THE HAWKMAN FAQ
Now with Hawkman IV
Some of the answers are kinda long. The quick'n'easy
timetable is near the end. So is the list of
Hawkman continuity glitches.
The latest changes are in green.
HAWKMAN FAQ v. 2.1
with much taken from The Official Hawkman Index #1
and corrections by Tom Galloway (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Last modified 7/5/2001
Q: Who is Hawkman?
A: Be more specific. There have been many Hawkmen.
Q: Okay, who was the first Hawkman?
A: To answer this question, I will quote from the Hawkman Index #1, published by Independent Comics Group, written by Mike Tiefenbacher.
"The original Hawkman series concerned a blond millionaire playboy named Carter Hall, who, having acquired an Egyptian knife, suddenly realized that he was the reincarnation of Prince Khufu, an ancient Egyptian crusader for good who had been murdered, pledging before he died that he and his murderer would meet again in another lifetime and that he would avenge himself. Khufu had had a girlfriend named Shiera, and, sure enough, Shiera Sanders came into Carter's life soon after."
Shiera Sanders, of course, was the reincarnation
of the Ancient Egyptian Shiera. The Hawkman: Year One annual added to the
story in several confusing ways. Khufu was revealed to be prince Khufu
Kha-taar and Shiera was instead called Chay-ara.
JSA Secret Files #2 decides to capitalize "Ara", thus calling her Chay-Ara. Khufu was a hawk avatar (see way way below), having been contacted by Horus, apparently, and given the Night Metal which he and his followers used to create wings and harnesses which enabled them to defy gravity.
In addition, in the Year One Annual, Khufu saved Shiera and killed Hath-Set, the man who would be reborn as Anton Hastor, who, with his dying breath, pronounced a curse which would cause them to be reborn and battle again.
Also, Carter's hair color is highly variable in Hawkworld. It seems that both he and Shiera are addicted to hair dye.
"When a would-be world-conqueror named Anton Hastor appeared, Hall knew the rest of the prophecy was fulfilled and that this was his ancestor's murderer. He donned the head and wings of a hawk in tribute to the Egyptian god Ra, and strapped on a belt made of a discovery of his--a gravity-defying material called 'ninth metal' (later 'nth metal'), a name possibly inspired by the 'eight rays' of Edgar Rice Burroughs' John Carter of Mars stories."
As Greg Morrow aka elmo commented:
"It's ninth metal for a very good reason: the classical era recognized seven metals (gold, silver, copper, tin, lead, iron, and mercury). The ninth metal is thus a classical allusion--a metal beyond that which is known, which fits it precisely. It's a very 30s SF idea, very a propos."
In the post-Disaster, oops, I mean post-Crisis universe, the invention of the metal was due to the aid of Carter's friend Perry Carter, aka Paran Katar, a Thanagarian who came to Earth and managed to dissuade the Thanagarians from conquering the planet in the 1930s/40s. It was mentioned that Carter was never able to make more than the two sets of wings; this is because it was Paran not Carter who was the inventor. This is odd in view of the fact that the Silver Scarab, Carter's son, later creates an anti-gravity suit out of Carter's ninth metal (without having torn apart his parents' wings).
In the post-Zero-Hour universe, the anti-gravity was a discovery that Carter made on his own (no sign of Perry), though not an invention. Carter had merely unearthed Prince Khufu's anti-gravity harness. A dream told him the name of the metal (Night Metal) which he misremembered as Ninth metal. This suggests that Paran Katar was no great inventor. This also seems odd; where did Shiera's wings come from then? Did he just happen to discover another set? Or did Paran give him a pair that he created? And what about the Silver Scarab's outfit?
However, Paran was revealed to be a sorceror as well as a well-educated scientist; sure, this makes sense. There are lots of Thanagarian sorcerors, right? Sigh. Well, I suppose he could have learned sorcery on Earth. Boy, he sure was a busy little bee, wasn't he? He learned that he required great power to make anti-gravity work, even though the Ancient Egyptians made do with a little electricity. To access this power, Paran threw an angel into hell; that is, he took an extra-dimensional being of great power (the so-called Hawkgod, who was responsible for the hawk avatars) and put him into yet another dimension.
With the latest retcons, Carter Halls' history has
changed even more. He did not invent Nth metal. He did not invent Nth metal
with help from alien scientist Paran Katar. He did not invent Nth metal
with the help of alien sorcerer Paran Katar. He did not discover
Nth metal wings, the secrets of which had been given to the Ancient
Egyptians by the god Horus. None of that is true any more. Instead,
Carter Hall's discovery of Thanagarian Nth metal is related to a Thanagarian
ship which crashed on Earth in Ancient Egyptian times. See the timeline
for more details.
To continue about Carter Hall: "As Hawkman, he tracked down his murderer and rescued Shiera from him. Thereafter, utilizing ancient weaponry (his motto being, 'With a weapon of the past I shall defeat an evil of the present'), Hawkman battled crime and evil."
For more information, see http://www.execpc.com/~icicle/HAWKMAN.html
Q: Who were his friends and allies?
A: Shiera Sanders joined him in his battle against crime as Hawkgirl, about two years after his debut in Flash Comics #1, Jan. 1940. Hawkman joined the JSA, and became chairman. He appeared in every Golden Age issue of All-Star Comics, a tradition that Roy Thomas attempted to continue, by having Hawkman appear in every issue of All-Star Squadron, even if only as a flashback or symbolic floating head.
Naturally, he also joined the All-Star Squadron. He and Shiera eventually married. They had one son, Hector Hall, who adopted the guise of the Silver Scarab. Hector joined Infinity Inc., fell in love with Fury (II), turned evil as a result of a curse caused by a new version of Hastor, and was killed. Hector turned up again as Sandman III, taking over the role of the red-and-yellow clad hero. Hector was then killed again, this time by Morpheus. Hector was later reborn as the latest incarnation of Dr. Fate.
Carter and Shiera were the guardians of Northwind. Northwind is the son of a Feitheran woman and a human friend of Carter's. Feithera was a hidden arctic civiliation of bird-people used in a Golden Age story but developed by Roy Thomas in Infinity Inc. for Norda aka Northwind, Norda being a mix of birdman and human. Hector, growing up, was always jealous of Northwind's natural ability to fly. When Hector turned evil, Northwind came into certain magical powers, including the ability to throw bolts of fire; after dealing with the evil Silver Scarab, Northwind returned home to Feithera.
Another character claimed to be Carter Hall Jr and took the name Hawkman; this was an impostor. See below. Also, in the post-Crisis continuity, he has more friends and allies; for more information, see below.
Q: Who were his enemies?
A: His Golden Age opponents were such characters as the Hummingbird, the Raven, and the Ghost, about whom I know nothing, except that the Gentleman Ghost (I) claimed at one point to be the same character as the Ghost who fought the Golden Age Hawkman. This is a moot point, however, since the Hawkman who might have encountered the Gentleman Ghost (I), is the same as the Golden Age Hawkman, post-Crisis, and the existence of the Gentleman Ghost (I) is called into question; see below.
According to Ed Binkerdink <email@example.com>, "To this list you can add The Pied Piper and The Foil. I think these were both one time only appearances. The Piper looked a lot more like the traditional Hamelin version than the Flash foe.
Q: What were his abilities and skills?
A: He could fly, of course, with his wings. He was skilled with ancient weapons. He also had the uncanny ability to communicate with birds. (This later ability makes more sense when the "Hawkman as avatar" notion is introduced; see below.) He was also knowledgeable about archeology. With the latest retcons, Carter Hall may also have had access to the Thanagarian racial memories, whatever good that might do.
Q: Who was the second Hawkman?
A: That depends if you mean post-Crisis or pre-Crisis.
Q: Uh...Let's start with the first second Hawkman. Who was he?
A: The Silver Age Hawkman (pre-Crisis variety) was Katar Hol from the planet Thanagar. He, along with his wife, Shayera Thal (Shayera Thal Hol?), fought crime side by side as Hawkman and Hawkgirl (later, Hawkwoman). Katar's hair was black, unlike the first Hawkman, and Shayera's hair was red (not brown, like the Golden Age Hawkgirl). Shayera's helmet was rather different than the Golden Age Hawkgirl's, but otherwise the two duos dressed almost exactly alike. After arriving on Earth, Katar and Shayera took on secret identities of Carter and Shiera Hall.
Continuing my quotations from the Hawkman index, "The planet Thanagar is a world in the Polaris system, approximately three trillion miles from Earth. It is probably larger than Earth, as Thanagarians gain strength in our lesser gravity. ... Their planet, at the time of Hawkman and Hawkgirl's origins, was a highly advanced science-based society with no obvious problems of poverty, or civil or political unrest, and with all evidence pointing to a single government. The only crime existent on Thanagar is theft, prompted by exposure to an alien race called the Manhawks, who instigated the practice of stealing for the thrill of it among the planet's lesser lights. The invasion of the itinerant bird-beings, in fact, had the direct result of the creation of the planet's first policeman-- Katar Hol, himself.
"Katar Hol was the son of prominent ornithologist Paran Katar, who was training his son in the science. Paran Katar was also an inventor, and had created sets of artificial wings for them both, in order that they might observe bird-life in its most natural and inaccessible state. When the Manhawks attacked, Thanagar was helpless; it had never before had the need for a police force. Katar decided that he was best equipped to infiltrate the Manhawks' flock, and he did so, managing to make off with some of the bird-beings' humanoid masks for his fathers' study. Paran Katar fitted his son with a hawks' head containing circuitry designed to nullify the effects of the Manhawks' eyebeams, and, armed with another of his father's inventions, Katar did overcome them, and sent them fleeing into space.
Had not some Thanagarians taken up the idea of thrill-stealing, this would have been his last flight, but the government decided to establish a standing police force of their own. As a mark of honor to Paran Katar, the hawk cowl and wings were adopted as the official uniform, and Katar Hol became the force's first (and most decorated) officer.
"By the time of his arrival on Earth, Katar had ten years' experience in the organization which would be dubbed the Wingmen by later writers. (This would make Hawkman now no older than his mid-thirties. ...) Sometime after the establishment of the police corps, Katar Hol was assigned duty with rookie officer Shayera Thal in tracking down the Rainbow Raiders [no relation to the Flash foe]. The stalwart, though initially uncertain Shayera accidentally saved Katar's life during the case, and the couple subsequently fell in love and were married (a state marked by Thanagarian custom with the earrings worn by Hawkgirl in her costumed identity). Hawkman's greater experience as a crimefighter has shown itself in many ways..."the Hawks," as they are affectionately known, are equal partners, fully confident of each other's courage and fighting prowess, quite unlike their Earth-2 [that is, Golden Age] counterparts. [Shiera Sanders was more of a dilettante as a superhero.]
"Ten years after Katar Hol fought the Manhawks on Thanagar, an inventor created a pill which allowed the taker to become a metamorph with a[n] ability to alter the molecules of his body to any form of animal life he can envision...it was stolen by Byth Rok and used as a means to plunder Thanagar. His ease in doing so bored him quickly, and stealing a spaceship, Byth fled the planet to find new vistas of thrills. As Thanagar's most prominent policemen, Katar Hol and Shayera were dispatched to follow him in one of the newly built star-cruisers equipped to travel through hyperspace, allowing the ship to exceed the limitations of the speed of light. Tracking the criminal to Earth, they placed their ship in orbit, activating invisibility and anti-detection devices which shielded its presence from Earth, then donned metal headbands connected to a device called the Absorbascon. This electronic brain absorbed impulses from the minds of all thinking creatures on the world at which it was directed, allowing its users to absorb all knowledge from every resident of the world over a span of many hours. Thus equipped with full knowledge of all languages, customs, and mores of the people of Earth, Katar and Shayera felt ready to follow Byth's trail and to sneak him out, while remaining undercover."
They eventually tracked him to Midway City, where they, "as any law officers entering an area out of their jurisdiction would do, ... contacted the local authorities to fill them in on their identities, their quarry, and to arrange for extradition. In this case, ... they met Midway City Police Commissioner George Emmet, an elderly but open-minded man with enough faith in their fantastic story ... that he aided them in establishing their Earth cover identities. Emmet's brother Ed was retiring as curator of the Midway City Museum, and the commissioner arranged to have Carter [Katar] replace him, and for the couple to take over the lease on his apartment. ... Following the trackdown [of], battle with, and capture of Byth, with the criminal sent back to Thanagar for incarceration, the police officers applied for and were granted an indefinite stay on Earth for the study and practical application of Earth's police methods by their police chief, Andar Pul."
Q: What were his abilities and skills?
A: He could fly, of course, with his wings. He was skilled with ancient weapons. He also had the uncanny ability to communicate with birds. Due to the Absorbascon, he had access to the sum total of all human knowledge, but he would often have to stop for a moment to recall things. He also had access to some Thanagarian coating that enabled him to survive in space unprotected for short periods of time.
Q: Who were his friends and allies?
A: Apart from ever loyal George Emmett, the Hawks' supporting cast consisted of museum naturalist and diorama artist Mavis Trent, the museum's publicist Joe Tracy, Andar Pul, and a large red hawk named Big Red, who lived in nearby Hawk Valley.
Hawkman joined the Justice League of America in issue #31, and Hawkgirl followed, in issue #146. Hawkman formed close relationships with the Atom II (Ray Palmer) and Adam Strange. As a conservative, Hawkman was constantly arguing with liberal Green Arrow. The JLA had teleporter-tubes that were based on Thanagarian technology that Katar supplied.
Q: Who were his enemies?
A: Apart from Byth and the Manhawks, Hawkman's rogues gallery included Matter Master, Konrad Kaslak, the Shadow-Thief, Ira Quimby (I.Q.), Chac, the Wingors, Criminal Alliance of the World (C.A.W.), Fal Tal and the Kalvars, the Raven (the Earth-1 counterpart of the Golden Age Raven), Lion-Mane, the Gentleman Ghost, Kanjar Ro, Hyathis, and the Fadeaway Man.
Q: How did Crisis affect Hawkman II?
A: It didn't, at first. He appeared alongside Superman, the Atom, and the Justice League, all during a time when the Golden Age Hawkman was trapped in Ragnarok.
Then the Hawkworld series retroactively caused Hawkman II to be a nonentity who never existed.
Q: How did Crisis affect Hawkman's foes?
A: The Shadow-Thief (I) never existed and was therefore never a member of the Injustice Gang of the World. (This is a presumption on my part; I would find it to be extremely unlikely that two people named Carl Sands who look alike and manage to get the same powers would call themselves by the same name. It is possible that Carl Sands sans powers joined the IGW, but this seems unlikely.) The Gentleman Ghost may never have existed, as a new character called the Gentleman Ghost was introduced; however, as GG was a foe of the Golden Age Hawkman, I'd prefer to think that he did exist and did appear in the party thrown by the Flash's Rogues Gallery. However, the new Gentleman Ghost, "Gentleman Jim" Craddock, has the name in common with the earlier version and might supersede him. The new version is an entirely human (not undead) thief whose theivery is well-known but never proven. I speculate that the old Gentleman Ghost may have found a way to become alive again.
Byth, the Manhawks, Konrad Kaslak, the Wingors, and Fal Tal and the Kalvars all have new post-Crisis versions, meaning that the previous versions never existed.
Kanjar Ro became a petty administrator, though it is unclear if this occurs after or instead of his classic battles with the JLoA. Similarly, Hyathis may or may not have been changed into Hyanthis; see below. Hyathis, however, has been seen in Superboy and the Ravers, looking unlike the matronly figure of Hyanthis. The Raven has not been mentioned, though there are Ravens on Thanagar; these Ravens are assassins of the priesthood.
I.Q. has been seen in JLQ, and presumably fought Carter Hall, as Matter Master and Fadeaway Man may have done. Chac and C.A.W. may or may not have ever existed.
A new version of Lion Mane was created who obviously supersedes the previous version. This version is a lion avatar who alternates between being Ed Dawson and Karen Ramis for unknown reasons, despite the Lion God having refused to allow Ed Dawson to be a lion avatar at one point. A previous lion avatar had killed a previous hawk avatar (Gabriel, a Christian with an angelic appearance; naturally, he was thrown to the lions), thereby causing Katar to suffer flashbacks while fighting him.
Q: Can you justify why Crisis took so long to affect Hawkman?
A: Sure, but then, I can justify anything. Crisis had a delayed effect on the Golden Age heroes; for the reasons why, see All-Star Squadron. One of the major effects of eliminating Hawkman II was replacing much of his work with that of Hawkman I. Since this affects Hawkman I, a Golden Age character, this effect was also delayed.
Q: Did this totally destroy continuity?
Q: Okay, then, who is Hawkman III?
A: A drug addict, a murderer, and a madman. Also, an idealistic hero.
Q: Really? Please elaborate.
A: Oh, okay. Many years ago, Paran Katar visted Earth. He aided Carter Hall's attempts to invent an anti-gravity metal; it was really Paran's invention. Or so Paran told Katar. Actually, it turns out that anti-gravity was an Ancient Egyptian legacy of Prince Khufu Kha-taar who was given the metal as a meteorite sent by Horus. See Hawkman I for more details about Paran. Inspired by Carter's nobility as Hawkman I, Paran persuaded Thanagar not to conquer Earth, while also organizing a police force, the Wingmen, whose uniforms were based on Carter's Hawkman costume.
While on Earth, Paran met Cherokee woman, Naomi, who married Perry. Naomi Carter came back with Paran to Thanagar, where she gave birth to Katar and then was returned to Earth.
With Paran's invention, Thanagarians were able to spread not outward (as Thanagar has only a small land mass) but upwards, as citizens could own wings and fly between tall skyscrapers, which were supported by antigravity. They even had plans to build floating cities. Having conquered many other planets, Thanagar had a massive slum area, called the Downside, where natives of these other planets were forced to live.
Paran's son Katar Hol grew up to be a Wingman, though as an aristocrat, he could have had any job he wanted. Idealistic to the extreme, he was unprepared by the rampant corruption in the Wingmen. His partner hooked him on drugs. He met a woman named Shayera Thal, a petty-minded heiress who was killed in an explosion after he fell in love with her. His superior, Byth, told Katar that someone was selling arms to the Downsiders, trying to incite violence. This someone, Byth claimed, was one of the Wingmen.
Katar knew this had to be stopped, so he went willingly where Byth told him to go, and killed the hooded figure who was illegally doing business with the Downsiders. He then discovered that this figure was Paran Katar, his father, who had merely been delivering food and medicine to the needy Downsiders.
Byth's men then captured Katar Hol and banished him to a remote island from which there was no escape. Katar, disillusioned, saw one of the other island residents fashioning a pair of wings from feathers and decided that he must have these wings. He killed the robed man, only learning afterwards that these wings were being made for Katar; the robed figure had wings growing from his back and needed none for himself. Comforted by the dead man's brother, Katar dealt with withdrawal symptoms from his drug addiction, and made peace with himself. He spent ten years on that island. Sometime during these ten years, it seems that Thanagar was one of many races that invaded Earth during Invasion. After the Invasion, Thanagar began diplomatic relations with the Earth. Also, one assumes that Cosmic Idiocy, er, Odyssey occurred during this time period.
Eventually, a vehicle arrived to bring Katar back, but he was left abandoned in the Downside. He continued his father's work by dealing in food and medicine. Byth's men tried to find out who he was, but were unable to do so. However, one female Wingman learned what he was up to, and planned to arrest him, until he explained. He learned that she was named Shayera Thal! Apparently, Thal Porvis had found this young Downsider orphan who coincidentally looked like his dead daughter; he adopted her and gave her the same name. Incidentally, as a ten-year-old girl, she had witnessed Katar's partner Wingman kill the man who had been taking care of her, while Katar was reluctant to act with lethal force.
What was not yet revealed was that Shayera II was actually the daughter of Shayera I, who, at the age of thirteen, had given birth to Andar Pul's daughter, Shayera II. Shayera I's mother, Hyanthis, later would explain all of this to Shayera II. What connection, if any, that Hyanthis has to JLoA foe and pre-Crisis Thanagar conqueror Hyathis, is unknown.
Eventually, Shayera's trust in Katar allowed them to expose Byth's evil plan. Katar and Shayera were hailed as heroes and given wings on their helmets, while Byth was forced to flee.to Earth.
Eventually, despite Byth's use of the metamorphic Krotan drug, the Hawks captured Byth; during their stay, they were treated as diplomats, with Shayera pretending to be studying Earth police methods, where they met George Emmett (now a black man), and other supporting characters. They helped open a Thanagarian wing in a Chicago museum, where they met Mavis Trent (who tried to have a romance with Katar) and Konrad Kaslak (up to no good, just as he was pre-Crisis). As diplomats, they had a publicist, Joe Tracey, and often met with the official ambassador from Thanagar, Darl Klus. Shayera and Katar were given the names Hawkwoman and Hawkman.
During Byth's stay on Earth, he provides the Shadow Thief with a new origin. Carl Sands, ninja supreme, already known as the Shadow Thief, is given a shadow generator, standard Thanagarian technology used in working on their spaceships.
Much of Hawkman's story dealt with politics. Essentially, Hawkman was Captain America for the 90s. He was an aristocrat from an oppressive society who'd been brought down and seen the dirty side of Thanagarian culture, as mentioned. Then he came to Earth, specifically the United States, and was exposed to the dream of a democratic society with freedoms for its citizens. The series did not sugarcoat the difference between the dream and the reality, making it more powerful as Katar became a true, but somewhat pragmatic, patriot of the American ideal, particularly since he was an immigrant, something Captain America has never been able to approach things from but which is integral to the American culture.
At one point, a Hawkman Corps was created on Thanagar. The reason for the existence of the Corps was simple: Thanagar needed heroes (from a publicity viewpoint). Katar spent much of his time on Earth, and was unreliable. Thus, a group of Hawkmen were created, the richest and most high-ranking members of the Wingmen became Hawkmen, with wings on their helmets to signify their great honor.
Eventually, Thanagarian politics became too much for Katar, who (along with Shayera) applied for political asylum from Thanagar. It was initially granted. The Hawks switched to their red costumes, to suggest a split with Thanagarian ways and customs. The Thanagarian embassy closed, and the Thanagarian ambassador planned to return to Thanagar; before leaving, he told the American diplomat that Thanagar would trade anti-gravity technology for the two wanted criminals Katar and Shayera. Betrayed, the Hawks fled for the Netherworld, an area of Chicago where the police would not go, it being a refuge for all the metas who chose not to be part of the superhero/supervillain community.
The Hawks were seen as heroes again, and the Thanagarian offer was therefore dismissed. Realizing that returning to Thanagar without Katar and Shayera would not be wise, the Thanagarian ambassador also applied for political asylum.
The Hawks struggled, learning to fit in in the Netherworld. Eventually, they met Count Viper, and fought a losing battle. When Hawkman was seen next, he was wearing a black costume reminiscent of his Thanagarian uniform. This was six months after this battle.
Eventually, despite some setbacks, Hawkman and Hawkwoman defeated Viper. It was revealed that after the fight, Carter Hall had arrived, and brought Hawkman (III) to his mother, Naomi Carter, who taught him much Native American mysticism, enabling him to see the emotions of others, communicate with certain animals, to see through their eyes, and to call upon the abilities of his spirit animals.
Then Ostrander left the series, and everything that made Hawkman interesting was trashed and continuity was screwed.
Hawkwoman stopped being a hero. Thanagar was destroyed by the Hawkgod. Thal Porvis seemed to be the only survivor of Thanagar. Shayera oddly chose to blame Porvis for Katar being set up to kill Paran Katar (which, you'll recall, was Byth's plan alone). Katar lost his old personality. He became a conservative-bashing liberal, which is almost understandable as the only conservatives he met were poor stereotypes, such as a shameful parody of Rush Limbaugh. Bleah.
The Hawkgod came to Earth. Hawkman III fought it, with unexpected help from Hawkman I and Hawkgirl I, during Zero Hour. Somehow, the Hawkgod was enabled to return to his home dimension, but in the process passed through the three Hawks. The result was that only Hawkman III was left. Supposedly, he had absorbed all who had ever worn the wings, past, present, or future. This is malarky. Also, he became more hawk-like, having become a hawk avatar. This meant that his eyes were hawkish and his wings were now part of him, which he could absorb back into his body at will. These wings were made of ninth metal, of course. It is implied that all other nth metal was destroyed without the Hawkgod there to power it.
What is meant by Hawkman having absorbed all others who wore the wings, is unknown and imprecise. Shayera, for example, was not absorbed, though the Halls were, as were other DC heroes of the past, like Nighthawk and the Silent Knight.
During this incarnation, Hawkman III began to go shirtless. Hawkwoman, however, was devastated by the fact that she could no longer fly, as no Thanagarian anti-gravity would function any more. She left to Detroit, becoming a non-powered crime-fighter. Of course, should she find another set of Ancient Egyptian night metal wings, she could become a superhero again.
Hawkman was maneuvered into battle after battle with other animal avatars by Count Viper, who had just recently entered the body of a snake avatar. Somehow, Katar managed to defeat Viper (neither the combatants nor the readers were to learn how or why). These avatars that Katar met all had vast, incredible powers, though he would later claim that even wimps like the Silent Knight and Nighthawk were hawk avatars; maybe the Hawkgod is much stingier than the beargod, barracuda god, bull god, or snake god.
After fighting Viper, Hawkman visited Thanagar on a JLA mission spearheaded by Guy Gardner: Warrior. He discovered that of all the people on Thanagar, only one thousand Thanagarians lived. Apparently, none of the three billion (according to Who's Who) offworlders living in the Downside survived. None of the culture of Thanagar (such as it was) survived, nor did any of the formerly major characters, apart from the previously seen Thal Porvis.
Later, Neron awoke all the souls in Hawkman's head. Suddenly, all the previous (and future?) hawk avatars began to overwhelm him with their own murderous desires. They revealed that they had all (with the exceptions of Khufu, the Halls, and Gabriel) been killed by Vandal Savage through the years, even the first hawk avatar who was Vandal's brother. Katar battled Vandal in an attempt to get the voices to shut up, but chose not to kill him when Vandal revealed that he had merely acted in self-defense each time. This murderous streak of the avatars shows up again in a vision of the future seen by Deathstroke's daughter Rose, who envisioned a future in which Deathstroke was still alive (being unable to die), but who was sought by at least two Hawk avatars, one that he mentioned having killed in passing and a new one that the Hawkgod newly creates; however, though it was Deathstroke's body, his mind may belong to someone else (Vandal Savage?).
Finally, Priest took over the series only to have
it cancelled out from under him. He at least managed to inject back
some of the classic Hawkworld elements that had been previously eliminated.
The murderous intentions of the hawk avatars proved to be uncontrollable;
they killed several people in an attempt to discredit or kill Katar.
Katar had no choice but allow himself, along with all the minds of
all the hawk avatars, to be banished by Arion to the realm of the Hawkgod.
Apparently, Katar is now dead. The following dialogue is from JSA #25:
Hawkgirl: "I thought you said
Katar was dead?"
Hawkman IV: "He IS. IN a way. Katar's essence was taken when he stepped into the avatar dimension I was pulled from. We were separated. I survived."
While that leaves some potential
for Katar to still be alive in some sense, JSA Secret Files #2 has this to
"A dimension away, Carter Hall was separated from Katar, who subsequently perished." The omniscient narrator has the final word, I suppose.
Q: What were his abilities and skills?
A: He could fly, of course, with his wings. He was skilled with ancient weapons. Due to the Absorbascon, he learned English rapidly. Hawkman III.a (the original gray costume) wore standard armor. Hawkman III.b (when he wore the red costume) added a jetpack for short bursts of speed. Hawkman III.c (the black costume) added claws to the costume, but dropped the jetpack. He could also see a person's spirit (he could tell that a Shayera impostor was not Shayera by looking at her), could talk to animals, and would call upon the abilities of animals. Hawkman III.d (the post-Zero Hour version) lost most of the mystical abilities, but could see emotions and probably had enhanced vision powers. In addition, the wings were a part of him, and he could absorb them back into his body at will. He also started carrying a graviton pistol, a Thanagarian weapon with a large punch which required a week to recharge after firing several times.
Q: Should we really call him Hawkman III, since there never was a Hawkman II?
A: For the purposes of this FAQ, yes, to avoid confusion. Also, as an impostor Hawkman did exist between Hawkman I and Hawkman III, we can always claim him as Hawkman II.
Q: Who was this impostor?
A: Fel Andar, who claimed to be Carter Hall, Jr. Fel Andar was a Thanagarian spy dispatched to Earth shortly after Carter Hall vanished into the Last Days of the JSA. He took up the role of Hawkman, even finding an Earthwoman named Sharon (last name unknown) to take up the role of Hawkgirl/Hawkwoman. When questioned by J'Onn J'Onnz, he told a false story about being Carter Hall's son who had spent some time on Thanagar. He took Superman to Krypton, joined the JLI briefly (during which time he constantly complained that the League was not like the League that *his father* had been a part of), met the Atom in Power of the Atom, and helped Animal Man defuse a bomb during Invasion; this last action goes against all sense, but there you go. During the Invasion, Sharon found out that he was a spy. They fought and she was killed, but not before she told the JL-er's the truth. Fel Andar returned to Thanagar.
He later returned, having been assigned to play the role of Katar Hol, but the real Katar arrived to put an end to this plot. He was again returned to Thanagar.
Q: Who was the fourth Hawkman?
A: Carter Hall, the original Hawkman, sort of. His hair is brown, now (perhaps averaging Katar Hol's black hair with Carter's original blonde hair), and his chest is partially hairy (perhaps averaging Katar Hol's hairy chest with Carter's original unhairy chest). Oddly, his chest hair often disappears in closeups and reappears in distant shots.
How did he return? Kendra Saunders (a
distant relative of Shiera Sanders and the apparent reincarnation of Shiera)
reached into a pit on Thanagar and pulled him out. That's all there was
to it. Well, there was a bit of mystic mumbo-jumbo too. The pit in
question was called "the well of spirits, a gateway to the infinite". Apparently
wells of spirits are pretty trivial to create, as the Thanagarian Tarak
whips one up on a moment's notice to send the JSA back home.
Q: What affronts against continuity have there been in this latest
retelling of the Hawkman
A: Here are the obvious ones:
(1) Thanagarians now have a racial memory,
which has never been mentioned before. The exact details are so far unknown,
but it sounds like the sort of thing that should have been mentioned before, if they had had this ability.
(2) Thanagar is now in the "Polaris galaxy," rather than being a star in the real-world Polaris star system. Unless "Polaris galaxy" is an awkward way of saying "the galaxy which contains Polaris, ie, the Milky Way," Thanagar is now in a completely different galaxy. This makes certain past stories far less credible. For example, why would Thanagarians from another galaxy have bothered to participate in Invasion! ? Furthermore, the whole point of Cosmic Odyssey was the precarious balance of the Milky Way galaxy resting on several star-systems in the Milky Way galaxy, one of which was Thanagar's.
Nth metal is still functional. This completely flies in the face of Zero
Hour, one of whose main purposes (as far as Hawkman was concerned) was
to show that Thanagarian Nth metal no longer functioned without the Hawkgod
being stranded in another dimension. This was why Thanagar was devastated,
as all of the newly-built flying cities could
no longer fly, so they crashed to the ground. The new version of history says that the battle with the Tormocks was what left Thanagar devastated and Thanagar's floating cities are floating again (perhaps they never stopped defying gravity).
One also wonders why the Thanagarian Shayera ended her career as Hawkwoman. In previous continuity, she lost her wings, but with current retcons, there is no reason why she could not have continued as Hawkwoman.
(4) The Thanagarian language's alphabet consists mainly of Roman and Greek letters, with the occasional other Earthian symbol (such as the male circle with an arrow symbol) thrown in. I don't know that this violates continuity per se, but it seems awfully unlikely. This fact was seen both when the Thanagarian spaceship crashed in JSA #22 (before Thanagar had contact with Earth) , though at this point, the language's alphabet was mainly Greek (though it did have the "not a subset of" symbol as one of its letters). Later on, every Thangarian holy building has such writing on it. The main badguy, Onimar Synn, even wears robes with this writing on it. Oddly, despite Thanagar's connection with Ancient Egypt, they do not use Egyptian hieroglyphs.
(5) Furthermore, there is the revelation that Nth metal can do anything at all. Well, that would have been handy to know before now, wouldn't it? If Carter Hall did originally have the racial memory of the Thanagarians, it seems likely that he would've known this and made use of these extra abilities on earlier adventures. In fact, Katar Hol, being a Thanagarian, probably should've known about these abilities and used them. Oh, well. To be more precise, here's what the characters said about Nth metal:
Hawkman: Nth metal controls more than just gravity. Given the right knowledge and quantity, the four fundamental forces of the universe [can be controlled].
Mr. Teriffic: The Grand Unified Theory. Of course. The four forces that separated at the origin of the universe. Gravity. Electromagnetism ... The strong force which binds atoms together. And the weak force which is responsible for radioactive decay...
Furthermore, Nth metal apparently has the power to transfer Thanagarian racial memory, but for some reason, out of all the Earthlings who came in contact with it, this only happened to Khufu and Chayera. S'ri Zihn mentions that "[T]he metal is psycho-receptive. It absorbs and responds to certain emotional states in the same way that quartz crystals create an electric voltage." Likewise, Hawkman tells Hawkgirl in regard to her reliving of past lives having been similar to being KO-ed by the energy (from Nth metal) that Onimar Synn used, that the flashbacks were "psychic backlash. It was the Nth metal wings, soaking up all the lifetimes you've lived-- The shock of nearly dying must've unleashed all those repressed past-life memories at once. Synn applied the same principle, albeit with a little more control." And then, there's the scene where Hawkman kisses Hawkgirl, thereby taking control of the Nth metal Claw of Horus to destroy Onimar Synn; the less said about this scene, the better.
More to the point, though, Onimar Synn
conquers Thanagar and says that "with the Nth metal now at my beck and
call, the universe is a blank canvas on which I will sketch my revenge."
So, with a little Nth metal, a person can conquer the universe? Hey, Hawkman
has some Nth metal, right? Just how powerful is Hawkman going to be now?
Also, Nth metal seems to be more important to Thanagar than just being a metal found in the planet. Onimar Synn tells the JSA, "Nearly every iota of your precious Nth metal is mine to control." (A building or two is seen crumbling.) "Every vein and cavernous lode of raw ore-- " (Rocks are falling, energy is flashing, something major is happening.) "Every alloy and purified ingot-- " (A giant hand arises from the ground, as well as the rest of a stoney body.) "For all intents and purposes, I AM Thanagar!!!" (A stone-like giant (which we will learn is made of Nth metal) version of Onimar Synn looms over the JSA.) From this dialogue, Synn seems to suggest that controlling Nth metal is the same thing as controlling Thanagar, ie, Thanagar = Nth metal. Could be just hyperbole, I suppose.
(6) This is really a Hawkgirl (not a Hawkman) point, but how does Hawkgirl fly? She has Shiera's belt and wings, right? The only problem is that Hawkgirl doesn't *wear* a belt. (This makes her costume look stupid, by the way, but that's a separate point.) I can only imagine that the wrappings around her wrists are made from the belt, but this was never stated in the comics, afaik. Furthermore, to confuse the issue, in JSA #23, a Thanagarian points at her *boots* to indicate her Nth metal. She's wearing it in her *boots*? JSA Secret Files #2 elaborates on this silly idea: "The Nth metal on the Hawks' boots and wing harnesses [but apparently not their belts] enables them to fly." Well well well. Kendra has Shiera's equipment; Kendra is unlikely to have the knowledge and ability to change a mystical metal belt into mystical metal boot accessories, much less the motive for doing so; thus, one can only conclude that this is a new retcon and the Hawks have always had Nth metal boots instead of belts. How, uh, odd.
(7) How did Carter Hall discover Nth metal? We may never know for sure. See the timeline for more on this subject.
(8) Hawkman IV refers to the "avatar dimension" from which he was pulled. While it's certainly understandable for Carter to be confused, if he truly has all of Katar's knowledge, he would know that this was the realm of the Hawkgod, not some other avatar dimension. This might seem like nit-picking, but there is a significant conceptual difference.
(9) Upon meeting Sand in JSA #24, Hawkman says, "Congratulations, Sandy. Wesley would've been proud." However, there is no way that Hawkman would've known of Wesley's death, as he has been in the Hawkgod's dimension (or maybe with the latest retcons, he was in an avatar dimension whose properties are as yet unknown) during the time of Wesley's death. I suppose that one *could* explain it as Hawkman considering Wesley to be effectively retired, but doing so drains the line of most of its power.
(10) Normally, I wouldn't bother to point out matters of bad science, such as the fact that in JSA #25, Hawkman falls 3000 miles at a speed "exceeding 180 miles per hour" in a matter of minutes, or even seconds. (Do the math. It should take 16 hours and 40 minutes...unless "exceeding" is given an excessively liberal interpretation..) Nor would I comment on the fact that while the omniscient narrator tells us that "it is nearly impossible to catch your breath," the Hawks are able to hold a conversation. Nor would I mention the fact that Hawkman catching Hawkgirl (who has now fallen 3000 miles, give or take a few feet) seems unlikely to actually save her and certainly not without breaking his arms. Or the fact that Hawkgirl still has her Nth metal boots (as mentioned above), so she perhaps should be able to at least levitate if not actually fly. However, there is still a matter of bad continuity to mention. In the previous issue, Onimar Synn tosses the Hawks off of a floating city which he says is "some eighteen thousand feet" above the ground. Eighteen thousand feet is about 3.4 miles. So, unless Thanagar has some excessive wind gusts that can propel someone up more than 2996 miles (!) before allowing them to plummet again... or the floating city itself traveled up that distance in the approximately 15 seconds during which Onimar Synn talks to the Hawks (meaning the city travels at a speed in excess of 70,000 miles per hour)...or Onimar Synn is completely wrong, which seems unlikely given his god-like nature. And, of course, if the city is 3000 miles up in the air, that suggests some unusual properties of Thanagar as compared to Earth, such as having a sufficiently large gravity that would allow the atmosphere to be breathable at such heights...or maybe the all-powerful Nth metal is used to deal with little details like that.
To quote Homer Simpson, "Everything looks bad if
you remember it."
(11) This version of the Hawkman saga supports one
of the retcons made during the Hawkman series attributed to Messner-Loebs,
namely the fact that during Hawkworld, Katar mentions that the helmet is
necessary to control his flight, but the post-Ostrander, pre-Zero Hour Hawkman
is seen flying great distances without a helmet. Well, in JSA # 25, Hawkman
uses Thanagarian wings without a Thanagrian control helmet during his plummet.
While it *is* possible that the "created out of thin air" Hawkman has circuitry
in his helmet to control his flight (after all, he doesn't look like he used
to, why should his costume be the same as it was?), but I somehow doubt it.
Q: What are his abilities and skills?
A: So far, mostly unshown. He can fly, of course, with his wings. He is skilled with ancient weapons. He remembers all of his lives, even Katar Hol's and has the knowledge gained in those lives. With the Claw of Horus (made of Nth metal and given to him by Nabu by way of Jay Garrick), he can neutralize the anti-gravity abilities of Nth metal within a certain limited area of effect. After using it once, however, it no longer seemed to function until Onimar Synn absorbed it, whereupon Hawkman and Hawkgirl used the power of their love to control it and caused Onimar Synn to be ripped apart. Yup, Nth metal can do anything under any circumstances now.The JSA Secret Files #2 elaborates a bit more. Khufu and Chay-Ara's contact with Nth metal imprinted the Thanagarian racial memories on them and (apparently along with their "True Love"), strengthened their souls as well as the bond between them. They use Nth metal wings and *boots* (not belts) to fly. They have "lifetimes of memories" which include mastery of weapons both Ancient and modern.
Q: Can you give me a timeline of events related to Hawkman?
Prehistory: there were these animal avatars, people with a special affinity for a particular animal, and with certain related powers. Kill an avatar, and he will be reborn. Vandal Savage seems similar to these avatars, but where his spirit animal should be, there is only darkness. Vandal Savage kills the first hawk avatar.
Ancient Egypt: Prince Khufu Kha-Taar (also spelt Khufu Maat Kha-Tarr) is transformed by Horus into a hawk avatar. Khufu is given gravity-defying Night Metal that he and his followers make into wings and harnesses. Khufu dies trying to save Chay-Ara. In the post Zero Hour DCU, Khufu succeeds in saving Chay-Ara and kills his enemy. In the most current version of continuity, Khufu does not get Night Metal from Horus. Instead, he discovers a crashed Thangarian spaceship, from which he takes some Nth metal.
Ancient Rome: God transforms one of his followers into a hawk avatar who calls himself Gabriel. Gabriel dies fighting a lion avatar.
England, medieval times: the Silent Knight is a hawk avatar. Presumably, he was killed by Vandal Savage.
The Old West: Nighthawk was a hawk avatar, but never knew it. He was killed by Vandal Savage.
USA, 1940's: Carter Hall discovers that one of Khufu's sets of wings. This causes him to realize that he is the reincarnation of this Egyptian prince. He does not suspect that he is a hawk avatar. He meets with Paran Katar, who will become the father of Katar Hol. Paran steals the idea of the Nth (also: ninth) metal. In order to power his version, however, the sorcerous Paran strands the Hawkgod in another dimension. When Paran met a time-travelling Katar Hol, Paran told Katar that he (Paran) was responsible for the invention of the nth metal. In the most current version of continuity, the exact details related to Carter Hall and his discovery of Nth metal are unclear at best. However, it is clear that he did not invent it by himself, nor did he discover "Night metal" which was provided by Horus, since Horus never provided the Egyptians with Night metal. Paran Katar could not have used sorcerous means to help Carter create Nth metal, since that possibility contradicts the fact that Thanagarian Nth metal continues to function despite the Hawkgod gaining his freedom; this is almost unfortunate since the idea of Thanagarian sorcery has been made much more plausible with the "Return of Hawkman" story arc. In fact, it is suggested that Paran Katar learned the secret of Nth metal from Carter Hall. However, the exact method by which Carter Hall discovered Nth metal is unknown; did he unearth Thanagarian Nth metal from Ancient Egypt or did Khufu's Thanagarian racial memory aid Carter in reinventing Nth metal? This remains a mystery, one which even the JSA Secret Files #2 glosses over, only briefly mentioning that "Carter Hall...utilized the anigravity Nth metal to become Hawkman."
Paran is so impressed by Carter that he takes the formula for the metal back to Thanagar, where he forms a Hawkpolice based on Carter's outfit. Paran apparently even names his son after Carter. Carter had also been given Thanagarian teleport technology by Paran.
Silver Age: Carter comes out of retirement and joins the JLoA. He was responsible for the JLA teleport-tubes.
Last Days of the JSA: Carter vanishes with all the JSA. Later, a Hawkman is seen helping Superman, meeting the Atom, joining the JL, and showing Animal Man how to defuse a Thanagarian bomb during Invasion.
This turns out to be a man claiming to be Carter's son. The fake-Hakwman even gets an earthwoman to dress up as a Hawkgirl/Hawkwoman of his very own. When the ruse is discovered, he becomes violent. He kills the Hawkgirl (II), and is captured, during Invasion. He is revealed to be a Thanagarian spy.
Later, Thanagar begins diplomatic relations with Earth.
Later, Katar Hol arrives on Earth, and decides to call himself Hawkman. Little mention is made of the previous Hawkmen or the fact that Earth had just been invaded by an army of Thanagarians. Katar believes himself to be pure Thanagarian, but learns that his mother is a native American. During Zero Hour, all possible other Hawkmen (possibly meaning all previous Hawk avatars) are merged with Katar. This includes Hawkgirl I and Hawkman I. According to JSA Secret Files #2, Hawkgirl I does not survive the merger (though one has a hard time reconciling this with how the merger worked) and is reincarnated in Kendra Saunders.
Currently, Katar is trapped in another dimension, the realm of the Hawkgod.
Even more currently, Carter
Hall has escaped and is working with the JSA.
Q: Didn't Grant Morrison create a new Hawkman for JLA? Who is he?
A: Zauriel the angel first appeared in JLA #6. Despite his similarity to Hawkman (having wings and being a member of the JLA), he never ended up with the name Hawkman.
Q: What other interesting continuity glitches are there concerning Hawkman?
A: In regard to Hawkman II, the last 6-8 issues of the Silver Age Hawkman series were declared imaginary by writer Tony Isabella in The Shadow War of Hawkman (years before Babylon 5's Shadow War) mini-series which led into the second Hawkman series. Various events such as Thanagar having an intergalactic Hawk Corps, Carter and Sheira being revealed as aliens in their civilian identities, etc. occured almost at random in those issues, going against previous continuity and/or never being mentioned again, so they were just chucked out to clean things up (an example of good retconning).
Apart from this Elseworlds quality of Hawkman II's series near its end, many odd parallels exist between Hawkman I and III. It seems a remarkable coincidence that there should be a Shayera to go along with Shiera, not to mention Sharon. The fact that Shayera has red hair is another coincidence, as Shiera apparently (when taking the place of Hawkgirl II) took to dying her hair red. In the Hawkworld miniseries, Katar is shown practicing with his weapons in an outfit consisting of red briefs over green tights; his chest is bare, and he is wearing the usual chest-straps. This looks a lot like Hawkman I's costume.
Also, as mentioned above, Fel Andar would have no reason to help Animal Man defuse a Thanagarian bomb.
During Hawkworld, Katar mentions that the helmet is necessary to control his flight, but the post-Ostrander, pre-Zero Hour Hawkman is seen flying great distances without a helmet. The pre-Loebs Thanagar has no floating cities. Before the Six Month Gap between Hawkworld and Hawkman, the Thanagarians must have been incredibly busy, as the Hawkgod ravished Thanagar by causing all these floating cities to fall. It is implied that all the Thanagarians lived in the floating cities.
The pre-Loebs Shadow Thief gets his powers from a shadow generator, a belt-shaped device, which he wears over his ninja costume. The post-Loebs Shadow Thief is defeated when Hawkman turns off his costume's powers by touching him in the neck.
Also, there is some confusion regarding the Silent Knight and the Shining Knight. When Katar has to do battle with his other selves, the Silent Knight arrives on a winged horse. In several panels, the Knight's head turns into the Shining Knight's head; in fact, looking more closely, it appears that the Silent Knight's helmet has been pasted on top of the original head (presumably Shining Knight's), wherever it appears correctly, likely as a last minute change.
Furthermore, in JLA#6, Aquaman, upon seeing Zauriel for the first time, blurts out "Katar?" However, the Hawkman with whom Aquaman has had a long familiarity, working alongside him in the Justice League of America, is in current continuity, the Carter Hall Hawkman, Hawkman I. While it is true that Aquaman has met Katar (in particular, when they fought Scavenger, who turned out to be a barracuda avatar), this scene in JLA#6 would have been more appropriate if Orin had shouted "Carter?"
Additionally, in Spectre # 54, a flashback to a JLA/JSA crossover is shown. In this flashback, the JLA Hawkman and the JSA Hawkman are both visible together in the same panel. Unfortunately, this is impossible, since post-Crisis, they are the same person.
Furthermore, in JLA Secret Files #1, the Spectre claims that after a Starro-like entity enslaves the JLA, it will be able to conquer various worlds such as Rann, Thangar, and Dhor. The only problem is that Thanagar is shown with winged hawkmen. Either the Spectre was lying, or remarkable progress is about to be made on Thanagar.
In Books of Fate #12, Hawkman is shown in a bar in a scene that may not be in continuity, as other characters appearances were likewise impossible or difficult at best. These characters seemed to be grouped as characters whose comics were cancelled.
WHOOBOY! BIGTIME CONTINUITY GLITCH: In the Adventures in the DC Universe 80-page Giant, Chronos II visits various periods in time and space, as a result of which, he sees an adventure of the Silver Age Hawkman and Hawkwoman who battle the Silver Age-style Manhawks. The Hawks are explicitly called (by the narrator) the Thanagarians Katar Hol and Shayera Thal. This leaves no doubt that these are the Silver Age versions of these characters. This, of course, is impossible.
Q: If you're so smart, how would you fix the Hawkman continuity nightmare?
A: Simple. I'd explain that during Zero Hour Hawkman absorbed various fragments of alternate realities in addition to absorbing "all who wore the wings". As a result, Hawkman and his surroundings are often overwritten by these realities contained within him. However, the effect is localized, so that others who aren't near him may remember things differently. In my planned storyline, I'd show some of the more entertaining alternate possibilities before jettisonning them all... except for one, which would be a stable, noncontradictory history. The voices in his head would be gone, as they are part and parcel of the alternate realities that he has absorbed. As he spits out these fragments of alternate realities, some characters might be salvagable like the original Hawkman and Hawkgirl as well as possibly stranding some of the earlier so-called Hawk avatars in the modern day. Of course, the whole avatar reality would be gone because of its inherent contradictions.
More details available upon request.
Q: Where has Hawkman appeared in other media?
A: He, along with many DC heroes, appeared in pre-Superfriends Filmation cartoons. He has also appeared on episodes of Superfriends cartoons. He was one of the featured heroes in the two live-action Legends of the Superheroes TV shows. He has recently appeared on a Baby Ruth commercial. He has had action figures in the SuperPowers line, the dull Toy Biz DC Superheroes line, and the recent Total Justice line. He also has a PVC figure in the Comics Spain line. It is rumored that Hawkman will make a cameo in the new Superman movie. He is also one of many characters featured in the JLA expansion of the DC Overpower collectible card game.
Oh, and there are some other toys and stuff. Here are some pictures...
Furthermore, there was a version of Hawkman called
Warhawk in the Batman Beyond cartoon.
Warhawk was part of the JLU.
For more information about other DC characters, visit http://members.tripod.com/~ProfStein/dculist.html
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