||12 tribes in the region of Riff in the northern part of Spanish Morocco rose against Spanish
rule. On 1923.2.1 they founded the Federal Republic of the Tribes of the Rif. On
1926.5.27 the rebellion was jointly suppressed by France and Spain.
||Russia induced the Mongolian People's Party to launch a revolution in Outer
Mongolia and declared the independence of Mongolia from China again. The People's Party carried
out one-party rule.
||Reza Khan, Vizier of Persia, seized power in a coup. In March of the same year,
Persia nullified the Anglo-Iranian Agreement and freed Persia from the status of
semi-colony. In May the British army withdrew from Persia. In June the USSR army also withdrew
||The centrist socialists of various countries held a conference in Vienna and founded the
International Working Union of Socialist Parties (commonly called the Second and a Half
||Russia toppled Georgia (Government of the Social Democratic Worker's Party) and installed
Georgia (Soviet Government).
||The Russian Government launched the New Economic Policy, which reinstalled some
elements of private economy and free trade with a view to reviving the economy.
||Russia and Poland signed the Treaty of Riga, thereby ending the Soviet-Polish War.
Western Ukraine and Western Belarus came under Polish rule.
||Britain installed Prince Abdullah I of Hejaz as Amir of Transjordan and established the
Amirate of Transjordan to govern the eastern part of Palestine.
||Sun Yixian became the Extraordinary President of China (Military Government for Constitution
||Ukraine (Soviet Government) annihilated Ukraine (Rada Government).
||Czechoslovakia, Serbia and Romania formed the "Little Entente" to jointly protect
their interests under the Versailles System.
||The Communist Party of China was founded.
||Nine countries held the Washington Conference to rearrange the powers' spheres of
interest in the Pacific region. On .2.6 of the next year the powers concluded the Nine-
Power Treaties, which recognized the sovereignty and independence of China and
reiterated the Open Door Policy. On the same day, Britain, USA, Italy, France and Japan signed
the Five-Power Treaty, which stipulated the ratios of the naval armaments of the
five countries. USA gained an advantageous position in the Pacific region. The Washington
System was thus formed.
||Britain and Ireland signed the Anglo-Irish Treaty, by which the southern part
of Ireland was to gain dominion status while the northern part remained the status quo. On .12.6
of the next year, Ireland was formally divided into the southern and northern parts: the 26
counties in Southern Ireland became a British dominion, while the 6 counties in Northern Ireland
remained under British rule and exercised self-rule.
||Zogu seized power in Albania and carried out dictatorial rule.
||Britain proclaimed end of the protectorate of Egypt, which gained independence nominally, but
was still under British control.
||Russia united three of its vassal states (Georgia, Azerbaijan and Armenia) to form the
Transcaucasian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic.
||The Zhili Clique and Fengtian Clique warlords of China entered into the First Zhili-
Fengtian War. After the defeat of the Fengtian Clique, the Beiyang Government was under the
complete control of the Zhili Clique.
||Chen Jiongming, a Guangdong warlord of China, staged a coup. Sun Yixian was forced to flee to
Shanghai. The Second Constitution Protection Movement failed.
||France reunited Aleppo and Damascus as the Syrian Regime.
||The German colony of Kamerun was paritioned into the eastern and western parts, which became
a French and a British mandate, respectively (called French Cameroons and British
Cameroons). The German colony of Togoland was paritioned into the eastern and western parts,
which became a French and a British mandate, respectively (called French Togo and
British Togoland). German East Africa became a British mandate and was renamed
Tanganyika. Ruanda and Urundi became Belgian mandates and were united into one unit
||The Osmanli Provisional Government expelled all the Greek armies from Turkey. On .10.11 of
the same year the Provisional Government signed the Convention of Mudania with
the Allies and ended the Second Greco-Turkish War.
||Russia expelled the Japanese invaders from the Far Eastern region, thus ending the Russian
Civil War. On .11.15 of the same year Russia annexed the Far Eastern Republic.
|Mussolini, head of the Italian National Fascist Party, launched the
"March on Rome" and occupied Rome on ..28. On ..31 Mussolini was appointed as Prime
Minister. On .11.25 he was granted dictatorial power and carried out fascist rule in the whole
||The Osmanli Provisional Government abolished the monarchical system and established the
Turkish Regime. The Osmanli Regime collapsed.
||Russia, Ukraine, Byelorussia and Transcaucasus united to form the Union of Soviet
Socialist Republics (USSR for short), which was under the one-party rule of the Russian
||Britain recognized the independence of Nepal.
Lukacs, a Hungarian Communist, published History and Class Consciousness, which
marked the birth of the Western Marxism (also called the Neo-Marxism).
||The Chinese Nationalist Party defeated Chen Jiongming, the warlord in Guangdong, and
reoccupied Guangzhou. On .3.2 of the same year, Sun Yixian reestablished the Military Government
for Constitution Protection and resumed the position of Generalissimo.
||As Germany delayed paying the reparations, France and Belgium despatched armies to occupy the
Ruhr mining districts (the Ruhr Crisis). On ..19 of the same month the German Government
launched a resistance movement to resist the occupation armies. On .9.27 Germany stopped the
resistance movement, thus ending the Ruhr Crisis. On .10.23 Thalmann, leader of the German
Communists, started the Workers' Uprising in Hamburg, but failed on..25. On .11.8
Hitler, leader of the National Socialist German Workers' Party (commonly known as the Nazi
Party), plotted the Beer Hall Putsch, but was suppressed on ..11.
||Lithuania annexed Memel. On .3.15 of the same year Lithuania renamed the district as
||Cao Kun, head of the Zhili Clique warlords of China, was elected President by
bribery. He ascended to the presidency on .10.10 of the same year.
||Tsankov, head of the Bulgarian ultra-rightists, seized power in a coup. On .9.23 of
the same year, Georgi Mihailov Dimitrov, leader of the Communist Party, launched the
"September Uprising of Bulgaria" and set up the Supreme Military Revolution Committee. The
uprising was suppressed by the Bulgarian Government on ..29.
||Turkey signed the Treaty of Lausanne with the Allies whereby Turkey gave up
its territories outside Asia Minor but regained Eastern Thrace in return. Turkey freed itself of
the status of semi-colony. An International Straits Commission was set up to administer the
Black Sea straits.
||de Rivera, a Spanish military officer, seized power in a coup and established a
||The Second International and the Second and a Half International held a conference in
Hamburg, where they merged to form the Labour and Socialist International.
||The Greek army overhtrew King Georgios II. The Danish Dynasty collapsed. On .3.16 of the next
year the Second Greek Republic was established.
||The Friends of Constitutional Government, Association for Constitutional Politics and the
Reform Club of Japan formed the "Three Pro-Constitution Factions". They launched the Second
Constitution Protection Movement and requested for constitutional reform. In May of the same
year, the three factions won the parliamentary elections. On .6.11 Kato Takaaki became the Prime
Minister and formed the Cabinet of the Three Pro-Constitution Factions. Beginning of the
Period of Party Cabinets.
|Upon death of Lenin, Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of USSR,
Stalin became the General Secretary of the Communist Party. A power struggle ensued
between Stalin and Trotsky.
||The Chinese Nationalist Party adopted the policy of cooperating with USSR and the Communist
Party of China in the struggle against the warlords.
||MacDonald, leader of the British Labour Party, succeeded as Prime Minister. Since
then the Labour Party replaced the Liberal Party as one of the main ruling parties (the other
being the Conservative Party) of Britain.
||An expert committee of the Allies proposed the "Dawes Plan" to help Germany pay the
reparations. On .7.16 of the same year, the Allies ratified the Dawes Plan. On .9.1 the French
and Belgian armies withdrew from Ruhr.
||In a revolution that broke out in Albania, the revolutionaries overthrew the dictator Zogu
and established a democratic government. In December of the same year, Zogu seized power again
and resumed dictatorial power.
||The Socialist Party and Liberal Party of Italy formed the Aventine Group in
opposition to the Fascist Party. In 1926.11 the Government promulgated a law prohibiting all
||Lopes, a military officer of Sao Paulo, Brazil, revoited. On .10.28 Prestes, head of the
tenentes (lieutenants), started an insurrection in Rio Grande do Sul and formed the Prestes
Column. In 1925.3 the two groups of rebels joined forces and started a long campaign throughtout
the country (the Long March of the Prestes Column). In 1927.2 the rebels were driven out
of the country by the Brazilian army.
||The Fengtian Clique and Anhui Clique warlords of China united against the Zhili Clique and
led to the Second Zhili-Fengtian War. On .10.23 Feng Yuxiang, a general of the Zhili
Clique, staged the Beijing Coup. He organised the Nationalist Army and imprisoned
President Cao Kun, who resigned on .11.2. On .11.24 the Nationalist Army united with the Fengtian
Clique and established the Provisional Consulate, with Duan Qirui being the Provisional Consul.
||USSR reorganised the administrative division in Central Asia and established the Turkmen
Soviet Socialist Republic in the southwestern part of Central Asia.
||Choibalsan assumed the leading role of the Mongolian People's Party and started his
||The National Revolutionary Party of Mexico started its prolonged rule.
||USSR established the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic in the central part of
||Atrash Sultan, head of the Druzes in Syria, started the Druze Rebellion against
French rule. In September of the same year Atrash Sultan set up a Rebellious Government in
conjunction with the People's Party. In 1926.4 France toppled the Rebellious Government. The
rebellion was finally crushed in 1927.
||The Conservative Party and Liberal Party of Nicaragua concluded an agreement by which the two
parties formed a coalition government to share powers. Early next year the coalition government
was overthrown by military officers of the Conservative Party.
||Sun Yixian died. Thereafter the Nationalist Party split into the leftist (headed by Wang
Ching-wei), centrist (headed by Chiang Kai-shek) and rightist (headed by Hu Hanmin) factions. On
.7.1 of the same year, China (Military Government for Constitution Protection) was reorganised as
China (Nationalist Government).
||Turkmen and Uzbek were incorporated into USSR.
||Machado succeeded as President of Cuba and carried out dictatorial rule.
||The British police in Shanghai foreign concession suppressed the mass movement ("May 30th
Massacre") and led to the anti-imperialist "May 30th Movement" throughout the
||The Ecuadorian military officers staged a coup to overthrow the plutocrats of the Commercial
and Agricultural Bank.
||Svalbard Archipelago (also called Spitzbergen Archipelago) became a Norwegian dependency.
||The Locarno Conference was convened to discuss the security issue of the
neighbouring countries of Germany. On .12.1 of the same year, the countries signed the
Locarno Treaties, which provided that any border disputes between Germany and its
neighbours were to be settled by arbitration.
||Reza Khan, the Persian Vizier, overthrew the Qajar Dynasty. He crowned himself and
established Persia (Pehlevi Dynasty).
||Guo Songling, a general of the Fengtian Clique warlords of China, united with Feng Yuxiang,
head of the Nationalist Army, in opposition to Zhang Zuolin, head of the Fengtian Clique. He
reorganised his army as the Northeastern Nationalist Army. The Anti-Fengtian War broke
out. In December of the same year, Guo Songling was defeated and killed.
||The Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik) held a conference on which it was decided that the
party's name shall be changed to the All-Union Communist Party (Bolshevik). On the
conference Stalin destroyed Trotsky's influence and gained supreme power.
||Najd overthrew Hejaz (Hashimite Dynasty). On .1.8 of the next year, King Abdul-Aziz II of
Najd assumed the title of King of Hejaz concurrently and established Hejaz (Saudi Dynasty)
||Zhang Zuolin, head of the Fengtian Clique warlords of China, united with the Zhili
Clique against the Nationalist Army, who were forced to retreat from Beijing. Provisional Consul
Duan Qirui was forced to step down. The Anti-Fengtian War thus came to an end. In June of the
same year Zhang Zuolin controlled the Beiyang Government. On 1927.6.18 Zhang Zuolin set up a
military government and made himself Generalissimo.
||Pilsudski, former Head of State of Poland, staged the May Coup of Poland
and seized power. He then carried out dictatorial rule.
||da Costa and Carmona, Portuguese military officers, seized power in a coup.
On the next day, the First Republic of Portugal came to an end and the Second Portuguese
Republic began. Since then Portugal was under prolonged military dictatorship.
||Britain, Turkey and Iraq signed the Treaty of Mosul, by which the majority of
Mosul was given to Iraq. The Kurdistan region originally under Osmanli rule was thus divided into
three parts: Southern Kurdistan (including Mosul) belonged to Iraq, Western Kurdistan belonged to
Syria and Northern Kurdistan belonged to Turkey (Eastern Kurdistan remained under Persian rule).
||China (Nationalist Government) launched the Northern Expedition.
||Present-day Equatorial Guinea became a Spanish colony named Spanish Guinea.
||France reorganised the State of Great Lebanon as the Republic of Lebanon.
||The Qasimi Regime was renamed the Yemeni Regime ([Northern] Yemen).
||Trotsky was expelled from the All-Union Communist Party (Bolshevik). In 1929.1 Trotsky was
expelled from USSR. Later there emerged a Trotskyist Faction within the international
|Supported by USA, Diaz, leader of the Nicaraguan Conservative Party, became the
President. The Liberal Party rose against the Conservative Party and a civil war broke out in
Nicaragua. In December USA despatched a troop to intervene in the civil war. Sandino
launched a guerillar warfare against USA (the Sandino Movement) In May of the next year
the Liberal Party compromised with USA and ended the war. But Sandino continued his resistance
||The Communist Party of Indonesia started a revolt in Dutch East Indies (1926 National
Revolt of Indonesia, which was suppressed by the Dutch Colonial Government in January of the
||Smetona, former President of Lithuania and leader of the Nationalist Union, staged
a coup in conjunction with the Christian-Democratic Party and seized power. On ..19 of the same
month Smetona resumed the presidency and carried out dictatorial rule.
||China (Nationalist Government) moved the capital to Wuhan. On .4.13 of the same year, Chiang
Kai-shek purged the Communists within the Nationalist Party in Shanghai ("April 12th Purge"
). On ..18 of the same month, Chiang Kai-shek set up another Nationalist Government in
Nanjing in opposition to the Nationalist Government in Wuhan. On .7.15 the Central Committee of
the Nationalist Party in Wuhan also purged the Communists ("July 15th Purge"). On .9.15
the two Nationalist Governments in Nanjing and Wuhan were reunified. Nanjing was chosen as the
||Britain was renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
||Britain signed the Treaty of Jedda with Najd by which Britain recognized the
indepedence of the territories under the rule of the al-Saud Family (including Najd and Hejaz).
Najd and Hejaz were thus freed from the status of semi-colony.
||The Chinese Communists started an uprising in Nanchang against the Nationalist Government,
which marked the beginning of the First Nationalist-Communist Civil War. Subsequently,
the Communists also started unsuccessful uprisings in several cities in southern China.
Thereafter the Communists turned to the rural areas as their revolutionary bases, where they
established a number of soviet governments.
|Tafari seized control of the Ethiopian royal court. On 1930.4.3 Tafari
succeeded as Emperor of Ethiopia and was renamed Haile Selassie. On .7.16 he granted a
Constitution and adopted a constitutional form of government.
||Salazar seized control of the Portuguese Government. In 1930.7 he formed the
National Union. One-party rule of the National Union started in 1933.2.
||China (Nationalist Government) attacked Beijing. Generalissimo Zhang Zuolin fled and the
Beiyang Government collapsed. On .10.3 of the same year, the Nationalist Government proclaimed
the beginning of the one-party rule of the Nationalist Party. On .10.8 Chiang Kai-shek became the
Chairman of the National Government. On .12.29 Zhang Xueliang, a warlord in northeastern China,
submitted to the authority of the Nationalist Government, thus completing the unification of
China. But the Nationalist Revolutionary Army split into cliques headed by Chiang Kai-shek,
Li Zongren (Guangxi Clique), Yen Tsi-shan, Feng Yuxiang and Zhang Xueliang, the so-called "New
||A number of countries signed the Kellogg-Briand Pact in Paris whereby they
were committed to abandoning war and settling international disputes by peaceful means.
||USSR implemented the first Five-Year Plan, which marked the beginning of planned
economy and extensive socialist policies within the country.
||Bacha-i-Saqqo, Chief of an Afghan tribe, rose against the Barakzai Dynasty. On .1.17
of the next year, he overthrew the Barakzai Dynasty. He made himself Amir and was renamed
Habibullah Ghazi. On .10.17 Mohammad Nadir established Afghanistan (Zahir Dynasty). On
.11.1 Mohammad Nadir overthrew Habibullah Ghazi.
||Italy annihilated the Sanusi Order Regime and conquered Cyrenaica.
||King Aleksandar of Serbs-Croats-Slovenes staged a coup. By abrogating the
Constitution, he resumed dictatorial power. On .10.3 of the same year he changed the name of the
country to the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.
||The Roman Papacy and Italy concluded the Lateran Treaties, by which Italy
recognized the suzerainty of the Roman Papacy over Vatican City. On .6.7 of the same year,
Vatican City gained independent status and established the Vatican City State.
||Outbreak of the Chiang-Guangxi War between Chiang Kai-shek, Chairman of the Chinese
Nationalist Government and the Guangxi Clique warlords. In April of the same year, the Guangxi
Clique warlords were defeated.
||The island of Jan Mayen became a Norwegian dependency.
||An expert committee on the German reparations problem proposed the "Young Plan" to
replace the Dawes Plan, which was ratified by the Allies on .8.6 of the same year.
||The first television broadcast in history took place in Britain.
||USSR separated Tajik from Uzbek and established the Tazik Soviet Socialist Republic.
On .12.5 of the same year Tajik was incorporated into USSR.
||The stock market crash in New York, USA led to economic crisis, culminating in the Great
Depression of the capitalist world.
||A Republican Revolution broke out in Spain. On ..30 the dictator de Rivera was
forced to step down. When King Alfonso XIII was forced to abdicate on 1931.4.14, the Bourbon
Dynasty was supplanted by the Second Spanish Republic.
||The imperialist powers held the London Naval Conference, on which they reached
agreement on the reduction and limitation of the powers' naval armaments.
||Nguyen Thai Hoc and Nguyen Khac Nhu, leaders of the Vietnames Nationalist Party, started the
Yen Bai Uprising against French rule. The uprising was suppressed on ..15 of the same
||The Guangxi Clique warlords, Yen Tsi-shan and Feng Yuxiang united to oppose Chiang Kai-shek.
In April of the same year, the Henan War broke out between Chiang Kai-shek and the
Anti-Chiang factions. In November Chiang Kai-shek defeated his opponents.
||Rafael Leonida Trujillo, a military officer of the Dominican Republic, seized power
in a coup and established the dictatorship of the Trujillo Family.
||To oppose a colonial act on the sale of salt, Gandhi launched the "Salt March",
which marked the beginning of the Second Non-Cooperation Movement. On .5.5 of the same
year, the Colonial Government suppressed the movement. On 1931.5.4 Gandhi concluded the Delhi
Pact with the Colonial Government and halted the Non-Cooperation Movement.
||All the Allied armies withdrew from Rhineland.
||Cerro, a Peruvian military officer, staged a coup and overthrew President Leguia.
||The Vietnamese Communist Party started uprisings in the two provinces of Nghe An and Ha Tinh,
where they set up soviet governments of workers and peasants (Nghe An-Ha Tinh Soviet Movement
. On ..12 of the same month the French Colonial Government suppressed the uprisings. On ..10
the Vietnamese Communist Party was renamed the Indochinese Communist Party.
||de Uriburu, an Argentine military officer, staged a coup and toppled the Government
of the Radical Civic Union.
|Vargas, Governor of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, started a revolt (
Vargas Revolution) and overthrew the First Republic of Brazil on ..24 of the same month.
Brazil then entered the Period of the "Transitional Republic". On .11.3 Vargas made
himself President and carried out dictatorial rule.
||Saya San, a Burmese, rose against British rule and established the Burmese Kingdom.
On 1931.8.2 Saya San was defeated and arrested. In 1933 the British Colonial Government crushed
||Ubico, a Guatemalan military officer, seized power in a coup and established a
||The Anti-Chiang factions within the Chinese Nationalist Party set up a Nationalist Government
in Guangzhou in opposition to the Nanjing Nationalist Government. Wang Ching-wei was chosen as
the Chairman. On .12.15 of the same year, Chiang Kai-shek resigned as Chairman of the Nationalist
Government. On 1932.1.1 the position was succeeded by Lin Sen. But real power was still held by
Chiang Kai-shek. On .1.5 the Guangzhou Nationalist Government was dissolved.
||Japan invaded northeastern China (the "September 18th Incident", also called the
Shenyang Incident). On .2.5 of the next year, the Japanese army captured Harbin and occupied
||Britain formed the Pound Sterling Bloc with the member states of the British
Colonial Empire and other countries closely associated with Britain. France and USA also formed
the US Dollar Bloc and the Gold Bloc in 1933 and 1934, respectively. A
situation of competition between the three currency blocs thus emerged.
||The Chinese Communist Party established China (Soviet Government) in Jiangsu to
direct the local soviet governments. On .12.16 of the same year, the Nationalist Government
started to attack the Soviet Government.
||Martinez seized power in a coup and carried out dictatorial rule.
||Britain passed the Statute of Westminster, which recognized the independent
status of its dominions (except for Newfoundland). The British Colonial Empire was thus formally
transformed to the British Commonwealth of Nations (also called the Commonwealth).
Ireland, South Africa, Canada, Australia and New Zealand formally gained independence.
||Kim Il Song, a Korean Communist, started a guerilla warfare against Japanese
||The First National Uprising of el Salvador agaisnt President Martinez broke out.
Martinez crushed the uprising.
||Stimson, Secretary of State of USA, stated that USA would not recognize Japanese invasion of
northeastern China ("Stimson Doctrine"), but the statement could not halt the invasion.
||The Japanese army attacked Shanghai of China ("January 28th Incident", also called
Shanghai Incident). On .5.5 of the same year China concluded the Shanghai Armistice, by
which the Japanese army withdrew from the occupied territories.
||The Geneva Disarmament Conference was convened. Due to disagreement among the
participating countries, no convention was made.
||Japan established the Manchurian Regime in northeastern China as its puppet state. On ..9 Japan installed
Puyi, the former Qing Emperor, as the Consul of Manchuria and Concordia Association as the single ruling
party of Manchuria. On 1934.3.1 Puyi changed his title to Emperor of Manchuria.
||The National Republican Party of Costa Rica came to power and carried out leftist
||A Japanese ultrarightist group assassinted Prime Miniter Inukai Tsuyoshi in an attempt to
seize power, but was suppressed ("May 15th Incident"). On ..26 of the same month,
Saito Makoto succeeded as Prime Minister and formed a non-partisan cabinet, which marked the
end of the Period of Party Cabinet of Japan.
||To contend for the northern Chaco region, Bolivia and Paraguay entered into the Chaco War
(also called Gran Chaco War). On 1935.6.12 the war ended. On 1938.7.21 the two countries
concluded the Buenos Aires Peace Treaty, by which Paraguay acquired the most territories
of northern Chaco.
||Davila and Grove, leftist military officers of Chile, staged a coup and established the
Socialist Republic of Chile, which was toppled by the rightist military men.
||The People's Party of Siam seized power in a coup (the 1932 Revolution of Siam
) and established a Military Government. On ..27 of the same month King Prajadhipok (Rama
VII) was forced to sign the Provisional Constitution and adopted a constitutional form of
||The Constitutionalists composed of the Brazilian agricultural plutocrats rebelled against
President Vargas (the Constitutionalist War). On .10.2 of the same year the
||The British Commonwealth held the Imperial Economic Conference in Ottawa of Canada and
decided to launch the Imperial Preference System, a system of trade protectionism.
||The anti-war activists of various countries held the International Anti-War Congress
in Amsterdam, where they set up the International Anti-War Committee.
||Abdul-Aziz II, Kings of Najd and Hejaz, united the two countries as the Kingdom of Saudi
||The Social Democratic Workers' Party of Sweden came to power. During their rule the
Party established the welfare state system which became the model of the Western welfare
||Britain declared that Iraq ceased to be a British mandate. But Iraq remained under British
||A Constitution was granted in Maldives, which then adopted a constitutional form of
||Somoza Garcia, a Nicaraguan military officer, seized control of the government. Since then,
Nicaragua was under the dictatorship of the Somoza Family. In the same month the USA
army withdrew from Nicaragua.
|Hitler, leader of the National Socialist German Workers' Party,
succeeded as Chancellor, which marked the end of the Period of the Weimar Republic and the
beginning of the Third Reich Period. On .7.14 of the same year, the National Socialist
German Workers' Party established one-party fascist rule in Germany.
||President Terra of Uruguay staged a self-coup and carried out dictatorial rule.
Democracy was not restored until 1938.
||Japan occupied Rehe of China. On .5.31 of the same year, China and Japan concluded the
Tanggu Truce, by which China recognized Japan's occupation of northeastern China and
Rehe. Chahar and northern Hebei were designated as a demilitarized zone.
|Franklin Roosevelt became USA President. During his presidency he adopted
the Keynesian Theory and carried out the "New Deal" to revive the economy. In foreign
affairs he adopted the "Good Neighbour Policy" to improve the relationship between USA and the
Latin American countries.
||King Prajadhipok of Siam declared suspension of the constitutional government. On .6.20 of
the same year, Phraya Phahon, a a military officer of the People's Party, staged the "June
20th Coup and restored the constitutional government.
||Sheng Shicai, a miliatry officer of Xinjiang, China, seized power in Xinjiang.
During his rule he adopted the pro-USSR policy and unified Xinjiang making use of the USSR army.
Xinjiang thus became a sphere of influence of USSR.
||The nations in the world held the International Economic Conference in London to
discuss the international agreement on the stablization of currencies. On .7.27 the Conference
was adjourned without success.
||A revolution broke out in Cuba. President Machado was overthrown. After a coup staged by
Batista, a military officer, on .9.5 of the same year, Grau San Martin
succeeded as President. After Batista forced Grau San Martin to resign on .1.15 of the next year,
Batista held real power and carried out dictatorial rule.
||Li Jishen and Cai Tingkai, military officers of the Chinese 19th Route Army, rebelled in
Fujian. On ..22 of the same month they set up the Fujian People's Government. On .1.21
of the next year the rebellion was crushed by the Nationalist Government.
||Hoja Niyaz Hajji, head of the Uygurs in Xinjiang, China, started to rule Xinjiang and founded
the Islamic Republic of East Turkestan, which was toppled by Ma Zhongying, a warlord in
Xinjiang, in February of next year.
||Dollfuss, Chancellor of Austria and leader of the Fatherland Front, proclaimed
one-party rule. On .7.25 of the same year, Germany instigated a Nazi Coup staged by the
National Socialist German Workers' Party of Austria. Dollfuss was killed. But the coup was soon
||Britain abrogated the dominion status of Newfoundland because of the corruption and
maladministration of the Newfoundland Government. Newfoundland reverted to the status of a
British crown colony.
||Sandino concluded peace with the Nicaraguan Government and ceased the guerilla warfare.
On ..21 of the same month USA induced President Somoza Garcia of Nicaragua to assassinate Sandino.
||Greece, Turkey, Romania and Yugoslavia Balkan Pact and formed the Balkan Entente
||Pats, State Elder of Estonia, staged a self-coup and carried out dictatorial rule.
||Hungary, Italy and Austria signed the Rome Protocols and formed a Bloc of Danube
States in opposition to the Little Entente.
||Premier Karlis Ulmanis of Latvia staged a self-coup and carried out dictatorial rule.
||The Link party of Bulgaria seized power in a coup and established one-party rule.
||Hitler arrested and killed Roehm, head of the Storm Troops, the armed forces of the National
Socialist Workers' Party and purged the Storm Troops (Roehm Incident). Thereafter the
Schutzstaffel replaced the Storm Troops as the main armed forces of the National
Socialist Workers' Party
|Being besieged by the Nationalist Government, China (Soviet Government) was
compelled to make a breakthrough and started the Chinese Communist Long March. In the
Zunyi Conference held in January of the next year, Mao Zedong established his leadership
role within the Party.
||In a plebiscite held in Saarland, the voters decided that Saarland was to revert to Germany.
On .3.1 of the same year, the League of Nations returned Saarland to Germany.
||Persia was renamed the Kingdom of Iran.
||In an attempt to acquire northern China, Japan induced five provinces in northern China
(Hebei, Chahar, Suiyuan, Shandong and Shanxi) to launch an autonomous campaign (Northern
China Incident). On .11.25 of the same year, Japan induced Yin Rugeng to establish the
East Hebei Anti-Communist Autonomous Government as a puppet government of Japan. On
.12.9 the "December 9th Movement" against Japanese invasion broke out in Beiping.
Thereafter the anti-Japanese movement spread throughout China.
||Italy started the Third Italo-Ehtiopian War and invaded Ethiopia. On 1936.5.2
Ethiopia (Solomonic Dynasty) was overthrown. On ..9 King Vittorio-Emanuele III of Italy assumed
the title of Emperor of Ethiopia and established Ethiopia (Savoy Dynasty).
||Kondilis, former Premier of Greece, staged a coup and overthrew the Second Republic.
Kondilis made himself Regent and Prime Minister and restored Greece (Danish Dynasty). On .11.4 of
the same year Georgios II, the former King, was restored to the throne.
||Philippines became a commonwealth of USA and established self-rule.
||The Alliance of National Liberation of Brazil started a revolt in Rio Grande do Norte against
President Vargas and established a People's Revolutionary Government ("November Revolution of
1935"). On ..27 of the same month the revolt was crushed by the Brazilian Government.
||The leftist parties of Spain formed the Popular Front in opposition to the rightist
groups. On .2.19 of the same year, the Popular Front came to power. On .7.18 Franco, a
rightist military officer, rebelled against the Government of the Second Republic. The
Spanish Civil War broke out. On .7.23 Franco established Spain (Fascist Government)
. Later Germany and Italy dispatched armed forces to support the rightists, while USSR and
the anti-Fascist strength in Europe formed the International Column to support the leftists. On
.9.9 the countries concerned concluded an international convention by which the signatories
promised not to intevene in the Spanish Civil War.
||The Paraguayan military forces staged the February Revolution of Paraguay and
toppled the Government of the Liberal Party. On ..20 of the same month, Franco succeeded as
President. In November he formed the Revolutionary National Union (commonly known as the
February Revolutionary Party). After Franco was overthrown by the rightist military men on
1937.8.15, the Liberal Party returned to power.
||The Imperial Way Faction of the Japanese military forces staged a coup in an attempt to
overthrow the Control Group, another faction of the military forces ("February 26th Incident"
. The coup failed on ..29 of the same month. Since then the Japanese army was controlled by
the Control Group. On .3.9 Hirota Koki succeeded as Prime Minister and formed a cabinet
which included members of the active army. Thereafter militarism started to gain ground in Japan.
||Germany dispatched a troop to reoccupy Rhineland.
||Saudi Arabia and Iraq concluded the Treaty of Non-Agression and Arab Brotherliness
and launched the Pan-Arab Movement.
||Ioannis Metaxas became Prime Minister of Greece. After I. Metaxas staged a coup on
.8.4 of the same year, he dissolved the Parliament and carried out dictatorial rule.
||Italy united Ethiopia, Eritrea and Somalia as Italian East Africa.
||The signatories of the Treaty of Lausanne held a conference in Montreux to discuss the
issue of the Black Sea straits. With the signing of the Montreux Convention on
.7.20, the International Straits Commission was dissolved and Turkey resumed control of the Black
||Japan induced Prince Demchugdongrub of Inner Mongolia to establish the Mongolian Military
Government (commonly called the Mengjiang Government) as its puppet government. On
1937.11.22 the Mongolian Military Government was reorganised as the Inner Mongolian
Autonomous Government. In 1939.9 the Government was further reorganised as the Mongolian
United Autonomous Government.
||Britain and Egypt concluded the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty, by which Britain was
to wtihdraw most of its armed forces, but Egypt continued to be under British control.
||The anti-war activists in the world held the World Peace Congress in Brussels to
promote the world peace movement.
||The Chinese Communists halted the Long March upon arrival in Gansu. On .1.1 of the next year,
China (Soviet Government) moved the capital to Yan'an of Shaanxi.
||Germany and Italy concluded a pact and formed the Berlin-Rome Axix. On .11.25 of the
same year, Germany and Japan concluded the Anti-COMINTERN Pact. On 1937.11.6
Italy joined the Pact. Germany, Italy and Japan thus formed the Axis Powers bloc.
||France abandoned the gold standard and the Gold Bloc disintegrated. Later France formed the
Franc Bloc with its colonies to compete with the Pound Sterling Bloc and the US Dollar
||Zhang Xueliang and Yang Hucheng, twp Chinese military officers, took Chiang Kai-shek captive
in Xi'an and forced Chiang to agree to stop fighting against the Communists to pave the way for a
national united front against Japanese aggression (Xi'an Incident). On ..25 of the same
month Zhang Xueliang released Chiang Kai-shek. But he was soon put under house arrest by Chiang.
||Chamberlain became Prime Minister of Britain. During his tenure he adopted the
Appeasement Policy towards the Fascist regimes.
||Japan launched an offensive ("July 7th Lugouqiao Incident") and started an all-out
invasion of China. The Second Sino-Japanese War broke out. On .8.13 Japan launched a
campaign against Shanghai ("August 13th Incident"). On .9.22 the Communists declared
their submission to the authority of the Nationalist Government and the dissolution of the Soviet
Government. On ..23 Chiang Kai-shek proclaimed recognition of the legal status of the Communist
Party, which marked the formation of the united front against Japanese aggression and the end of
the one-party rule of the Nationalist Party. On .12.13 the Japanese troops captured Nanjing, the
capital of China and carried out the Nanjing Massacre. On ..14 Japan installed a
Provisional Government in Beiping to govern northern China. On 1938.3.27 another Reformed
Government was installed in Nanjing to govern eastern China.
||Turkey, Iraq, Iran and Afghanistan concluded the Saadabad Pact. When the Pact took
effect in June of next year, the Oriental Entente came into being.
||The Radical Civic Union of Argentina returned to power.
||Germany directed Arthur Seyss-Inquart, head of the Austrian National Socialist
Workers' Party to seize power. Germany annexed Austria on the next day.
||The Trotskyist groups of various countries formed the Fourth International.
||France separated Alexandretta from Syria and established the State of Hatay. On
.7.23 of the next year Turkey annexed Hatay.
||Germany requested Czechoslovakia to grant autonomous rights to Sudetenland and led to the
September Crisis. On .10.29 Britain, France, Germany and Italy held the Munich
Conference, on which Britain and France sacrificed the interests of Czechoslovakia. On ..30 the
four powers concluded the Munich Agreement. On .10.1 Czechoslovakia ceded
Sudetenland to Germany. On ..2 Czechoslovakia ceded Teschen to Poland.
||Germany induced Slovakia under Czechoslovakia to establish an autonomous government.
||Germany induced Ruthenia under Czechoslovakia (now under Ukraine) to establish an
autonomous government. On ..28 of the same month Ruthenia was renamed Carpathian-Ukraine. On
.11.2 Germany and Italy carried out the First Vienna Arbitration and decided that the
southern part of Carpathian-Ukraine should belong to Hungary.
||Germany induced Carpathian-Ukraine to secede from Czechoslovakia and established the
Carpathian-Ukraine Regime. On ..15 of the same month, Germany occupied Czechoslovakia and
partitioned it into the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia and the Slovak Regime
(the Prague Incident).
||Hungary annexed Carpathian-Ukraine.
||Britain and France formed a mutual assistance military alliance against the Axis Powers. The
Allied Powers bloc was thus reestablished.
||Germany annexed Klaipeda (i.e. Memel) under Lithuania.
||Spain (Fascist Government) annihilated the Second Republic and established the fascist rule
of the Phalange Party in the whole country.
||Italy invaded Albania and deposed Zogu on ..8 of the same month. On ..16 King Vittorio-
Emanuele III of Italy assumed the title of King of Albania and established Albania (Savoy
||Germany and Italy signed an agreement which came to be known as the "Pact of Steel"
||Siam was renamed the Kingdom of Thailand.
||Germany and USSR signed the German-Russian Non-Aggression Pact and delineated
their spheres of influence in northeastern Europe.
||Germany launched the Blitzkrieg and invaded Poland and annexed Danzig. The
Second World War broke out. The War subsequently developed into a war between the Axis Powers
and the Allied Powers.
||Britain and France declared war on Germany without any military operation (the "Strange War").
||USSR invaded Poland and occupied Western Ukraine and Western Byelorussia.
||Germany and USSR partitioned the territories of Poland. On ..30 of the same month Poland was
subjugated. Part of the Government members fled overseas and formed a Government-in-Exile in
||Finland and USSR entered into the Soviet-Finnish War(also called the "Winter War").
On .3.12 of the next year the two countries signed the Treaty of Moscow, by which
Finland ceded Karelia to USSR.
||Japan united the two puppet governments in Beiping and Nanjing as the Nationalist Government
and installed Wang Ching-wei as the President of the Executive Yuan. On .11.28 of the same year,
Wang Ching-wei became the Chairman of the Government concurrently.
||The German armies invaded Denmark. Denmark surrendered and bacame a German protectorate.
The German armies invaded Norway and installed Quisling as head of a puppet government.
On .6.7 of the same year Norway (Oldenburg Dynasty) was overthrown.
Iceland suspended its relation with Denmark. On .5.17 of next year Iceland formally declared
independence from Denmark.
||The German armies invaded the Low Countries and conquered Luxembourg.
||The German armies invaded France and started the Battle of France. A large area in
northern France was swiftly occupied.
||Germany conquered the Netherlands.
||Germany conquered Belgium.
||USSR invaded the Baltic states. On .7.21 of the same year, USSR reorganised Lithuania,
Estonia and Latvia as soviet socialist republics.
||The Italian armies intruded into the British dependencies in East Africa from Italian East Africa.
||Petain succeeded as Premier of France. On ..22 of the same month France and Germany
signed the Compiegne Armistice, by which the northwestern part of France was ceded to Germany.
||de Gaulle, a French military officer, proclaimed the formation of the Free
French Forces (renamed the Fighting French Forces on 1942.7) and called on the populace to
resist the invaders. Since then, there appeared anti-Fascist Resistance Movements in
various European countries.
||USSR compelled Romania to cede Bessarabia and northern Bukovina.
||The French Government moved the capital to Vichy (called the Vichy Government by
historians) and governed southern France. The Third French Republic came to an end.
||Lithuania was incorporated into USSR.
||Latvia was incorporated into USSR.
||Estonia was incorporated into USSR.
||Germany launched an extensive air raid offensive against Britain (the Battle of Britain
). From .6.22 of the next year onwards, Germany gradually stopped the air raids.
||Germany carried out the Second Vienna Arbitration and compelled Romania to cede
northern Transylvania to Hungary and southern Dobruja to Bulgaria.
||Antonescu, a Romanian military officer, united with the Iron Guard and
seized power in a coup. Antonescu became the Prime Minister and established one-party Fascist
rule. On .1.23 of the next year, Antonescu purged the Iron Guard and established a personal
||The Italian armies intruded into Egypt from Libya, which marked the beginning of the
North African Campaign. On .2.11 of the next year, Germany dispatched troops to aid the
||The Japanese armies intruded into French Indochina. Thereafter French Indochina became a
condominium of France (Vichy Government) and Japan.
||Germany, Italy and Japan concluded the Three-Power Pact by which the Axis Powers
formally became a military alliance.
||The Japanese ultrarightists formed the Imperial Rule Assistance Association as a
substitute of party politics and a means to carry out Fascist rule.
||Hungary joined the Second World War on the side of the Axis Powers.
||Romania joined the Second World War on the side of the Axis Powers.
||Thailand launched the Thailand-French War and occupied parts of the territories of
Laos and Cambodia. On .3.11 of the next year, France and Thailand signed an agreement by which
France recognized the occupation of the territories.