisional Government.
1990.5.18 [West] Germany and [East] Germany concluded the Treaty on Monetary, Economic and Social Union, by which the two countries achieved unification in the monetary, economic and social systems. On .8.31 of the same year, they concluded the Unification Treaty , by which the five states in [East] Germany joined [West] Germany. On .9.12 the four powers signed the Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany with the two Germanys to finally settle the problem of German unification. On .10.3 [East] Germany was reunited with [West] Germany, with the country's name being the Federal Republic of Germany.
1990.5.22 [Northern] Yemen and [Southern] Yemen were united as the Republic of Yemen. The Socialist Party ceased to be the ruling party.
1990.5.26 The League of Yugoslav Communists held a special conference. Owing to serious disagreement within the League, the Central Committee and the Presidium were dissolived. The League of Yugoslav Communists disintegrated. On .7.25 of the same year, a multi-party system was introduced in Yugoslavia.
1990.8 End of one-party rule of the Sao Tome and Principe Liberation Movement.

The African National Union of South Africa proclaimed abandonment of armed struggle and adoption of a policy of peaceful struggle.
1990.8.2 Iraq invaded Kuwait and led to the Gulf War. Iraq isntalled a Free Kuwait Government. On ..8 of the same month Iraq proclaimed annexation of Kuwait. USA organised a coalition army under the name of the United Nations against Iraq.
1990.8.19 Gagauz, a region under the Soviet union republic of Moldova, unilaterally declared secession from Moldova and became a union republic of USSR. On .9.2 of the same year, the Transdniester region (i.e. the east bank of Dniester River) also unilaterally declared secession from Moldova and became a union republic of USSR.
1990.9.9 The National Patriotic Front of Liberia overthrew President Doe. But then they split into several factions and the Civil War continued.
1990.9.20 South Ossetia, an autonomous oblast under the Soviet union republic of Georgia, unilaterally declared secession from Georgia and became a union republic of USSR.
1990.9.28 End of one-party rule of the African Party of Independence of Cape Verde.
1990.10 The Rwandan Patriotic Front started a rebellion. The Rwandan Civil War broke out.
1990.11 A multi-party system was introduced in Mozambique.
1990.11.19 The European and North American countries held the Paris Summit of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, on which NATO and WTO concluded the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe and agreed to reduce the conventional armed forces. On ..21 of the same month, the participating countries concluded the Paris Charter for a New Europe , which formally ended the Cold War.
1990.11.28 Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew resigned but was appointed as Senior Minister and continued to exert influence on politics. The People's Action Party remained in power.
1990.12 End of one-party rule of the Popular Revolutionary Party of Benin. But the long-serving President Kerekou remained in office.

End of one-party rule of the United National Independence Party of Zambia.
1990.12.2 Deby, head of the Chadian Patriotic Salvation Movement, seized power. After introducing a multi-party system, he succeeded in ending the civil war gradually.
1990.12.11 The Albanian Workers' Party proclaimed the end of the one-party system and the introduction of a multi-party system.
1990.12.22 Marshall Islands declared independence from USA.

The Federated States of Micronesia declared independence from USA.
1990.12.24 The Lebanese Civil War came to an end.
1991.1.5 The First South Ossetia War broke out between South Ossetia and Georgia.
1991.1.27 The United Somali Congress overthrew President Siyad. But then Somalia came under rule of the regional warlords and the civil war continued.
1991.2.7 Aristide succeeded as President of Haiti and ended Haiti's military rule. On .9.30 of the same year, military officerCedras staged a coup to overthrow Aristide and put Haiti under military rule again.
1991.2.11 A number of organisations of nations without a sovereign state founded the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization (UNPO) in the Hague.
1991.2.23 Sunthorn and Suchinda, military officers of Thailand, seized power in a coup.
1991.2.24 The United Nations armies launched a major offensive against Iraq and expelled the Iraqi troops from Kuwait on ..26 of the same month. On ..28 Iraq accepted the resolution of the United Nations, thus ending the Gulf War.
1991.3 The Shia Sect in southern Iraq and the Kurds in northern Iraq revolted against Saddam and were suppressed in April of the same year. USA, Britain and France intervened by designating an area in northern Iraq as a no-fly zone and prohibiting the entrance of any Iraqi aircraft into the zone.

In a multi-party election held in Albania, the Workers' Party won and continued to be the ruling party.
1991.3.20 Civilian rule was restored in Bangladesh. A referendum held on .9.15 of the same year endorsed the adoption of the parliamentary cabinet system.
1991.3.22 The African Party of Independence of Cape Verde lost the ruling-party status and was replaced by the Movement for Democracy. Since then democratic system gradually took root in Cape Verde, which came under alternate rule of the Movement for Democracy and African Party of Independence.
1991.3.23 The Revolutionary United Front of Sierra Leone started a rebellion. The Sierra Leone Civil War broke out.
1991.3.26 Amadou Toumani Toure, a military officer of Mali, staged the March Coup of Mali to overthrow President Traore and introduce a multi-party system.

Four South American countries signed the Treaty of Asuncion and established the Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR; also called the Southern Cone Common Market).
1991.4 USA economy entered a period of continuous growth for 114 consecutive months until 2000.9. This phenomenon came to be known as the New Economy.
1991.4.9 Georgia declared independence from USSR and established the Georgian Regime. Gamsakhurdia became the Chairman of the Supreme Soviet with dictatorial power. On ..14 of the same month, Gamsakhurdia changed his title to President. Mass campaign broke out in the same year and developed into the Georgian Civil War later.
1991.5.18 The Somali National Movement controlled northern Somalia. On ..24 of the same month, they established the Republic of Somaliland, but without international recognition.
1991.5.21 The Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front attacked Addis Ababa. The Government of the Workers' Party collapsed.
1991.5.21 The Eritrean People's Liberation Front controlled Eritrea and established the Eritrean Regime.
1991.5.21 The Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front seized power in Ethiopia, thus ending the Ethiopian Civil War.
1991.6.25 Slovenia declared independence from Yugoslavia and established the Republic of Slovenia. The Slovene War broke out between Slovenia and Yugoslavia. On .7.8 of the same year Slovenia suspended independence. But on .10.8 it declared independence again.

Croatia declared independence from Yugoslavia and established the Republic of Croatia. The Croatian War broke out between Croatia and Yugoslavia. On .7.8 of the same year Croatia suspended independence. But on .10.8 it declared independence again.
1991.6.28 The COMECON was dissolved. On .7.1 of the same year, WTO was also dissolved.
1991.7.18 The First Ibero-American Summit Meeting was held between Spain, Portugal and 19 Latin American countries to strengthen the tie between Spain, Portugal and Latin America.
1991.7.31 USA and USSR signed the First Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START I), which provided for the reduction of the strategic nuclear arms of both countries.
1991.8.19 The Soviet conservatives staged the "August 18th Coup" and put Gorbachev under house arrest. Under the leadership of Yeltsin, leader of the radical reformists, the populace opposed the conservatives. On ..22 of the same month the coup failed. On ..23 Yeltsin came to power and deprived the Communist Party of its power. An Anti-Communist Movement arose throughout the country.
1991.8.20 Estonia unilaterally declared independence from USSR and established the Second Republic of Estonia.
1991.8.21 Latvia unilaterally declared independence from USSR and established the Second Republic of Latvia.
1991.8.24 Ukraine declared independence from USSR and established the Ukrainian Regime.
1991.8.25 Byelorussia declared independence from USSR and established the Belarus Regime.
1991.8.27 Moldova declared independence from USSR and established the Republic of Moldova. In December of the same year, conflicts broke out between Transdniester and the army of the Moldovan Government.
1991.8.30 Azerbaijan declared independence from USSR and established the Republic of Azerbaijan .
1991.8.31 Kyrgyzstan (formerly called Kirghiz) declared independence from USSR and established the Republic of Kyrgyzstan.

Uzbek declared independence from USSR and established the Republic of Uzbekistan. Karimov served as President of Uzbekistan and began his long-time rule.
1991.9.3 Nagorno-Karabakh declared independence from Azerbaijan and established the Armenian Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh.
1991.9.6 USSR recognized the independence of Lithuania, Estonia and Latvia.

Morocco and the Polisario ceased fire and ended the Western Saharan War. But the two parties failed to settle the issue of the sovereignty of Western Sahara.
1991.9.9 Tadzikh declared independence from USSR and established the Republic of Tajikistan.
1991.9.16 Civilian rule was restored in Suriname.
1991.9.18 Macedonia declared independence from Yugoslavia and established the Republic of Macedonia .
1991.9.23 Armenia declared independence from USSR and established the Republic of Armenia.
1991.10 After the Iraqi troops retreated from Southern Kurdistan (i.e. the Kurdish region in northern Iraq), Southern Kurdistan practically gained autonomy. In July 1992 an autonomous Government was formed in Southern Kurdistan.
1991.10.15 The Bosnian Parliament endorsed the Memorandum of Sovereignty and proclaimed that Bosnia was going to separate from Yugoslavia. The Serbs in Bosnia denied recognition of the document and established the Serbian Republic of Bosnia-Hercegovina (commonly called the Srpska Republic).
1991.10.19 The Autonomous Province of Kosovo under Serbia of Yugoslavia declared independence from Yugoslavia and established the Republic of Kosovo.
1991.10.23 The various factions of Cambodia concluded the Cambodian Peace Accord in Paris. On .11.20 of the same year, the Resistance Government and the Government of People's Revolutionary Party of Cambodia jointly established the Supreme National Council as the nominal supreme authority of Cambodia. But both Governments retained their powers. Sihanouk became the Chairman of the Supreme National Council.
1991.10.26 The Slovene War ended with the withdrawal of the Yugoslav troops from Slovenia.
1991.10.27 Turkmen declared independence from USSR and established the Republic of Turkmenistan, which was under one-party rule of the Communist Party. On .12.16 of the same year the Communist Party was renamed Democratic Party.
1991.10.30 The Middle East Peace Conference held in Madrid of Spain commenced the peace process of Middle East.
1991.11.1 The National Congress of the Chechen People led by Dudayev unilaterally declared the independence of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Republic from Russia and established the Chechen Republic.
1991.11.28 South Ossetia unilaterally declared independence from Georgia.
1991.12.16 Kazakhstan (formerly called Kazakh) declared independence from USSR and established the Republic of Kazakhstan. Nazarbayev served as President of Kazakhstan and began his long-time rule.
1991.12.19 Krajina, Slavonia and Branaja, Serb autonomous regions under Croatia, seceded from Croatia and established the Serb Republic of Krajina in opposition to the Croatian Government.
1991.12.20 The NATO formed the North Atlantic Cooperation Council with USSR and a number of East European countries and established a cooperative relation with USSR and East Europe.
1991.12.21 11 former Soviet union republics held a summit meeting in Alamut, capital of Kazakhstan and formally established the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), an international organisation whose member states retained their independent status. Russia practically gained independence from USSR and established the Russian Regime.
1991.12.25 USSR was formally dissolved. On ..27 of the same month Russia took over USSR's seat in the United Nations.
1991.12.27 The Progressive Front of the Seychelles People put an end to its one-party rule, but remained in office.
1992.1 While Deng Xiaoping, de facto ruler of China, visited several cities in southern China, he reiterated the economic reform policy and announced the objective of establishing a socialist market economy in China.

Finland signed a treaty with Russia which nullified the Finno-Soviet Agreement of Friendship, Cooperation, and Mutual Assistance, thus ending the situation of Finland's diplomacy being affected by USSR.
1992.1.6 When the Georgian rebellious army captured the capital Tbilisi, Gamsakhurdia fled to the western frontier and continued his resistance.
1992.1.16 The Salvadorian Government concluded peace with the Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front in Mexico City, thus ending the civil war.
1992.2.7 The EC countries signed the Treaty of Maastricht in Maastricht of the Netherlands whereby the member states were to unite as an economic and monetary union.
1992.2.26 The Crimean Oblast under Ukraine unilaterally proclaimed the establishment of the Crimean Autonomous Republic. Subsequently an independence movement arose in Crimea. In the same year, under the pressure of the Ukrainian Central Government, Crimea abandoned the pursuit of independence.
1992.3 The opposition parties of Tajikistan (later united as the United Tajik Opposition) started anti-governmental activities, which led to the Tajik Civil War in May of the same year.
1992.3.1 Saudi Arabia promulgated the Basic Law of Governance which preserved the absolute monarchy.
1992.3.3 Bosnia and Herzegovina declared independence from Yugoslavia and established the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina. On ..27 of the same month, the Srpska Republic declared independence from Bosnia. The Bosnian War thus broke out. On .7.4 the Croats in Bosnia also declared independence from Bosnia and established the Herceg-Bosna Regime. Bosnia was thus left with the area occupied by the Muslims (also called the Bosniacs).
1992.3.4 The Algerian Government outlawed the Islamic Front for Salvation, who then started a rebellion and led to the Algerian Civil War. Thereafter some anti-governmental forces formed the separate Armed Islamic Group.
1992.3.12 Mauritius ended its dominion status and established the Republic of Mauritius.
1992.3.21 Tatarstan, a constituent republic of Russia, unilaterally declared independence from Russia and established the Republic of Tatarstan.
1992.3.31 The Russian Federal Government and the constituent republics concluded the Federal Treaty, which defined the relationship between the Federal Government and the constituent republics.
1992.4.5 President Fujimori of Peru staged a self-coup. By suspending the Constitution, he established a personal dictatorship.
1992.4.7 Suchinda, a military officer of Thailand, made himself Prime Minister. In May of the same year a pro-democracy movement broke out in Thailand. On ..24 Suchinda was forced to resign. Thereafter democracy was gradually established in Thailand.
1992.4.13 Democratic Party of Albania became the ruling party. Since then Albania was under the alternate rule of the Democratic Party and the Socialist Party.
1992.4.16 Afghanistan (Islamic Government) captured Kabul and overthrew the Government of People's Democratic Party. But them conflicts broke out between the Mujahideen Alliance and the Islamic Party. The civil war continued.
1992.4.27 A new Constitution was ratified in Yugoslavia, which was then reorganised as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia composed of two constituent republics: Serbia and Montenegro.
1992.4.29 Strasser, a military officer of Sierra Leone, staged the "April 29th Coup". On the next day he toppled the Government of the All People's Congress. Sierra Leone entered a period of political unrest in which military coups occurred frequently and the country came under military rule.
1992.6 The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) convened in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (commonly called the First Earth Summit). The Rio Declaration on Environment and Development was ratified, in which "sustainable development" was proposed to be a new model for environmental protection and economic development.

Georgia ceased fire with South Ossetia. But South Ossetia continued to be a semi-independent entity.

The Russian troop stationed in Transdniester supported the independence movement of Transdniester and led to the deterioration of the relation between Russia and Moldova. On .7.21 of the same year Moldova and Russia reached an agreement to cease the conflicts. But Transdniester maintained its semi-independent status.
1992.6.15 Gaidar became the Acting Chairman of the Council of Ministers of Russia and started a radical economic reform (the Shock Therapy).
1992.6.28 Amato, leader of the Italian Socialist Party, succeeded as Premier. The Christian Democratic Party lost its dominant status in the political scene.
1992.7.23 The Abkhazian Autonomous Republic under Georgia unilaterally declared independence from Georgia and established the Republic of Abkhazia. The Abkhazian War thus broke out immediately between Abkhazia and the Georgian Government. The War gradually subsided in 1996. But Abkhazia continued to be a semi-independent entity.
1992.8 USA, Britain and France designated an area in southern Iraq as another no-fly zone.
1992.8.17 The Southern African Development Coordination Conference was reorganised as the Southern African Development Community (SADC).
1992.8.31 Lissouba, leader of the Union for Development and Social Progress of [West] Congo, succeeded to the presidency, thus ending the prolonged rule of the Labour Party.
1992.9.22 The United Nations suspended the membership of Yugoslavia.
1992.10.9 The Mozambique National Resistance concluded peace with the Central Government, thus ending the civil war and dissolving the National Resistance Government.
1992.12.9 The United Nations dispatched multinational peace-keeping troops (mainly made up of the USA troops) to Somalia to carry out a humanitarian assistance operation named the United Nations Operation in Somalia. In 1993 conflicts broke out between Muhammad Farah Aydid, a Somali warlord, and the UN troops. On 1995.3.2 the United Nations was forced to pull out its troops from Somalia.
1992.12.17 Three North American countries signed the North American Free Trade Agreement. On 1994.1.1 the North American Free Trade Area (NAFTA) was formally set up.
1993.1.1 Czech and Slovakia split into two states with the establishment of the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic.

The member states of EC established the European Single Market.
1993.1.3 USA and USSR concluded the Second Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START II), which provided for the elimination of 2/3 nuclear warheads within 10 years.
1993.1.13 More than a hundred countries signed the Chemical Weapons Convention in Paris, which provided for the total prohibition of chemical weapons. The Convention took effect on 1997.4.29.
1993.1.20
Clinton succeeded as USA President. During his presidency he advocated the neo-liberal values.
1993.2.1 The Central American countries established the Central American Integration System (SICA) to restart the regional integration progress.
1993.2.6 A federal system was adopted in Belgium, which was divided into the Flemish (Dutch), Walloon (French) and Brussels regions.
1993.3.12 [North] Korea proclaimed that it would withdraw from the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons and led to the Korean Nuclear Crisis.
1993.3.14 A new Constitution was promulgated in Andorra, which then established a democratic system.
1993.3.29 As the rightists of France won the parliamentary elections, President Mitterand appointed Balladur, leader of the Rally for the Republic, as Premier. The second "Political Cohabitation" occurred in France.
1993.4.2 Lesotho ended military rule and adopted the parliamentary cabinet system.
1993.4.8 Macedonia joined the United Nations in the name of the "Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia" owing to Greece's objection to the use of the name "Macedonia".
1993.4.27 Eritrea formally declared independence from Ethiopia, thus ending the Eritrean War.
1993.6.14 The Resistance Government and the Government of People's Revolutionary Party were dissolved and united as the National Unification Government. The Supreme National Council was thus dissolved. Sihanouk became the Head of state of Cambodia. The Third Indochina War came to an end.
1993.7.2 The FUNCINPEC and the People's Party (previously the People's Revolutionary Party) of Cambodia formed a coalition government. Heads of the two parties, Ranariddh and Hun Sen, became Prime ministers simultaneously. On .9.21 of the same year Ranariddh and Hun Sen changed their titles to First Prime minister and Second Prime minister, respectively. On ..24 the monarchical system was restored in Cambodia.
1993.7.10 President Buyoya of Burundi stepped down and was succeeded by the Hutu Ndadaye. On .10.21 of the same year Ndadaye was assassinated by Tutsi military officers, which sparked a war between the Hutus and Tutsis (Burundian Civil War).
1993.8 The Rwandan Government concluded peace with the Patriotic Front and thus stopped the civil war.
1993.8.9 Hosokawa Morihiro, leader of the Japanese New Party, succeeded as Prime Minister, thus ending the prolonged rule of the Liberal Democratic Party.
1993.8.15 Civilian rule was restored in Paraguay.
1993.9.13 Israel and the Palestinian Liberation Organisation concluded the Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government Arrangements in Washington, which provided for the mutual recognition of the two parties and the self-government of Gaza Strip and Jericho by Palestinians.
1993.9.21 Conflicts broke out between Russian President Yeltsin and the conservatives in the Federal Assembly. Yeltsin proclaimed dissolution of the Assembly while the Assembly proclaimed deposition of Yeltsin. On .10.4 of the same year, Yeltsin ordered the armed forces to enter the Assembly to arrest the conservatives (October Incident of Russia). On .12.12 a new Constitution which expanded the President's power was ratified in Russia.
1993.11.1 The European Community was renamed the European Union (EU).
1993.11.6 Gamsakhurdia, former President of Georgia, died. The Georgian Civil War finally came to an end.
1994 The peasants of the Chiapas State of Mexico started a rebellion and organised the Zapatista National Liberation Army.
1994.1 The NATO launched the Partnership for Peace Programme to absorb the former USSR union republics and East European countries as "partner countries" and thus commenced the strategy of "Eastward Expansion".
1994.1.1 The 12 EU member states and the five EFTA member states formed the European Economic Area.
1994.2.15 By signing the Federal Treaty, Tatarstan abandoned the independent status and reverted to the status of a Russian constituent republic.
1994.4
The first multi-racial election was held in South Africa. On ..27 of the same month, the four black homeland regimes of Transkei, Bophuthatswana, Venda and Ciskei lost their independent status and were reincorporated into South Africa. The six remaining black homelands were also abolished. On .5.1 Mandela, leader of the African National Congress, succeeded as President, which marked the end of the White racist rule and the commencement of the Black majority rule.
1994.4.6 President Habyarimana of Rwanda and President Ntaryamire of Burundi were killed in an air crash caused by an assault. Thereafter the Hutus and Tutsis in both countries entered into armed conflicts and the Rwandan Civil War restarted.
1994.5.21 al-Baidh, General Secretary of the Yemeni Socialist Party controlled southern Yemen and established the Democratic Republic of Yemen ([Southern] Yemen). The North-South War of Yemen broke out. On .7.7 of the same year [Southern] Yemen was annihilated by the Republic of Yemen.
1994.5.31 The Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Herceg-Bosna united to form the Federation of Bosnia and Hercegovina (commonly called the Muslim-Croat Federation), in which power was shared by the two nationalities.
1994.6.29 The Japanese Socialist Party and the Liberal Democratic Party formed a coalition government with Murayama Tomiichi, leader of the Socialist Party, as the Prime Minister. Thereafter the Socialist Party was torn by internal strife. Its status as the major opposition party was replaced by the other rightist parties. The Japanese political scene was thus monopolised by the rightists.
1994.7.4 The Rwandan Patriotic Front captured the capital Kigali. On ..19 of the same month they established a Government and ended the Civil War.
1994.7.5 Israel set up two self-governing areas in Gaza Strip and Jericho. The Government-in-Exile of the State of Palestine was thus reorganised as the Palestinian National Authority under Israel with autonomous power. Arafat became the President of the Authority.
1994.7.8 Upon death of Kim Il Song, State Chairman of [North] Korea and General Secretary of the Workers' Party, his son Kim Jong Il became de facto leader of the Workers' Party, thus forming the "Communist Dynasty".
1994.7.11 The Khmer Rouge sezied control of northern Cambodia in opposition to the National Unification Government.
1994.7.22 Jammeh, a military officer of the Gambia, staged the "July 22nd Coup" to overthrow President Jawara and seize power.
1994.7.25 The ASEAN and a number of Asia-Pacific countries established the ASEAN Regional Forum to foster dialogue on political and security issues of the Asia-Pacific Region.
1994.8 Azerbaijan and Armenia ceased fire and ended the Nagorno-Karabakh War.
1994.9 China established a "constructive partnership" with Russia. Thereafter different types of "partnership" were established among the major powers and groups of nations.
1994.9.19 USA dispatched troops to Haiti to force the resignation of the military government. On .10.10 of the same year, Cedras, dictator of Haiti, was forced to step down. On .10.12 former President Aristide returned to Haiti to resume power.
1994.10.1 Palau gained independence from USA.
1994.10.21 USA and [North] Korea concluded a Framework Agreement in Geneva, which provided that [North] Korea shall suspend its nuclear scheme while USA shall help [North] Korea develop peaceful use of nuclear energy. Thereafter disputes about [North] Korea's nuclear facilties continued to occur between the two parties.
1994.12 Russian launched the First Chechen War and attacked Chechen.
1995.1 Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan formed the Commonwealth of Independent States Customs Union.
1995.1.1 The World Trade Organisation (WTO) was set up to promote economic globalization .

The Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe was renamed the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE).
1995.4 Papua New Guinea established the Bougainville Transitional Government in opposition to the Government of the Republic of Bougainville.
1995.5.17 Chirac, former Premier of France, succeeded as President, thus ending the Political Cohabitation.
1995.6.19 Gagauz submitted to the authority of the Moldovan Central Government and became an autonomous region of Moldova.
1995.8.7 Croatia annihilated Krajina and occupied the western part controlled by the regime. But the Srem-Baranja Region (also called Eastern Slavonia) in the east remained independent. In November of the same year, the Croatian Government concluded peace with Srem-Baranja, thus ending the Croatian War. From 1996.1.15 onwards Srem-Baranja was under the supervision of the United Nations.
1995.12 The United Nations recognized Turkmenistan as a perpetual neutral state.
1995.12.14 The Srpska Republic and Muslim-Croat Federation of Bosnia concluded the Dayton Agreement in Paris whereby the two regimes were to form a Bosnian state with two political entities.
1995.12.25 The self-governing areas of Palestine were extended to the whole territory of West Bank.
1996.2.13 The Nepalese Communist Party (Maoist) launched an anti-governmental insurgency, thus starting the Nepalese Civil War.
1996.2.16 The Mexican Government concluded the San Andres Accord with the Zapatista National Liberation Army, thereby ending the civil war. But thereafter military conflicts still arose between the two parties from time to time.
1996.3.1 25 Asian and European countries held the First Euro-Asian Summit in Bangkok.
1996.3.10 The Andean Group was reorganised as the Andean Community of Nations (CAN).
1996.3.13 The First Anti-Terrorist Summit was convened in Cairo.
1996.4.21 President Dudayev of Chechen was killed in a battle. In August of the same year, Russia ceased fire with Chechen. In November the Russian troops withdrew from Chechen, thus ending the First Chechen War. But conflicts continued to occur between the two parties.
1996.4.26 China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan signed the Treaty on Deepening Military Trust in Border Regions in Shanghai of China, thus forming the Shanghai Five Group.
1996.7.1 Australia united Cocos Islands and its other dependencies on the Indian Ocean as the Australian Indian Ocean Territories.
1996.7.19 The Government of the People's Revolutionary Party stepped down. Since then Mongolia was under the alternate rule of the rightist (mainly the National Democratic Party) and the leftist (People's Revolutionary Party) parties.
1996.7.25 Buyoya, former President of Burundi, staged a coup to seize power and made himself Provisional President. On 1998.6.11 he assumed the presidency. He appointed a Hutu as First Vice-President and a Tutsi as Second Vice-President.
1996.8 Various parties of Liberia signed the Abuja Accord, which put an end to the First Liberian Civil War.
1996.8.6 Eight Arctic states held a meeting to discuss the establishment of an Arctic Council, which was formally established in the next year.
1996.9.10 The General Assembly of the United Nations endorsed the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, which provided for the total prohibition of nuclear tests.
1996.9.27 The Afghan Koran Students (commonly called the Taliban) captured Kabul. After seizing power, they established a theocracy. The political factions of the former government fled to the frontiers to oppose the Taliban Government. Later they formed the United Islamic and National Front for Salvation of Afghanistan (commonly called the Anti-Taliban Alliance).
1996.10 Laurent-Desire Kabila founded the Alliance of Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Congo and rebelled against President Mobutu of Zaire, which marked the beginning of the First Congo War. Rwanda, Uganda and other countries lent support to the Alliance.
1996.10.5 The Muslim-Croat Federation and the Srpska Republic united to form the Bosnia and Herzegovina Regime, which was a confederation. A political system that balanced the powers of the Serbs, Croats and Muslims was established. The two constituent states retained their autonomy. The Bosnian War came to an end.
1996.11.6 Oman promulgated the Basic Statute of the State which preserved the absolute monarchy.
1996.12.29 The Guatemalan Government concluded peace with the National Revolutionary Union, thus ending the civil war.
1997.2.6 The South Pacific Commission was renamed the Pacific Community (PC).
1997.2.14 The International Arbitration Panel decided to put Brcko of Bosnia under international supervision.
1997.3.5 14 countries on the Indian Ocean Rim founded the Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Cooperation (IOR-ARC).
1997.4.2 Russia and Belarus formed the Russo-Belarus Union.
1997.5.2
Blair, leader of the British Labour Party, succeeded as Prime Minister. During his tenure he proposed the "Third Way" to realize social democracy.
1997.5.17 The Alliance of Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Congo captured Kinshasa and overthrew President Mobutu of Zaire. The country was then renamed the Democratic Republic of the Congo ([East] Congo) and came under one-party rule. The First Congo War came to an end.
1997.5.25 Koroma, a military officer of Sierra Leone, staged the "May 25th Coup" to seize power.
1997.5.30 The North Atlantic Cooperation Council was reorganised as the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council.
1997.6 Sassou-Nguesso, former President of [West] Congo, rose against President Lissouba, which led to the [West] Congo Civil War. On .10.15 of the same year he overthrew Lissouba and regained power. But there soon appeared opposition forces against Sassou-Nguesso and the Civil War continued.
1997.6.3 As the Socialist Party of France won the parliamentary elections, President Chirac appointed Jospin, leader of the Socialist Party, as Premier, thereby creating the third "Political Cohabitation" of France.
1997.6.27 The Tajik Government and the United Opposition signed the General Agreement on the Establishment of Peace and National Accord, thereby ending the civil war.
1997.7 Financial crisis broke out in Thailand and spread to other East Asian countries subsequently, leading to economic depression of these countries. The crisis came to be known as the Asian Financial Turmoil.
1997.7.1 Britain returned Hong Kong to China. Hong Kong then became a special administrative region under China.
1997.7.4 Western Samoa was renamed the Independent State of Samoa.
1997.7.6 Power struggle arose between the First Prime Minister Ranariddh and Second Prime Minister Hun Sen, resulting in Ranariddh's failure and dismissal. On ..16 of the same month, Hun Sen installed Ung Huot as the First Prime Minister, with real power held by Hun Sen.
1997.7.8 [North] Korea proclaimed the adoption of the "Juche" Era, which started in 1912, the year of Kim Il Song's birth. On .10.8 of the same year, Kim Jong Il formally succeeded as the General Secretary of the Workers' Party.
1997.8 The islands of Anjouan and Moheli unilaterally declared independence from Comoros. In 1998 Moheli gave up independence and reverted under the suzerainty of Comoros.
1997.10.11 Georgia, Ukraine, Azerbaijan and Moldolva formed the GUAM Alliance. The Alliance adopted a pro-Western policy and drift apart from Russia.
1997.11.3 Iraq denied admission of USA experts to Iraq for weapon inspection and led to the Iraqi Weapon Inspection Crisis. Thereafter disputes over weapon inspection continued to occur between Iraq and the United Nations.
1997.12 The anti-governmental guerilla groups of Nicaragua concluded peace with the Government and ended the civil war.
1997.12.9 [North] Korea, [South] Korea, China and USA started to hold Four-Party Talks on the Korean Peninsula regularly to foster consultation on the issue of [North] Korea's nuclear weapons.
1998.1.15 Srem-Baranja was reincorporated into Croatia.
1998.1.22 The Government of the Republic of Bougainville concluded peace with the Papua New Guinea Government and the Bougainville Transitional Government and ended the conflicts. Bougainville was reincorporated into Papua New Guinea.
1998.2 Conflicts between Kosovo and Yugoslavia led to the Kosovo War.
1998.2.12 The ECOWAS organised a peace-keeping troop led by Nigeria to overthrow Koroma, dictator of Sierra Leone, and restore civilian rule.
1998.3.10 When Pinochet, Commander-in-Chief of Chile, gave up his military authority, Chile finally completed the democratization process.
1998.4.10 Britain, [Southern] Ireland and the political factions of Northern Ireland signed the Northern Ireland Peace Accord, which provided for power sharing among the Protestants and Catholics in Northern Ireland.
1998.4.15 Upon death of Pol Pot, head of the Khmer Rouge, the Cambodian Government army struck a hard blow at Khmer Rouge. In February next year the remnants of the Khmer Rouge surrendered to the Cambodian Government.
1998.5 A pro-democracy movement broke out in Indonesia. On ..21 of the same month, President Soeharto was forced to step down. Thereafter democracy was gradually established in Indonesia.
1998.5.11 India commenced a series of nuclear tests. On ..28 of the same month, Pakistan also commenced a series of nuclear tests. Henceforth, India and Pakistan became nuclear nuclear weapon possessing states, leading to a nuclear arms race in South Asia.
1998.6 Mane, a military officer of Guinea-Bissau, started a rebellion. The Guinea-Bissau Civil War broke out.
1998.7.23 An autonomous government was set up in Puntland in eastern Somalia. Thereafter, a number of autonomous governments were set up in various places in eastern and southern Somalia, including Jubaland, Galamdug, etc.
1998.8 The [East] Congolese Rally for Democracy, with the support of Rwanda and Uganda, started a rebellion in the eastern part of [East] Congo. The intervention of various countries in central and southern Africa in the civil war led to an international conflict called the Second Congo War (also called the Great War of Africa). Later the Rally for Democracy split into several factions and occupied Kisangani and Goma.
1998.11.30 Hun Sen succeeded as Prime Minister of Cambodia.
1998.12.17 USA and Britain conducted an air-raid on Iraq.
1999.1.1 Several EU member states formed a monetary union and prepared for the use of a single currency Euro, which started to circulate on 2002.1.1.
1999.2.2 Chavez, head of the Venezuelan Movement for the Fifth Republic, succeeded as President, thus ending the alternate rule of the Democratic Action and the Social Christian Party.
1999.3.24 The NATO conducted an air-raid on Yugoslavia. On .6.10 of the same year, Yugoslavia was compelled to withdraw its troops from Kosovo. On ..12 the United Nations took over administration of Kosovo.
1999.4 The Liberians United for Reconciliation and Democracy started a rebellion against President Taylor. The Second Liberian Civil War broke out.
1999.4.30 Azali, a military officer of Comoros, seized power in a coup.
1999.5.7 Mane, a military officer of Guinea-Bissau, overthrew President Vieira and seized power.
1999.5.19 Civilian rule was restored in Fiji. Chaudry became Prime Minister of Fiji.
1999.5.29 Civilian rule was restored in Nigeria.
1999.6.28 The First European Union-Latin America and Caribbean Summit Meeting was held between EU members and Latin American countries.
1999.8.7 Basayevm, former Premier of Chechen, started a revolt and occupied Karamakhi in Dagestan, where he established the Islamic Republic of Dagestan. In September of the same year, Russia crushed the revolt and launched an attack against Chechen. The Second Chechen War thus broke out.
1999.8.30 A plebiscite held in East Timor ratified the independence of East Timor from Indonesia. Civil strife broke out in the same year. On .9.21 the international peace-keeping troops entered East Timor. On .10.25 Indonesia put East Timor under international administration.
1999.9.1 27 East Asian, Oceanian and Latin American countries established the East Asia-Latin America Forum to strengthen the cooperation between East Asia, Oceania and Latin America.
1999.10.12 Musharraf, a Pakistani military officer, seized power in a coup. Pakistan thus came under military rule again.
1999.11 During a conference of the World Trade Organisation held in Seattle of USA, anti-globalization organisations throughout the world organised large scale demonstrations, which set off a new upsurge of the Anti-Globalization Movement.
1999.12 The [West] Congo Government concluded peace with the various rebel groups and ended the Civil War.
1999.12.15 19 major economic powers and newly developed countries plus the European Union formed the Group of Twenty as a forum for international economic cooperation.
1999.12.20 Portugal returned Macau to China. Macau then became a special administrative region under China.
1999.12.24 Guei, a military officer of Ivory Coast, staged a coup to overthrow the Government of the Democratic Government and seize power.
1999.12.31 Panama resumed administration of the Canal Zone.
2000.2.1 Kosovo recognized the administration of the United Nations and became an autonomous region under the protection of the United Nations.
2000.2.6 The Russian troops captured Grozny, capital of Chechen and annihilated the Chechen Republic.
2000.2.17 Iala succeeded as President of Guinea-Bissau. Conflicts soon broke out between Iala and Mane, a military officer. The Guinea-Bissau Civil War ended after Mane was killed on .11.30 of the same year.
2000.3.8 The District of Brcko was created and became the third political entity of Bosnia.
2000.5.7 Putin succeeded as President of Russia. Thereafter he established strongman rule in Russia.
2000.5.19 Speight, a Fijian businessman, staged a coup and kidnapped Prime Minister Chaudry. On ..29 military officer Bainimarama staged a counter-coup and seized power. He made himself Head of the Interim Military Government. On .7.18 Bainimarama handed over power to the civilian government.
2000.5.20 Chen Shui-bian, leader of the Democratic Progressive Party of China (Taiwan), succeeded as President, thus ending the prolonged rule of the Nationalist Party.
2000.5.22 The Israeli troops completely withdrew from Lebanon. The South Lebanese Army was dissolved.
2000.10.5 Anti-governmental activities sprang up in Yugoslavia. On ..7 of the same month, President Milosevic was forced to step down (the Bulldozer Revolution) and was succeeded by Kostunica. Thereafter large-scale anti-governmental campaigns broke out in a number of former USSR union republics, East European and Middle East countries (as well as some countries in the other regions). These campaigns came to be known as Flower Revolution (also called Colour Revolution).
2000.10.25 President Guei of Ivory Coast fled abroad because of popular opposition. On the next day Gbagbo succeeded as President and civilian rule was restored in Ivory Coast.
2000.11.22 To avert accusations, President Fujimori of Peru resigned and fled to Japan. Thereafter Peru reverted to democratic system.
2000.12.1 Fox, leader of the Mexican National Action Party, succeeded as President, thus ending the prolonged rule of the Institutional Revolutionary Party.
2000.12.12 The United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime was signed.

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