Ragas are based on these swaras, with Gamakas. For each raga, there is a particular sequence of swara. Music composed based on a raga uses the same swaras, which is meant for that raga but in different combinations, such as Arohanam, Avarohanam.
AROHANAM- is the ascending order of swaras.
(ie) Sa Ri Ga Ma Pa Dha Ni Sa
AVAROHANAM- is the descending order of swaras.
(ie) Sa Ni Dha Pa Ma Ga Ri Sa
There are two types of ragas. They are Melakartha and Janya.
MELAKARTHA has 72 ragas.
JANYA ragas are Suddha Savery, Suddha Dhanyasi, Karnataka Dhevagandhri.
Thaalam is used to keep the rythm using hand movements(Beats). These hand movements are referred as Thattu, Veechu & Finger count. Aadhi, Roopakam, Misra Chaaphu, Kanda Chaaphu are commonly used Thaalams.