|Of all the developments in the health sciences none
have demonstrated the profound beneficial impacts on society that vaccination has.
The relatively low expense of vaccines makes them the one of the most cost-effective
health procedures available.
of Hep A vaccine
Economics of DTaP vaccine Cost-effectiveness of pneumococcal vaccine
Cost-Benefit of Varicella vaccine Cost-Effectiveness of Polio vaccine
Benefit-cost of Measles vaccine
|Smallpox||A highly communicable disease that throughout the course of human history has killed hundreds of millions of people. Smallpox has been eradicated through a worldwide immunization program. Details.|
|Polio||This great crippler disease has been eradicated from the Americas and the advanced countries of the world. It remains a threat in isolated pockets in third-world countries and threatens to re-emerge unless continued efforts are made. A major effort is under way to eradicate polio.|
|Measles||By 1996 the worldwide death rate from measles had been reduced by 88%, but nearly one million still die each year from measles. Details.|
|Pertussis||Pertussis was a major cause of morbidity among infants during the prevaccine era (i.e., before the mid-1940s). The highest number of pertussis cases (approximately 260,000) was reported in 1934; the highest number of pertussis-related deaths (approximately 9000) occurred in 1923. Following the licensure of whole-cell pertussis vaccine the incidence of reported pertussis declined to a historical low of 1010 cases in 1976.|
|Diphtheria||At one time, diphtheria was common in the
United States. More than 200,000 cases, primarily among children, were reported in 1921.
Approximately 5%-10% of cases were fatal. Reported cases of diphtheria of all types
declined from 306 in 1975 to 59 in 1979). From 1980 to 1989, only 24 cases of
respiratory diphtheria were reported.
|Hepatitis||Approximately 21,500 cases of hepatitis A,
24,300 cases of hepatitis B, 3,500 cases of non-A, non-B hepatitis, and 7,100 cases of
hepatitis type unspecified were reported in the United States in 1983. Most cases of each
type occur among young adults. After a series of three intramuscular doses of hepatitis B
vaccine, over 90% of healthy adults
develop protective antibody.
|Before the introduction of effective
vaccines, Hib was the leading cause of bacterial meningitis and other invasive bacterial
disease among children less than 5 years of age; approximately one in 200 children
developed invasive Hib disease before the age of 5 years.
Meningitis occurred in approximately two thirds of children with invasive Hib disease, resulting in hearing impairment or
neurologic sequelae in 15%-30%. The case-fatality rate was 2%-5%.
More Information Why my baby should get the Hib vaccine.
|Chicken Pox||Chickenpox or varicella is usually a benign, highly contagious disease caused by varicella-zoster (V-Z) virus. The disease occurs primarily among preschool and young, school-aged children. Details|