Also known as the second French and Indian
Wars in America
Not much is
written about this period in American history, so I currently
can't provide you with as much information as I would have
In May 1690, during King
William’s War (Queen Anne's brother in law), William Phipps
of Massachusetts directed a force of eight ships and more than
700 men against a much smaller French contingent at Port
Royal. The fort fell to the English, who contented themselves
with administering a loyalty oath to the area’s inhabitants
before returning home.
In 1702, Europe was again convulsed in war, this time over the
issue of succession to the Spanish throne. In North America,
the fighting involved not only the British and French in the
north, but also the British against the Spanish in the south.
Like the previous conflict
(King William’s War), the French and their Algonquian allies
staged a series of devastating raids in Western New England.
The attack on Deerfield, Massachusetts in early 1704 was
The small community of
Deerfield was located in the remote frontier of northwest
Massachusetts. Settlers there in early 1704 were wary because
a state of war existed between Britain and France; many sought
refuge behind the town’s stockade walls. Nevertheless, few
expected that a major attack would occur during the depths of
On February 29, 1704, a force
of several hundred French soldiers and their Native American
allies staged a surprise attack on the unprepared community.
Defeat was complete and almost immediate. Fifty-six settlers
— men, women and children — were killed in the fighting.
More than 100 of the survivors were rounded up and forced to
begin a march into captivity in Canada. Over the next seven
weeks, 21 prisoners died or were killed on the trail. The
others were held as hostages at various locations throughout
New France and were the subject of intense bargaining between
the two great powers. Repeated efforts were made to induce the
captives into accepting Roman Catholicism. After more than two
and one-half years in captivity, a deal was struck for their
release. Sixty prisoners were returned to Boston in November
1706 amid a great celebration. A handful of the captives
voluntarily remained in Canada with French or native families.
The experience of the Rev. John
Williams family was especially harrowing. Williams, a Harvard
graduate, was a minister and community leader in Deerfield.
Two of his eight children were killed in the initial attack.
One child was away at school, but the other five, along with
both parents, were taken captive for the march northward to
Montreal. Mrs. Williams, weak from recently giving birth, lost
her balance crossing a stream and plunged into the frigid
water. She was unable to keep up with the group, no doubt
suffering from hypothermia, and was killed by a native guard
with a blow to the head with a tomahawk. Williams and the
children completed the trek to Canada where they remained
When the prisoner release was
arranged, daughter Eunice (who was 7 years old at the time of
capture) chose to remain behind despite the pleas of her
father. She later married into a prominent native family, took
the Mohawk name of Kanenstehawi and reared several children.
Williams tried repeatedly over the years to induce his
daughter to return, but she remained with her adoptive family.
On several occasions she made trips to Massachusetts to visit
her siblings and astounded the English colonists there by
always returning to Canada, where she lived to the age of 90.
Williams detailed his ordeal in
a frequently reprinted book, The Redeemed Captive Returning to
The British forces under
Francis Nicholson recommenced a northward push, capturing Port
Royal in French Acadia in 1710. A British naval attack
against Quebec, however, was not successful. Port Royal
changed hands a total of five times in the years before 1710,
at which time the British took final control. Port Royal was
renamed Annapolis Royal in honor of Queen Anne. It served as
the capital of Nova Scotia until the development of Halifax
more than 30 years later.
Hostilities in the south were
highlighted by the British capture of Saint Augustine in
Spanish Florida and by a failed Spanish attack against
Charleston, South Carolina.
The Treaty of Utrecht in 1713
ended the European and North American conflicts. The British
received Acadia (renamed Nova Scotia), Newfoundland and fur
trading posts in the Hudson Bay area. France managed to retain
several islands in the Saint Lawrence River and Cape Breton
Island at the northeastern end of Nova Scotia. The boundaries
of the new British possessions were not spelled out with
precision; warfare between the chief rivals, Britain and
France, would resume in 1744.
majority of the above gleaned from: http://home.u-s-history.com
© 2002 - 2004 Lord Orkney's Regiment
and Marika Cotton
No part may be reproduced
without prior written permission of either the Webmistress or Orkney's Regt or
other copyright holders whose materials appear on these pages. The
opinions contained herein are not necessarily those of the members of Orkneys