AN OUTLINE OF THE HISTORY
AND CONTEMPORARY STATUS OF BUDDHISM IN MALAYSIA
¨ By Yeap Tor Hor and Kerry Trembath
- The early history of Buddhism in Malaysia
The sphere of influence of the early
Indian civilisations extended well beyond the sub-continent to include most of what is now
called South East Asia. That trade was the motivating force in this is clear from the
Sanskrit names given to South East Asian ports such as Takkolo (market of cardamom),
Karpuradvipa (island of camphor) and Suvarnabhumi (land of gold).
Colonists from India established a number of independent States in the
Malay Peninsula during the first five centuries CE. Buddhism (along with Hinduism) may
therefore have entered the Malay Peninsula at a very early period, in association with
Indian trading and colonising activities in the region. There is evidence for this early
contact in the mention of several place names from the peninsula in Pali canonical works
such as the Niddesa and the Milindapanha.
Buddhist missionary activities in Malaysia might have occurred as early
as the 3rd century CE. A Buddhist text describes how two Indian Buddhist monks,
Sona and Uttara, came to South East Asia after the Third Buddhist Council in India. A
Tibetan text also mentions that Dharmapala visited the Malay Peninsula, followed by
Dipankara Atisa around the same period. The journals of Fa-Hsi&127;en, a Chinese monk,
record that he stopped over Java and Malaysia on his voyage back from Sri Lanka to China
in 413 CE.
From the 8th to the 13th centuries CE, the entire
region was under the influence of the powerful Sailendra dynasty from central Java and the
maritime empire of Sri Vijaya that they founded. The rulers of this dynasty built many
Buddhist monuments, including the famous temple of Borobodur in central Java. The Chinese
Buddhist pilgrim I-Tsing in 671 CE described the Sri Vijayan capital at Bukit Seguntang as
an important centre of Buddhist learning, with more than a thousand monks devoting their
days to study and good works. I-Tsing used Chien-Cha (Kedah) and Lang-Chia-Shu
(Langkasuka) as stopping points on his pilgrimage to India. It is generally believed that
the earliest form of Buddhism practised in South East Asia was the so-called Hinayana
(present-day Theravada) but with the rise of Sri Vijaya, Mahayana Buddhism became more
Even after the kingdom of Sri Vijaya fell, Buddhist ideas and practice
could have continued to enter the Malay Peninsula as the northern Malayan States fell
under the influence of the Thais, and the southern Malayan States fell under the control
of the Javanese empire of Majapahit.
1.1 The archaeological and historical
Archaeologists have found evidence of this
early Buddhist influence in finds of Buddhist sculptures from the Amaravati school (2nd
to 4th century CE) in the present day Malaysian State of Kedah, in the north
west of the peninsula. Unfortunately, these finds have not so far included any written
evidence, such as inscriptions on stone, from this very early period.
Written evidence is however available from Chinese sources that
Buddhism was well established in the Malayan States by the 6th century CE. The
Chinese Annals record, for instance, that the ruler of a Malayan State described as
Pan Pan sent envoys to the Chinese court in 527, 530 and 536 CE with gifts
including Buddhist relics, miniature painted stupas and leaves of the Bodhi Tree. Other
Malayan States recorded in the Annals as having despatched envoys and gifts at this time
were described as Tan-Tan, Chip-tu and Fo-Lo-An. It was recorded that the
Buddhas birthday was celebrated every year on the full moon of the sixth month with
processions and music, and that foreign merchants participated in the celebrations. The
Buddhist priests were named in the Chinese records as Pi-chiu (bhikkhu).
Chinese trading contact with South East Asia can be traced to as early
as the 3rd century CE, when the Southern kingdom of Wu sent a mission to South
East Asia to report on the political situation there. They wrote of more than a hundred
kingdoms in what they referred to as the Southern Seas. The mission had
important consequences. It encouraged many more South East Asian states to open official
relations with China. The rich markets of China became even more important to South East
Asian states as the Chinese became more ardent in their new Buddhist faith. Because of
Buddhism, the Chinese began to use incense, and the best incense was made from the
aromatic woods found in South East Asia. The Chinese also valued some of the objects of
worship to be found in the Buddhist centres of the region, both in India and Sri Vijaya.
Excavations of sites in Kedah and in the neighbouring State of Penang
have brought to light a large number of buildings which appear to have been temples,
sanctuaries or other kinds of Buddhist settlements and in which were found stupas and
mutilated sculptures. These sites have been dated to as early as the 4th or 5th
century CE from inscriptions in Sanskrit inscribed on stone or slate slabs. One of these
inscriptions, found on a stone slab under a ruined house in Kedah near Bukit Merian,
contained the Buddhist formula "Ye dharma hetuprabhava
." as well as
verses which have been translated as "Karma is accumulated through Ajnana, Karma
is the cause of birth. Jnana leads to desistance from Karma, and in the absence of Karma,
there is no rebirth".
Another important find is a clay tablet found in Kedah on which is
inscribed three Sanskrit verses in a 6th century South Indian script. The
verses may be the earliest Mahayana inscriptions yet found in South East Asia. Further
evidence of the prevalence of Mahayana Buddhism can also be seen in the large number of
clay tablets of somewhat later date (around 10th century CE) also found in
Kedah that bear Mahayana texts. Also of interest are two miniature paintings of
Avalokitesvara described as "Avalokitesvara of the Valavati Hill in Kataha-dvipa"
(this being the ancient name for Kedah).
Buddhist inscriptions dating back to the 4th century CE have
been found in other parts of Peninsular Malaysia, especially in Cheruk Tekun opposite
Penang and other parts of Province Wellesley. Buddha images and other articles were found
at Kuala Selinsing, Kinta Valley, Tanjung Rambutan, Bidor and Sungei Siput, all in Perak
State. Buddhist images were also discovered as far into the interior as in the State of
Pahang, located in the central region of the country.
There is also historical evidence that in 1006 CE, Chulamanivarmadeva,
described in inscriptions as "the king of Kataha (Kedah) and Srivishaya (Sri
Vijaya)", built a Buddhist temple at Negapatam. The Chola King Rajaraja I (present
day Coromandel in India) gave the revenue of a large village to support the temple.
Ruins of ancient Buddhist temples have also been excavated on the
eastern coast of the Malay Peninsula, although some of these sites are in what is now
Thailand. Stone and bronze images of the Buddha and of the Buddha in his aspect as
Lokesvara (Lord of the World) have been found at these sites. These have been dated to as
late as the 13th century CE. As some of these sites were located in the State
known as Pan Pan, which as already mentioned was known to the authors of the
Chinese Annals from as early as the 6th century CE, it appears that Buddhist
influence in the area spread over 700 years.
Much of the archaeological work referred to above was carried out in
the early 1900s, during the British colonial period in Malaya. More recent work has been
done from the 1970s in Kedah as part of the Bujang Valley archaeological project. This has
established that the Bujang Valley was once a prosperous centre for settlement and trade,
situated as it was on one of the main transit routes connecting the east and west coasts
of the Peninsula.
Numerous temple sites have been found in the Bujang Valley and Merbok
Estuary in Kedah, providing further proof of the existence of a Hindu-Buddhist period in
Malaysian history from the 4th to the 14th century CE. The site
museum is situated at the foot of Bukit Batu Pahat. Visitors can view some of the Bujang
Valley excavation area finds, and can inspect some of the excavated ruins in the vicinity.
1.2 The coming of Islam to Malaysia
With the conversion of the Melaka
Sultanate (the Malay kingdom which ruled both side of the Straits of Melaka for over a
hundred years), Islam was established as the religion of the Malays, and had profound
effect on Malay society.
The early period of Buddhist influence in the peninsula had begun to
wane due to the revival of Hinduism, and then was brought to a close by the growing
prevalence of Islam as a commercial and political force in the region. The spread of
Islam, introduced by Arab and Indian traders, brought the Hindu-Buddhist era in the Malay
Peninsula to an end by the turn of the 14th century. Around the beginning of
the 15th century CE, the Malay-Hindu rulers of the kingdom of Malacca were
converted to Islam and Malacca became a centre for the further spread of Islam throughout
the Malay Peninsula.
Though Buddhism largely disappeared from the Malay Peninsula at this
time, traces of its influence remained in the cultures of the local people. The performing
arts in the States of Kedah, Perlis and Kelantan have been strongly influenced by Buddhist
legends and stories. The shadow play or wayang kulit and dance forms such as menora and
makyung are all testimonies that Buddhism was once a powerful religious and cultural
influence in Malaysia.
- Contact with China
We know from the accounts of Fa-Hsien and
I-Tsing that Chinese pilgrims used various points on the Malay Peninsula as stopovers on
their way to and from India. We also know from Chinese records that there was diplomatic
contact between China and the Malay States from very early times. Perhaps the most
significant official contacts between China took place during the period of the burgeoning
influence of Islam in the region. It was during this time that the Chinese admiral,
explorer, and diplomat Zheng He (Cheng Ho) made his seven voyages to South East Asia and
beyond to India, the Persian Gulf, East Africa, and Egypt. His seven voyages between 1405
and 1431 CE opened trade and diplomatic ties for China with at least 35 countries, and
encouraged the emigration that was the basis of Chinese colonisation in South East Asia.
The scale of these expeditions can be gauged from the Chinese records, which show that
Zhengs first expedition alone comprised 62 large ships and 27,800 crew.
Zhengs journeys, including the very first, usually included
Malacca. As Buddhism by that time was well established in China, it is interesting to
speculate whether this contact provided any opportunity for the locals to be exposed to
Chinese Buddhist philosophy and practice. In the Sejarah Melayu or Malay Annals, a very
early history of the Malay kingdoms, it is recorded that a princess from the Chinese
imperial court named Hang Liu (Hang Li Po) was given in marriage to Mansur, the Sultan of
Malacca from 1456 to 1477. The princess was said to be the daughter of the Chinese
The Sejarah Melayu also records that the princess was accompanied by
five hundred young men of high rank (sons of Chinese ministers) and a number of
maidservants. The Chinese who accompanied the princess settled in Malacca on and around
the hill known even to this day as Bukit Cina (Chinese Hill). It can be assumed that many
of the Chinese men took local wives and that many of the maidservants became wives or
consorts to local men. Such domestic alliances would have provided other channels through
which Chinese influence could be transmitted to supplement the mercantile, military and
colonial channels that are usually the focus of our history books!
- The contemporary period
The arrival of significant numbers of
Chinese immigrants in the Malay Peninsula after the 17th century marked the
beginning of a new wave of Buddhist influence in Malaysia. This grew stronger in the 19th
century during the British colonial period in Malaya, when a much larger influx of Chinese
immigrants came to work in the tin mines and in other occupations. This was a time
favourable to the growth of Buddhism, as well as other religions, because the official
British policy was one of non-interference in the religions of the local people.
The Chinese were strongly influenced by Confucianism and Taoism but
they also believed in Buddhism. Therefore, the Buddhism practised by the Chinese in
Malaysia was a combination of Confucian values, Taoist beliefs, indigenous Chinese folk
practices and mainly Mahayana (predominantly Pure Land) Buddhism.
The population census conducted by the Malaysian Government in 1991
listed 3.2 million Malaysians as Buddhists and 0.9 million as Confucianists/Taoists out of
a total population of 17.6 million. On these figures, it would appear that Buddhists
accounted for 18 percent of the total population in 1991, but since many of those
categorised as Confucianists/Taoists in the Census also followed
Buddhist practices, the total number of Malaysians following Buddhism would be closer to
24 percent. Most of the Chinese in Malaysia are Mahayana Buddhists, though a smaller
number, especially among the English-educated, follow the Theravada tradition.
3.1 Mahayana Buddhism in Malaysia
Some of the earliest Mahayana Buddhist
temples were set up in Penang. The Kuan Imm Teng Temple in Pitt Street traces its origin
to the early 1800s. The Cheng Hoon Teng Temple built even earlier in Malacca is also
dedicated to Avalokitesvara&127; Bodhisattva. These two temples are reputedly the oldest
Buddhist temples in the country. However, both temples today are perhaps better known as
tourist spots rather than as dhamma centres, though it is common to see thousands of
devotees during various Mahayana Buddhist festivals.
In 1887, Venerable Miao Lian from Fuchow in China came to Penang and
started the construction of the Kek Lok Si Monastery, which was officially opened in 1905.
The architecture reflects the influence of Thai, Burmese and Chinese Buddhism as can be
seen in its multi-tiered pagoda. The words "Kek Lok" in the temples
name are the Chinese equivalent of the Sanskrit term "Sukhavati", meaning
`pure land. In the 1980s the monastery was also used as a retreat centre and
for the ordination of monks and nuns following the Mahayana tradition. The temple was for
a time considered to be the largest Buddhist temple in South East Asia. It has continued
to expand and refurbish its buildings, and is still today a very popular tourist
The Penang Buddhist Association was founded in 1925 and its temple in
Anson Road was completed in 1931. It is clear from the stated aim of the Association,
which was to propagate the correct teachings of Buddhism, that many considered that
Buddhism was not being properly disseminated in the country at that time. The Penang
Buddhist Association became one of the earliest Buddhist temples to realise that much of
the Buddhism that was practised in the country had become a distorted version of the true
teaching under the influence of local superstitions and non-Buddhist traditional
A Youth Circle of the Penang Buddhist Association to cater to both the
Chinese and English speaking membership was set up in 1955 by the American Buddhist monk,
Venerable Sumangalo, who was a resident monk at the temple from 1955 until his death in
1963. Some of the innovations introduced by Venerable Sumangalo were the singing of
Buddhist hymns, and a Dharma Sunday School. The youth organisation he established became
the forerunner of many similar Buddhist youth groups throughout the country such as the
Malayan Buddhist Youth Fellowship and the Federation of Malayan Buddhist Youth
Fellowships. Venerable Sumangalo visited Australia for a few weeks in 1956, attracting
large audiences to the series of Dharma talks he gave in Melbourne and Sydney, and giving
a considerable impetus to the fledgling Buddhist movement in Australia at that time.
Although the Penang Buddhist Association was a Mahayana temple, it
adopted a non-sectarian approach by inviting Theravada monks such as the late Venerable K.
Gunaratana Maha Nayaka Thera and Venerable P. Pemaratana Maha Nayaka Thera from the nearby
Sinhalese Mahindarama Temple to give religious talks. Venerable Sumangalo himself has been
quoted as saying, "I do not call myself a Theravadin or a Mahayanist. I am simply
a follower of Lord Buddha".
A Buddhist nun of the Mahayana tradition, Venerable Fang Lian (or Hong
Lien) established the Phor Th&127;ay Institute (or Nunnery) in 1936. Within a few years,
this institution also set up an orphanage and a school, the Phor Thay Chinese Primary
School, to cater for the needs of Chinese Buddhist children by teaching the Buddha Dhamma
as well as the usual subjects. Later, the Phor Thay (National Type) Chinese High School
and the Phor Thay (Private) Chinese High School were added to cater for the secondary
education of Buddhist students. These three schools now cater for over 3,000 students from
Penang and the northern states of Malaysia.
In 1950, a group of 14 Buddhists from Malaya, which at that time
included Singapore, went to Colombo, Sri Lanka to attend the Inaugural General Conference
of The World Fellowship of Buddhists (WFB). On their return, the Buddhists in Penang
formed The World Fellowship of Buddhists Penang Regional Centre in 1951. Later, WFB
Regional Centres were also established in Selangor and Singapore.
The Malaysian Buddhist Association was formed on April 19, 1959. Its
first President was Venerable Chuk Mor. The Association is the umbrella body for Chinese
Mahayana monks and numerous temples in Malaysia. Its building at 182 Burmah Road in Penang
also houses the independently managed Buddhist Free School and the Malaysian Buddhist
Institute. The Buddhist Free School has for many years been providing adult education for
Chinese Buddhists, giving them an opportunity to learn languages such as Chinese, English
and Bahasa Malaysia, as well as other useful subjects. The Malaysian Buddhist Institute is
an organisation that trains Chinese Buddhist monks and nuns, while giving other Buddhists
an opportunity for more in-depth study of Buddhism.
Venerable Chuk Mor, a well-known scholar monk of the Mahayana
tradition, was born on August 13,1913 in China. He was ordained a monk at age 12 in 1924
and came to Penang on May 4,1954. In July 1962, Venerable Chuk Mor founded the Triple
Wisdom Hall to teach Ch'an (Chinese Zen) meditation to devotees. This became the first
Chinese Buddhist temple in Malaysia where systematic Ch'an meditation was taught. He was a
prime mover in establishing the Malaysian Buddhist Institute in 1969 to provide a more
comprehensive training to Chinese Mahayana monks and nuns.
One of his many disciples, Venerable Sik Chi Chern, became the
president of the Young Buddhist Association of Malaysia (YBAM) for three terms, from
1990-1996, becoming the first monk to head a major lay Buddhist organisation with over 200
affiliate members throughout the country.
For his contribution to Buddhism, Venerable Chuk Mor was conferred one
of the highest awards of the State of Penang, the Darjah Setia Pangkuan Negeri (DSPN). The
award carries the title of Datuk, the nearest English equivalent to which might be the
title of Sir. He is the first Buddhist monk to be conferred this prestigious award.
The second president of YBAM was Venerable Kim Beng, who was also the
Chief Abbot of Cheng Hoon Teng Temple in Malacca. He headed the organisation for many
years, before he gave up the post due to his advanced age. He played an active role in the
propagation of Buddhism in Malaysia and was also a prolific writer. The Malaysian
Government honoured him with the Jasa Setia Mahkota (JSM) award for his contributions to
Venerable Chip Hong, the current President of the Malaysian Buddhist
Association is also the Chief Abbot of a Buddhist temple in Seremban, Negri Sembilan. He
is a well-known Chinese physician.
The Than Hsiang Temple in Bayan Lepas, Penang, should also be mentioned
for its contribution to Buddhism in Malaysia. Established by Venerable Wei Wu, a Malaysian
Chinese who had formerly been an engineer, the temple has become well known for its
charitable and welfare activities, including counselling. In the field of education, it
runs a kindergarten school and has also started a Diploma in Buddhist Studies course in
association with the Pali and Buddhist University of Sri Lanka. Though Venerable Wei Wu
was ordained in the Chinese Mahayana tradition, he is very open to Theravada teachings, as
can be seen in the Sri Lanka-based diploma program he initiated.
Other major Chinese Mahayana temples are found in the Kuala Lumpur
area. They include the Kuan Imm Teng in Petaling Jaya established by Venerable Keng Aun,
Hoeh Beng Temple, Tham Wah Wan and Wisma Buddhist. There are also large Chinese Buddhist
temples and monasteries in all the state capitals of the country.
Buddhism from China has traditionally influenced Chinese Buddhism in
Malaysia. For instance, most of the senior Chinese Buddhist monks in Malaysia were born in
China and migrated to the country during the British period or after mainland China became
a Communist country in 1949.
More recently, Buddhist teachers from Taiwan have started centres in
Malaysia. The most significant is the Fo Kuang Shan group under Venerable Hsing Yun. They
started the Buddhas Light Vihara in Kuala Lumpur, which was headed by a local monk,
Venerable Hui Hai, until recently. The temple conducts dhamma classes and other religious
activities and has a growing number of well-educated supporters. In 1998 Venerable Hsing
Yun was invited to Malaysia to give a series of Buddhist talks to the public, in a joint
effort between the Buddhas Light Vihara and the Malaysian Chinese Association, the
Chinese political party in the ruling coalition under Prime Minister Dr Mahathir Mohamed.
This is the first time in Malaysia that a political party has jointly organised a series
of public lectures on Buddhism with a Buddhist organisation.
The other influence from Taiwan is the Buddhist Tzu Chi Merit Society
started by Venerable Zheng Yen in Hualien in 1966. In Malaysia, Tzu Chi activities in
charity and welfare started in 1990. In 1993 the first official Tzu Chi centre was
established in Kuala Lumpur, and was soon followed by similar centres in Penang, Melaka
The late Venerable Hsuan Hua with many of his Chinese and American
disciples visited Malaysia during the 1980s and 1990s to give dhamma teachings. The local
disciples of Venerable Hsuan Hua have since started a monastery in Kuala Lumpur where
visiting monks from the City of Ten Thousand Buddhas in California, USA, can reside during
their dhamma visits to Malaysia.
3.2 Theravada Buddhism in Malaysia
While those of Chinese descent form the
majority of the Buddhist population in Malaysia, a smaller number of Thais, Burmese and
Sinhalese in the country also practise Buddhism. The Chinese tend to follow the Mahayana
tradition, whereas the Thai, Burmese and Sinhalese communities generally follow the
The Thai community is found mainly in the northern states of Perlis,
Kedah and Kelantan, which were once Thai territory until it was ceded to the British in
1909 to become part of the Unfederated Malay States of British Malaya. Some Thais have
also moved to Penang and Kuala Lumpur. It is estimated that there are about 200 Thai
temples, including small village wats, in the country. Most are located in the northern
part of Malaysia.
The Thai temples also attract many local Chinese devotees. Although
some of the monks at these temples are Malaysian born, there are few of them who are
fluent enough in the national language, Malay, or in the other widely spoken languages of
Chinese or English, to give teachings on Buddhism. Therefore, the activities at these
temples are mostly limited to Pali chanting, blessing services, and offering of food
(sanghika dana) to the monks.
An exception is the Malaysian Buddhist Meditation Centre in Green Lane,
Penang. It is a Thai temple established in 1918 and historically known as Wat Candaram. As
the name by which it is now known implies, it is a meditation temple. During the 1970s the
abbot of the temple was Phra Khru Dhammabanchanvud (or Abhidhammapalanana Maha Thero), a
learned Thai monk trained in the Mahasi Sayadaw form of vipassana meditation at Wat
Mahathat (Section 5) in Bangkok. When he was the abbot, he gave teachings on Buddhism,
including the abhidhamma, and perhaps for the first time in Malaysia, introduced vipassana
meditation to the devotees. His dhamma activities attracted many young Malaysians,
including high school students and undergraduates from the nearby Universiti Sains
Malaysia. This was quite a contrast to other Thai temples that attracted the less educated
and generally older Chinese devotees who came mainly for the ceremonies and rituals.
However, Phra Khru Dhammabanchanvud's religious ministry had to be cut
short and he had to return to Thailand because his visa to Malaysia could not be renewed.
Nevertheless, his efforts had borne fruits. Some of his students, including Venerable
Sujivo, a Malaysian Chinese monk, followed up his noble work by continuing to teach
vipassana meditation at the Centre and later in other parts of the country. Lately,
Burmese monks of the Mahasi tradition have been visiting the Centre and also other parts
of Malaysia to teach vipassana meditation to Malaysians.
The other Thai monk who has contributed to spreading Buddhism in
Malaysia is Venerable Phra Silananda, during the time he was residing at Wat Pin Bang Onn
(founded in 1889) in Penang. The temple is situated next to the Malaysian Buddhist
Meditation Centre in Green Lane and had an active Sunday School when the venerable monk
was its teacher. However, when he left the country for England, its Sunday School and many
other religious activities ceased. Today Venerable Phra (now Chao Khun) Silananda
continues his dhamma work at the Buddhapadipa Temple in London.
The Burmese and Sinhalese communities are much smaller than the Thai
community. The Burmese are mainly concentrated in Penang, and their Dhammikarama Temple in
Burmah Lane (popularly regarded as having been founded in 1803 but perhaps more accurately
dating to around 1828) is the only Burmese temple in Malaysia. The Dhammikarama Burmese
Temple in Burmah Lane was active with religious activities when Venerable U Pannavamsa was
residing there. A learned scholar, he taught abhidhamma and meditation to the devotees. He
also supported the Sunday School at the temple. However, religious talks and meditation
classes are now organised on a less regular basis due to lack of monks with the necessary
experience and skills.
However, it is interesting to note that the Burmese contribution to
Malaysian Buddhism has extended well beyond their only temple in Penang. Thanks to the
connection Venerable Phra Khru Dhammabanchanvud has made with the Mahasi Sayadaw
tradition, many Burmese monks are now teaching vipassana meditation in Malaysia. Venerable
Mahasi Sayadaw himself visited Malaysia in 1980 to give teachings and introduce vipassana
meditation classes. Regular vipassana meditation retreats are now held at the Malaysian
Buddhist Meditation Centre, Santisukarama Buddhist Centre in Kota Tinggi (Johor), Taiping
Buddhist Society (Perak), Buddhaganu Sasana Centre (Malacca), Selangor Vipassana Centre
(Petaling Jaya), Subang Jaya Buddhist Association (Selangor) and also in East Malaysia.
Some of the Burmese monks who have been regularly teaching vipassana meditation to
Malaysians include Venerable Sayadaw U Pandita, Venerable Sayadaw U Pannathami and
Venerable Sayadaw U Rewatta. Another Burmese teacher, Venerable Sayadaw U Janaka, though
from a different Burmese meditation tradition, has also taught meditation in Malaysia.
The other major contribution to Theravada Buddhism in Malaysia comes
from the Sinhalese monks. They are generally English-speaking and have been formally
trained in Buddhism. The Sinhalese have a temple in each of Penang and Taiping and two in
Kuala Lumpur, and these temples attract a largely English-educated group of devotees.
A leading Theravada Buddhist centre in Penang is the Mahindarama Temple
in Kampar Road, Penang. Founded in 1918 by Venerable A. Pemaratana, the Mahindarama Temple
was very active in dhamma propagation activities under Venerable K. Gunaratana Maha Nayaka
Thera (1933-1964). An eloquent preacher, Venerable Gunaratana was able to attract a large
number of young and educated Buddhists to the temple. He also gave dhamma talks in other
parts of the country. He organised regular dhamma activities and a Sunday School for
children. After his death, Venerable P. Pemaratana Maha Nayaka Thera continued with many
religious activities at the temple.
Compared to Thai monks in Malaysia, the Sinhalese monks are generally
more missionary minded. This could be because they had received a more formal training in
Buddhism at the monastic colleges in Sri Lanka, and are able to communicate in English,
the language of the educated during that time. Also, there was an on-going Buddhist
revival in Sri Lanka following the conversion of Col. H.S. Olcott and the missionary zeal
of Buddhist reformers such as Venerable Anagarika Dharmapala (1864-I933).
The other major Sinhalese Buddhist centre is at the Buddhist Maha
Vihara in Brickfields, Kuala Lumpur. The temple was founded by the Sasana Abhiwurdhi
Wardhana Society in 1895. Originally set up to cater to the religious needs of the
Sinhalese community in the Kuala Lumpur area, the temple today caters to Buddhists of all
ethnic groups, including the Chinese who undoubtedly form the largest group of devotees.
It has a very well organised Sunday School that has an enrolment of over 200 students from
pre-school to junior high school. There are also regular religious talks on Sunday
mornings and Friday evenings, counselling sessions and meditation classes on other days.
The temple also houses an active Youth Section and a Ladies Section.
Much of the success of the Buddhist Maha Vihara must be attributed to
the Venerable Dr K. Sri Dhammananda Maha Nayaka Thera. Born on March 18,1919, he first
arrived in Malaysia on January 2, 1952 and has since then embarked on a comprehensive
missionary program for the Malaysian Buddhist community. He started the Buddhist
Missionary Society in 1963 to propagate Buddhism to the masses. Through the Society, he
gave public talks and organised seminars on Buddhism throughout the country. He also wrote
and published numerous books on Buddhism, especially with the objective of clearing
misconceptions about Buddhism in Malaysia. Many of these books, including "What
Buddhists Believe" and "Treasures of the Dhamma" are classic
texts for any class on Buddhist studies. Buddhist groups in other countries have also
translated a number of his books into foreign languages.
One of Venerable Dhammananda's disciples is Venerable Mahinda from
Malacca. Venerable Mahinda was influenced by Buddhism during his younger days at the
Malacca Buddhist Association (Seck Kia Eenh) and his interest in the Buddha's teachings
deepened when he was studying at university in New Zealand. He later became a monk under
Venerable Dhammananda and since then has assisted in numerous missionary activities in
both Malaysia and Singapore. He now heads the Australian Buddhist Mission in Sydney but
returns regularly to Malaysia to assist in dhamma activities, especially during the annual
Novitiate Program held at the Buddhist Maha Vihara.
3.3 Japanese Buddhism in Malaysia
Japanese Buddhism, including Zen, has not
made a significant impact on Malaysian Buddhism so far. The only form of Japanese Buddhism
that has spread to Malaysia is Nichiren Shoshu, sometime during the early 1960s. It was
brought to Malaysia by Japanese businessmen working in Malaysia as well as by Malaysians
who had studied in Japan.
During the 1980s, when the Malaysian Government was emphasising the
"Look East Policy" of emulating Japan in industrialisation, management
styles and work ethics, other things "Japanese" also became in vogue.
Japanese Buddhism was one of them. Today there are Nichiren Shoshu centres in most major
towns in the country, including Kuala Lumpur, Penang, Ipoh, Malacca and Kuantan. The
fellowship among the followers is strong but they seldom have contacts with other Buddhist
groups within Malaysia.
3.4 Tibetan Buddhism in Malaysia
Tibetan Buddhism is the latest to enter
Malaysia but is perhaps the most widely known form of Buddhism in some circles because of
the considerable publicity it attracts. The publicity over His Holiness the Dalai Lama
winning the Nobel Peace Prize in 1995, the publication of Sogyal Rinpoche's Tibetan Book
of Living and Dying, the Free Tibet Movement led by movie stars and rock singers and the
Hollywood portrayal of Tibet in "Seven Years in Tibet" and "Kundun",
have aroused the interest and imagination of many in Malaysia, Buddhists and non-Buddhists
alike, in Tibetan Buddhism.
Historically, the visit of the Venerable Gwalya Karmapa of the Kagyu
school in December 1980 marked the first official introduction of Tibetan Buddhism to
Malaysia. Subsequently, other Tibetan lamas, including Venerable Tai Situpa Rinpoche, have
visited Malaysia for both teachings and initiations. Today, the Karma Kagyu school has
numerous centres in the country but they work closely with Buddhist organisations of both
the Theravada and Mahayana traditions.
His Holiness The Dalai Lama also visited Malaysia in 1981 and was
accorded a warm welcome by Buddhists of both the Theravada and Chinese Mahayana
traditions. Other Tibetan teachers have continued to visit Malaysia, usually at the
request of their devotees in the country. The most celebrated teachers have included Lama
Yeshe's incarnation Osel Tenzin and Lama Yeshe's successor Lama Zopa Rinpoche. In 1996
Lama Zopa's followers started the Losang Drapga Centre in Ampang, Kuala Lumpur, where
regular teachings on Tibetan Buddhism are provided. Many of Lama Zopa's Western disciples,
including Venerable Sangye Khadro, Venerable Thubten Chodron and Venerable Thubten
Tsultrim have given talks and conducted seminars in Malaysia.
The establishment of lay associations
Associations of Buddhist lay people have
played a vital role in sustaining and developing Buddhism in Malaysia, not only in the
traditional area of support for temples and for the Sangha, but also in the fields of
education and publishing.
4.1 The Young Buddhist Association of
The Young Buddhist Association of Malaysia
(YBAM) was established in 1970. It is a federation of 243 Buddhist youth organisations
throughout the country, with a total membership of over 100,000. The YBAM also has an
associate membership of over 3,000 members. The YBAM was established to unite Buddhist
groups throughout the country, especially the youth, under one umbrella organisation.
It runs a range of activities, from religious talks and meditation
camps to social welfare activities for its members. Together with the Malaysian Buddhist
Association, it conducts the annual Malaysian Buddhist Examinations for students at
various levels. TheYBAM has also received recognition from the Government and is
represented at the Malaysian Youth Council.
Closely associated with the YBAM is the Young Buddhist Foundation that
was established in 1976 to provide funding support to the YBAM for its activities. Through
the Foundation, the YBAM has taken up a significant stake in a Vegetarian Restaurant and
also started a typesetting business, both in Penang. The Foundation is involved in various
religious as well as welfare activities, including awarding scholarships to needy but
bright students, and supporting a Sangha Fund for monks and nuns.
4.2 The Buddhist Gem Fellowship
Originally started as the Buddhist
Graduates Fellowship (BGF) in 1980 by a group of local university graduates, the BGF has
grown to become a prominent group of Buddhist leaders providing training and leadership
support to college students in local universities. Through the Inter-College and Varsity
(INCOVAR) Camps, the BGF has been successful in providing support and training to the
students in managing the Buddhist societies at the various universities in Malaysia. Many
of these students subsequently become members of the BGF when they graduate, and then in
turn help their juniors back on campus.
4.3 Meditation groups
During the past 20 years, meditation has
become an increasing part of Buddhist practice among devotees in Malaysia. In the Chinese
Mahayana tradition, temples that teach meditation include Hoe Beng Si in Kuala Lumpur,
Taiping Buddhist Society (Perak) and Triple Wisdom Hall and Malaysian Buddhist Institute
In the Theravada tradition, many meditation centres were established
recently. Those in the Kuala Lumpur area include the Selangor Vipassana Centre, Wisdom
Centre and the Subang Jaya Buddhist Association. Their teacher is Venerable Sujivo, who
teaches meditation based on the Mahasi Sayadaw tradition. There are also other smaller
meditation groups in Johor Bahru (Metta Lodge) and in Kota Tinggi (Santisukarama Buddhist
Centre), both in the southern state of Johor.
In the northern region, there are meditation centres in Lunas and Bukit
Perak in Kedah and at the Taiping Insight Meditation Centre in Taiping, Perak. All these
centres follow the Burmese method of meditation as taught by the late Venerable Mahasi
Sayadaw. In addition to Venerable Sujivo, two other well-known local Theravada meditation
monks, Venerable Suvanno and Venerable Visuddhacara, are teaching vipassana meditation.
Venerable Suvanno, who is now in his 70s, has a meditation hermitage in Lunas (Kedah) and
another centre in Penang Hill. Venerable Vissudhacara, a prolific writer, used to reside
at the Malaysian Buddhist Meditation Centre but now has no specific place of residence.
Other Malaysian Theravada monks who teach meditation include Venerable
Chamriang in Kedah, Venerable Javanna in Kota Bahru, Kelantan, and Venerable Dhammavuddho
who used to be based in Penang but has recently moved to Perak where he is setting up a
4.4 Dharma publications
A number of Malaysian Buddhist
organisations are prominent in the publication of Dharma books in English and Chinese,
such as the Buddhist Missionary Society and the Wisdom Audio Visual Exchange in Kuala
Lumpur, and Sukhi Hotu and the Malaysian Buddhist Meditation Centre, both in Penang. These
publications, many of which are for free distribution, are of great value in providing
wider access to the Buddhas teachings. As these books are often available outside
Malaysia, the influence of Malaysian Buddhism is being felt throughout the region. This
influence is also evident in the high esteem in which prominent Malaysian monks such as
Venerable Dhammananda and Venerable Mahinda are held in other countries, including
Indications are that Buddhism is again on
the rise in Malaysia. Although Islam is the State religion of Malaysia and the religion of
the Malay people who constitute the majority of the population, Malaysian Buddhists have
enjoyed the freedom to practise their religion. The majority of Malaysian Buddhists are of
Chinese ethnic origin, with smaller numbers from other ethnic backgrounds such as Thai,
Burmese and Sinhalese. Unlike most other Asian countries, where the form of Buddhism
practised is predominantly either Mahayana or Theravada, all the major traditions of
Buddhism are thriving in happy coexistence in Malaysia.
The many Buddhist temples and organisations which have been established
over the past 20 years bear testimony to the fact that the Buddha's teaching is alive and
well. Many Malaysians have also become monks, and a number of them have been in the
monkhood for more than 10 years. Many young and educated Malaysian Chinese are also
rediscovering Buddhism, as can be seen in the increasing enrolment in Buddhist classes at
the major Buddhist centres in Kuala Lumpur and other cities. They are interested in
exploring the Buddha's teaching rather than relying on traditional customs and beliefs
practiced by the older generation of their parents and grandparents.
The future of Buddhism in Malaysia is bright but, as is the case
throughout the world, much depends on the continuation and extension of the good work that
is being done in the area of Buddhist education. Much also depends on the continued
willingness of the major Buddhist organisations, whether Theravada, Mahayana or Vajrayana,
to work together with a common vision. May the Triple Gem guide Malaysian Buddhists in the
next millennium with the energy, resourcefulness and innovation they have applied so
successfully to their efforts in the last years of the present millennium.
Dr Sukumar Sengupta, Buddhism in South-East Asia, Atisha
Memorial Publishing Society, Calcutta, 1994.
Benny Liow Woon Khin, Buddhist Temples and Associations in Penang,
1945-1948, Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Vol LXII
Part 1, 1989.
Venerable Sumangalo 40 Years of Appreciation, a
collection of some of Venerable Sumangalos Dharma talks with biographical notes by
Dato Khoo Keat Soo, a free distribution publication of the Penang Buddhist
Association Dharma Sunday School, undated.
Buddhism in Malaysia, Volume 2, Young Buddhist Association of
Malaysia, Buddhist Digest Publication Board, 1987
Paul Croucher, Buddhism in Australia 1848-1988, New South Wales
University Press, 1989.
Unpublished notes on the history and contemporary status of Buddhism in
Malaysia compiled by Mr Yeap Tor Hor of Penang, Malaysia.