qIb HeHDaq

On The Edge of The Galaxy


0407.01 Hovjaj    ghItlhta'  qoq ghItlhwI'

on stardate 0502.30, the ILS editor posted this edition



nuqneH! This is qIb HeHDaq on the Web, an Internet edition of the journal of the Interstellar Language School.   Let us know if you note errors or  things we should correct!

0201.16

You are visitor: to the Edge of the Galaxy! majQa'!


VORAGH'S NOTES ON KLINGON CURSING


va, yorIq Do'Ha'.

vISovchu'pu' HoreySo'.

Alas, unfortunate Yorick. I knew him well Horatio.


Homlet Clawword -- From G.F. Proechel's Homlet Prince of Kronos, c. 1995

Questions Across

1. HeghmeH QongmeH not __________. (to sleep again)

3. HoreySo', reH _______ ________ SoH. (good man -- two words)

5. Homlet: _________ che'wI' Qup. (Kronos)

7. _________. tIqwIj 'aw SoQlIj. (ou are very right)

8. Hoch _______ qa'lIjvaD yIteH. (Above)

12. _________ QujDoch SoH. (for emperors)

13. qa'wIj ______ tarvam HoSghaj. (defeats)

14. qatlh nughoStaH ________ ______? (this important nobelman -- two

words)

Questions Down

2. parmaqlIjvaD ________? (was he crazy)

4. HuchqoghwIjDaq vavwI' _______ vIpolta'. (symbol)

6. va, yorIq Do'Ha'. _________ HoreySo'. (I knew him well)

9. _________ joHwI'. (I beg of you -- your honor)

10. tajDaq tar ______? (Is there)

11. ______ wIcharghlaHbe'. (spirit)

13. jach yIH 'ej _____ ghaj targh (his day)

*** Remember that tlh, ch, ng, and gh are single letters in Klingon.


jatlh pIntIn

Editorial by G.F. Proechel

For the last year I have worked as a Lutheran missionary in the Russian Far Eastern city of Khabarovsk, some 500 miles north of the Pacific port of Vladivostok. I was pastoral intern at Shore of Hope Lutheran church and worked as a missionary linguist, teaching Russian to other missionaries and evaluating language skills of missionaries in the field. I performed three baptisms and taught Bible classes in English to Russians. It was a heady year, having to deal with the Russian Mafia, new Russians, shortages of just about everything except cockroaches and having to cope with the Russian obsession for vodka.. I have many stories I could tell, but it was not a year devoted to the Warrior Tongue. I did engage in some serious theological research which I hope to have published, but that's another story. The ILS has been working on a translation of Genesis called qa'vam: a Klingon Genesis. This is about half complete and will be the first ILS publication now that I am back in the USA. It should be available in the near future.. If anyone wants to help us with this project, we would be most grateful. We need artwork, a translation into Federation Standard (English) proofreading, layout, etc.

Beyond qa'vam we are hoping to put together another book, a sequel to Good News for the Warrior Race called Bad News for the Warrior Race. It will include some Klingon Lessons as to how to say simple Christian blessings in Klingon, with a smattering of grammar. But the Bad News in the title refers to misinformation which the average Christian is given about what the Bible says. Since my health has forced me into an early retirement, it means I will have more time to devote to the Warrior Tongue.

The ILS went through some rough times. One was dealing with a Cease-and-Desist letter from Viacom. But those were the Bad Old Days. Lawrence Schoen and I have smoked the peace pipe, we are both willing to let bygones be bygones and we are entering a new era of cooperation. Let's hope that all Klingonists will be willing to engage in the new spirit of cooperation which is in the best interests of the Klingon movement. There is certainly enough to keep Klingonists busy for the foreseeable future with the publication of "Klingon For The Galactic Traveler". For those who are still at the beginning stage we have our series: Alien Language Primer (pronounced primmer) which is the best way to master basis concepts. We wish you all success (Qapla'!) and an enjoyable encounter with the Warrior Tongue.

Rev. Glen F. Proechel M.S., M.Div.


Beginner's Column

taghwI' tut

by pIntIn

We have decided to provide a forum where beginner's questions are taken seriously and answered based on the existing canon. Write to us with some concepts you may be having difficulty with and we'll publish them here.

Canon is a vague area and limits are drawn differently among Klingonists. We have been lucky due to the large amount of new tlhIngan Hol being published. Because Dr. Okrand is the primary source of new Klingon words, some wish to limit canon to only those things directly attributed to him. This could leave out some of the other sources. We try to be more open to the other sources of Star Trek which Paramount considers as canon sources. At present we consider the following sources for canon -- (The Klingon Dictionary (TKD), The Klingon Way (TKW), Star Trek Klingon: The Interactive CD ROM (STK), Skybox trading cards (SBC + Series #), Conversational Klingon tape (CK), Power Klingon tape (PK), Hallmark Klingon commercial (HMC), the journal of the Klingon Language Institute: HolQeD (HQ), the Star Trek Official Fan Club's magazine: Star Trek Communicator (STC), Paramount Picture's Star Trek Continuum (MSN), Radio Times interview (RT), and the Star Trek movies and the television series: Star Trek: The Original Series (TOS), Star Trek: The Next Generation (TNG), Star Trek: Deep Space Nine (DS9), Star Trek: Voyager (VOY), Star Trek 1: The Movie (ST:MP), Star Trek 3: The Search for Spock (ST3), Star Trek 5: The Final Frontier (ST5), Star Trek 6: The Undiscovered Country (ST6).)

Clipped Klingon (tlhIngan Hol poD)

Beginner's may find clipped Klingon easier to use than Imperial Klingon (formal) because you can leave out a lot of troublesome prefixes (markers at the beginning of a word) and suffixes (markers at the end of a word), or tricky word concepts like am or are. tlhIngan Hol poD is especially popular with movie actors who don't want to learn a lot of complicated lines. Here are some examples of Hol poD.

nuqneH? -- Wadda' ya' want?
nuqDaq puchpa'? -- Where's the bathroom?
pongwIj nuq? -- What's your name?
Sop! -- Eat!
romuluSngan HoH. -- Kill the Romulan.
yaj'a'? -- Understand?
nuqjatlh? -- What did you say?
Sagh! -- Get serious!
mej! -- Leave!

Greetings: Hello -- Good-bye

We have heard that Klingons are not big on greetings and there's only one greeting listed in TKD -- nuqneH (meaning What do you want?). You DON'T normally don't say that when you enter someone's space, however. You say it if someone has entered your space. When you enter someone's space, you begin simply by stating your business and you just walk away when you're finished. In practice however we know that Qapla' (meaning Success) is often used to mean Good-bye!" It can sometimes be used to mean Hello! (Gowron uses it to mean Hello -- HMC.) Okrand himself began a note on MSN bulletin board with nuqneH.

You also may have other options:

qavan! (I salute you!) or Savan! (I salute you all!) 'IH jaj, qar'a'? (Nice day, isn't it?) -- This phrase is definitely not recommended. An Earthling used it inappropriately and got into big trouble in PK.

maj ram! (Good night! in the DS9 episode The Sword of Kahless.)

Pleasantries

Klingon's are a straightforward and oftentimes rude bunch in Terran terms. Pleasantries are probably only used to keep your head intack from a superior officer or official. We saw this when Koord made Klaa apologize to Kirk in STV. Here are some useful expressions which may be rare on a Klingon's lips:

qatlho'!  (Thank you!) or Satlho'!  (Thank you all!)
qay'be'  (You're welcome -- CK -- literally meaning no problem)
jItlhIj!  (I apologize!)
DubelmoHchugh  (Please -- literally meaning if it pleases you)
yIQongchu'!  (Sleep well!)
yISop!  (Bon Appetit! -- PK -- literally meaning Eat!)

Introductions -- My name is ...

There are several ways of asking and stating your name. The most common are:

ponglIj nuq? (What's your name?)

ponglIj 'oH nuq'e'? (What is your name? -- formal usage)

To which you would answer:

pongwIj be'tor? (B'Etor my name -- this is Clipped Klingon)

pongwIj 'oH be'tor'e'? (B'Etor is my name -- this is formal usage)

Clipped Klingon is the easiest and the most straightforward method. When using formal Klingon, the pronoun 'oH is used and the '-e' topic marker is attached to the subject noun. Note that nuq and the name are the subjects and they are placed in the subject position in the sentence.

You can also probably say:

chay' bIpong'egh? (How do you call yourself?)

To which the answer would be:

be'tor jIpong'egh. (I call myself B'Etor.)

Indicating Age

ben means years ago and can be used to mean years old. In PK, the phrase cha'vatlh ben HIq is translated as two century old ale. This literally means two hundred year old ale.)

Dr. Okrand recently gave us the sentence to indicate a person's age in a Bulletin Board post on MSN -- loSmaH ben jIboghpu'. (I was born 40 years ago.)

The phrase loSmaH ben means 40 years ago and is placed at the beginning of the sentence as a time element. The prefix jI- is used for I because there is no object stated in the sentence. The verb bogh means be born. He also added the verb suffix pu' which give the verb the perfective aspect meaning was.

Dr. Okrand also pointed out that the sentence loSmaH ben jIH could not be used as it would mean a 40 year old me.

It would follow then that we would ask someone's age using the sentence:

ben 'ar bIboghpu'? -- How many years ago were you born?

Note the use of the verb prefix bI- (you) is used because there is no object stated in the sentence. 'ar meaning how many follows the noun being modified -- ben.

Time Expressions

naQ is a verb meaning be full, whole, or entire. When used to modify a noun it is placed AFTER the noun (TKD 4.4

jaj naQ -- all day
Hogh naQ -- all week
DIS naQ -- all year

Hoch is a noun meaning everyone, all, or everything. When used to modify a noun it is place BEFORE the noun. (Many examples appear in TKW).

Hoch jaj -- every day

Hoch Hogh -- every week

Hoch DIS -- every year

ben means years ago. There is also nem meaning years from now. Hu' meaning days ago and leS meaning days from now are similar to ben. We have used ben when referring to the age of someone or something. Lets look at them a little more.

wa'Hu' -- yesterday (one day ago)

wa'leS -- tomorrow (one day from now)

wa'ben -- last year (one year ago)

wa'nem -- next year (one year from now)

cha'Hu' -- day before yesterday (two days ago)

cha'leS -- day after tomorrow (two days from now)

cha'ben -- year before last (two years ago)

cha'nem -- year after next (two years from now)

We can probably use the expression mungbogh and tlha'bogh to help in time expressions as well.

nunghbogh Hogh -- preceding week

tlha'bogh Hogh -- following week

While we can easily formulate past and present time expressions using days and years, it is more difficult with weeks and months, We do not yet know the terms "months ago" or "weeks ago" (or even if they exist.) We can use a more cumbersome approach however until something better comes along.

wa'maH loS Hu' -- two weeks ago (fourteen days ago)

wejmaH leS -- next month (thirty days from now)

wa' bID ben -- six months ago (half a year ago)

javmaH Hu' -- two months ago (sixty days ago)

Another method for indicating time would be to indicate something is happening DURING a certain time. In Klingon, we can use the term qaStaHvIS which means "While it is happening." In TKD appendix Useful Klingon Expressions, the phrase "Four thousand throats may be cut in one night by a running man" is translated as qaStaHvIS wa' ram loS SaD Hugh SIjlaH qetbogh loD (Four thousand throats may be cut in one night by a running man.) The phrase "in one night" is qaStaHvIS wa' ram. In the same manner if I wanted to say during my life I could probably say qaStaHvIS yInwIj -- While my life is happening.

Another interesting time expression is the term to indicate GENERATION.

qaStaHvIS wa'maH puq poHmey, wo'rIv betleH ghaj qorDu'Daj. -- SBC-S8 -- Worf's bat'telh has been in his family for ten generations.

qaStaHvIS wej puq poHmey vav puqloDpu' puqloDpu'chaj je quvHa'moH vav quvHa'ghach. -- TKW -- The dishonor of the father dishonors his sons and their sons for three generations.

In the above sentences, qaStaHvIS (While it happens) is used with puq poHmey (child periods of time) to indicate the family relationship of GENERATION. This also gives another example of the use of qaStaHvIS as DURING.



tera'ngan quv Qapla'!

OTE: click here to see this text rendered in a "Figlet Font"


DuyonmoH'a' chuq tIq QumwI' malja'lIj? mamontaHvISpItoy' DaneH'a'? ghoghoSQo' jay'! not mon SuvwI'pu'! joHqo'Daq wa'vatlh tup tlhab pInob! 'e' DoQlaHbe' pagh tera'ngan QumwI' malja'! mu'maj yIqaw! SuvwI' chuq tIq QumwI' malja' Dalo'taHvIS yIQum! yIje' pagh yIHegh!

jup rurbogh 'oSwI'lI', Molor


Honored Earthling, Success!!

Does our long distance Communicator Company satisfy you? Do you want us to give you service with a smile? Then don't @#!&*%$ come to us! Warrior's never smile! We give you one hundred free minutes to the Homeworld. No Earthling Company can make that claim! Remember our motto: Communicate while using the Warrior's long distance Communicator Company! Buy or Die! Your Friendly customer Representative, Molor


An Offer You Shouldn't Refuse

     _     ____   |___     |___      __      __  
    / \   |       /   \    /   \    /    /   /   
   |  |   |            /        /  /    / \_/   
    \     |           /        /  /__      \     
     \    |          /        /  |____      \_
                                      \

meppatlh

tlhIngan wo'Daq patlh Degh chu' 'oH meppatlhd'e'. luSuqlaH tera'nganpu' neH! wo'Daq Dotlh'a' Dachavbej DaneHchugh vaj meppatlh DaghajnISqu'! meppatlhd Dalo'DI', ngaqlI' Da qa'el tuq, 'ej Dutu'bej Hoch! lo'lu'meH ngeDqu' meppatlh. chay' Qap? vay' Daje' vaj bIDIlmeH DeQmey law' tInob, pagh yInlIj DachIl. *** yIqaw: qeylIS neH wIvoq, nuDIlnISmeH, DeQmey lo'nIS Hoch latlhpu'. wa'vatlh DeQ'e' neH Danob 'ej Hoch jar qaSDI' jaj wa'DIch DaDIlchu'. qaStaHvIS poHvetlh DeQmey Danob 'e' wIpIH! yImImQo'! DaHjaj meppatlh yISuq. juppu'lI' yIja'! Daja'pu'mo' nItlho'bej. *** tlhIngan wo'Daq neH meppatlh'e' Dalo'laH!


meppatlh

meppatlh is the new status symbol in the Klingon Empire. Only Terrans can get it. If you want to definitely achieve high status in the Empire then you really need to have meppatlh. When you use meppatlh, the house of K'el will support you, and everyone will definitely notice you! meppatlh is really easy to use. How does it work? Buy something then give a lot of credits to pay for it or lose your life. *** REMEMBER: We trust only Kahless. All others need to give in credits. You definitely give only 100 credits the first day of every month. We expect you to give the credits at that time. Don't Hesitate! Get meppatlh today. Tell your friends! They'll certainly thank you for it. You can only use meppatlh in the Klingon Empire.


Poetry Corner by Gennie Summers

My blade is sharp as is my eye

And all who challenge me will die

I am a Klingon warrior and

Ready for battle do I stand

To challenge I don't hesitate

Nor to accept one do I wait

I glory in battle for you see

I always gain the victory!

Klingon version done by Gennie Summer's and edited by ILS members.

jej tajwIj, jej mInwIj je

Heghbej muqaDbogh Hoch

tlhIngan SuvwI' jIH

'ej reH jIghobrup

vay' vIqaDmeH jImImQo'

qaD vIlajmeH jIloSbe'

may' vItIvqu' net Sov

reH jIcharghpu'mo'



The Klingon Language Institute's qepmey (gatherings)

Every July, the Klingon language Institute (www.kli.org) sponsors its annual meeting or qep'a'. This is an event bringing together some of the most proficient Klingon speakers in the world. There are no celebrity guests (though Marc Okrand has made a visits!), no costume competition, and no movie room. Instead, the qep'a' is more like a cross between a relax-a-con and professional conference. There are discussion sections on topics such as teaching Klingon, curse warfare, and Klingon translations. Attendence is small, but for one week each year at the qep'a' Klingon truly becomes a living language. The meeting ends with a banquet on the last night.

For more information on KLI gatherings big and small go to http://www.kli.org/stuff/qepmey.html



tlhIngan Hol

AN ALIEN LANGUAGE PRIMER
BOOK  ONE

Prepared as a project for the Interstellar Language School
Box 281 
Red Lake Falls, MN  56705
 
by G.F. Proechel
Copyright 1994
All rights reserved
 



paq buSlu'     About the Text

tlhIngan Hol: An Alien Language Primer is an elementary approach to
learning the Klingon Language (official language of the Klingon
empire).  The approach uses a series of exercises that have the
student listening, speaking, reading and writing the language.  Also
to help the student understand the language there are references to
the Klingon culture relating to the words and the phrases being
studied.

Student Textbook

This textbook is divided into sections and each section is divided
into lessons.  The lessons provide the student a list of vocabulary
words, their grammatical use and sentence structures, suggested
mnemonic word associations, some trivia and exercises to translate
simple sentences from Klingon to English and English to Klingon.  Each
lesson builds on the previous lesson and strengthens the learning
process through repetition.  At the end of each section are review
exercises.

mu'tay' (vocabulary) This section of the lesson presents the student
with a list of nouns, verbs, prefixes, etc., that will be used in the
lesson.

pab (grammar) This section of the lesson explains the structure of the
language related to the lesson's theme.  Each lesson builds on the
previous vocabulary and grammar beginning with simple constructs to
more complex constructs.

qawQaH (mnemonics) This section is designed to help the student
remember the word by associating it to a given image or phrase that
may be meaningful to the student.  If the given example is not
meaningful to the student, he or she is encouraged to construct one of
his or her own.  Mnemonics are only given in the first section of the
text.

NgoDHommey (trivia) This section introduces an aspect of the Klingon
culture or an additional lesson by its explanation of common words or
useful phrases.

Qu' (exercise) Each lesson is followed with exercises for the student
to translate from Klingon to English and from English to Klingon.

qeqtaHlu'meH Qu'mey (supplementary exercises) Some of the lessons
contain additional exercises.  These exercises can be matching, story
translation or fill in the blanks.

Textbook Coding Conventions

It may be helpful to note some of the conventions used in writing this
text.  The conventions include Klingon standard notations and the
author's preference.

The apostrophe (') is used as a written letter of the Klingon word and
indicating a glottal stop.  Words that appear to begin with a vowel
will actually begin with the apostrophe.

A dash (-) is used to represent prefixes and suffixes, that are added
to a word, when written separate from their qualifying word. A dash
before it means it is a suffix and a dash after it means it is a
prefix.  The dash is also used to separate words or phrases.  When
indicating a prefix or suffix the dash is attached to the letters.
When used to separate words or phrases, the slash is preceded and
followed by a space.

A slash (/) is used in examples to separate ideas or concepts when
they are contained in a single entry.  Klingon uses suffixes and
prefixes to verbs and nouns actually making them single word entries.
The slash helps to show the noun's or verb's root and its prefix or
suffix.

Most headings are written in the Klingon language.  When they are,
their English translation will follow them, sometimes in parentheses.

Bold face type is used throughout the text to emphasize words or phrases the 
author feels are important.

Recommended items to this text include the Klingon Dictionary, and the
tape Conversational Klingon, by Marc Okrand, Federation expert on the
Klingon language.  Another language tape available is Power Klingon,
by Barry Levine with Marc Okrand.  These items are copyright by
Paramount Pictures and are published by Pocket Books, 1230 Avenue of
the Americas, New Your, New Your.  They can be ordered from the
 publisher, through your local bookstore or from the Interstellar
Language School, Inc.  The Interstellar language School is not
sanctioned by nor has any connection with Pocket Books, Paramount
Studios or any of its subsidiaries.


taghpa' 'ay' mI' wa'      Introduction to Section One

PRONUNCIATION

The characters represented in this text are the phonetic
representations of the Klingon alphabet -- the pIqaD (not to be
confused with the name of a Star Ship officer we may know).  This
written form, known as the Romanized alphabet, was developed by Marc
Okrand using the English alphabet to create a visual representation
that the English speaker may easily recognize.  Some of the phonetic
representations may be a bit difficult as the English language does
not normally use letters in the combinations required to make the
Klingon sounds.  With patience and practice the English speaker can
master the sounds.  Supplemental use of the language tapes will help a
great deal to this end.  To better show how the phonetic constructs
work, look at the following examples for the letters q and Q below.

q and Q

The small q is used where one would normally use a k in English.  The
sound is formed farther back, however.  If you close your throat off
to hold your breath and then form a k sound with your vocal chords in
that position, you will have your q.

The capital Q make a q sound and then forces the air out so you sound
a little bit like a cat purring loudly.  Make sure you start with a
hard k-like sound at the beginning, however; otherwise, you can easily
form the H sound, instead.

PRACTICE

Here is a list of words containing q and Q.  Notice how several of the
words have something to do with eating and drinking.  Practice these
words aloud, repeating the list several times, paying special
attention to the difference between q and Q.  Also note the meaning as
it will help you to remember the words for later use.

HIq      //      alcohol
bIQ      //      water
tIq      //      heart
bIQtIq      //      river (literally water's heart)
nIQ      //      breakfast
'uQ      //      supper
raQ      //      camp

The Pronunciation Guide section, located in the back of this book, gives 
explanations 
and exercises for the other letters.
pab (grammar)

Thanks to the work of Marc Okrand we now have a working understanding
of the Klingon grammatical structure.  It should be noted that the
Klingon language scholar would not use the term preposition, nor would
he or she use the term pronoun, when a prefix is intended.  To help
the student understand the Klingon grammar, the syntax and word
structure used in this text will attempt to correlate the Klingon
words and phrases with the structures used in Terran languages.

DIp (noun)

The noun is a Klingon grammatical construct and is similar to those in
English.  A noun can be one word or a combination of nouns and
suffixes.

wot (verb)

The use of the verb in Klingon is similar to the Terran Romance
languages.  For the most part, Klingon verbs are one syllable, but can
use a combination of prefixes and suffixes to further clarify use of
the verb.

DIpvaD tam (pronoun)

Pronouns are not separate words but are attached to the beginning of
verbs.  They are not really pronouns, but their translation is
equivalent to the English pronouns.  The text will gradually introduce
the student to the various types of pronouns.  For now consider the
pronouns I and We.

vI-      //      means I
wI-      //      means we

Notice that the Klingon usage follows the order of the English
alphabet, (u) V-W (x) with I being the singular and we being the
plural.



Here are some Klingon verbs using the prefixes that translate I and
we.  Read them aloud for practice and pay attention to their meaning:

nIQ vISop      //      I eat breakfast      //      nIQ wISop      //      we 
eat breakfast
HIq vItlhutlh      //      I drink alcohol      //      HIq wItlhutlh      //  
    we drink alcohol
raQ vIlegh      //      I see the camp      //      raQ wIlegh      //      we 
see the camp
bIQ vIghaj      //      I have the water      //      bIQ wIghaj      //      
we have the water

Practice reading the above list until you feel comfortable with the
prefixes vI- as meaning I and wI- as meaning we.  Also try to get the
feel of the verbs Sop, tlhutlh, legh, and ghaj with their respective
meanings: eat, drink, see and have.  You will need to know these verbs
in the lessons that follow.

You are about to begin your study of Klingon.  I wish you Qapla' (Success!)

NgoDHommey (trivia)

wa'  -  cha'  -  wej

Is one - two - three in Klingon.  You can remember it by thinking:

watch  -  a  -  wedge
or even
watch  -  a  -  ledge spoken with a lisp.

Of course you have to break it down like this:

wa  -  tch  a  -  wedge



paQDI'norgh wa'DIch     First Lesson

mu'tay' (vocabulary)

DIpmey (nouns)

HIq      //      alcohol, alcoholic beverage (beer, wine, ale)
bIQ      //      water
nIQ      //      breakfast
'uQ      //      supper, dinner (evening meal)
bIQtIq      //      river (literally water's heart)
Human      //      human
Duj      //      ship (by extension, any vehicle: car, airplane, etc.)
raQ      //      camp

wotmey (verbs)

Sop      //      eat
tlhutlh      //      drink
ghoS      //      go, come
legh      //      see
ghaj      //      has, have

moHaqmey (prefixes--pronouns)

jI-      //      means I
vI-      //      means I
wI-      //      means we

mojaQ (suffix--noun)

-Daq      //      to, in, at

pab (grammar)

SENTENCE STRUCTURE

The Klingon language has a different word order from English.  In
sentences where the subject (person doing the action) is a pronoun (I,
you, he, she, it, we, they) the word order is:

OBJECT  -  PRONOUN/VERB.

The object is the noun receiving the action.  Look at the following
sentences rearranged in Klingon word order.

English order      //      Klingon order

I drink  -  the water.      //      Water  -  I drink.
We see  -  the human.      //      Human  -  we see.
I have  -  the car.      //      Car  -  I have.

Note: Nouns in Klingon do not use articles (the, a, and an).  So the
Klingon equivalent does not show the article before the noun.

PRONOUNS

Technically speaking, there are no pronouns in Klingon in the sense
that we understand them in English.  There are only verbal prefixes.
What in English are called pronouns are attached to the beginning of
the verbs in Klingon.  Here are the pronouns prefixes used in the
First Lesson.

vI-      //      means I
jI-      //      also means I
wI-      //      means we

***IMPORTANT***

How vI- and jI- are different will be explained in a later lesson.
For this lesson just remember I go is jIghoS.  Otherwise, use vI- to
mean I.



"PREPOSITIONS"

Technically speaking, there are no prepositions in Klingon in the
sense that we understand them in English.  -Daq is a suffix (ending)
meaning to, in, or at.  It is attached to the end of the noun.  In
English, prepositions are used in conjunction with nouns to form a
phrase.  In Klingon, the prepositional usage is sometimes attached to
the noun.  This is the case with -Daq.

raQDaq      //      to the camp, in the camp, or  at the camp
DujDaq      //      to the ship, in the ship, or at the ship
bIQtIqDaq      //      to the river, in the river, or at the river

qawQaH (mnemonics)

Remembering words is best accomplished through mnemonics or the
"science of memory."  This is also called word association.  Mental
pictures connecting the English word and the Klingon word are very
effective.  For example, the word raQ sounds like rock.  If you
imagine a large rock at the entrance to camp, it will be easy to
remember.

Here are some suggestions as to how to remember the rest of the words in this 
lesson:

HIq      //      You have hiccoughs after drinking alcohol.
bIQ      //      You throw a bIQ cigarette lighter into the water. (biq is a 
brand 
     name  -  the expression flick my biq)
nIQ      //      You drop a nickel into your cereal bowl as you eat breakfast.
'uQ      //      You are cooking supper.
tIq      //      The heart is often referred to as a ticker in English.  
Ticker is a 
     slang word that came about because the heart ticks (beats.)
bIQtIq      //      You see a big tick (wood tick) floating down the river.  
If you know 
     that bIQ means water, then it will be easier to recall the meaning 
     river.  If you know that tIq means heart then the meaning will be 
     even clearer.  (The heart pumps the blood through the body, just as 
      a river "pumps" water downstream.)
Duj      //      Think of a Dodge car as being your space ship.
Sop      //      You're eating soup.  (Or a bar of soap, if you prefer.)
ghoS      //      Resembles the word goes, which is what it means.
ghaj      //      Resembles the word has.  (If you mentally eliminate the g 
you're 
     left with haj which is reminiscent of has or had.)
legh      //      Imagine two eyes peering at you from a leg.
tlhutlh      //      This word sounds like someone swallowing water.  Klingon 
has 
     many words like this.  When a word sounds like what it means, 
     this is called onomatopoeia.  tlhutlh and HIq are two such words 
     in this lesson.

NgoDHommey (trivia)

Dargh is the word for tea (pronounced Dark ending in a throat
vibration.)  Klingons don't drink coffee, but according to some
sources they refer to our coffee as qa'vIn.

qeqtaHlu'meH Qu'mey     Supplementary Exercises

I.  Fill in the blank with the proper Klingon word.

1.  __________ vIghaj  (ship)

2. HIq __________  (I drink)

3.  __________ wISop  (dinner)

4.  paq __________  (we have)

5.  __________ jIghoS  (to camp)

6.  __________ vIlegh  (river)

7.  nIQ __________  (we eat)

8.  __________ vItlhutlh  (water)

9.  __________ wIghaj  (a camp)

10.  bIQtIqDaq __________  (I go)

11.  __________ vItlhutlh  (tea)

II. Match the Klingon word with the English word.

1.  raQ             //             A.  see 

2.  Duj             //             B.  drink 

3.  legh             //             C.  river 

4.  tlhutlh             //             D.  go 

5.  nIQ             //             E.  camp 

6.  HIq             //             F.  alcohol 

7.  bIQtIq             //             G.  dinner 

8.  ghoS             //             H.  eat 

9.  Sop             //             I.  ship

10.  'uQ             //             J.  breakfast 



Items available from the Interstellar Language School


l.	tlhIngan Hol: Alien Language Primer:  Book I	$15.00
	An introductory textbook to learn and practice the warrior tongue
2.	tlhIngan Hol: Alien Language Primer:  Book 2	$12.00
	An intermediate textbook for those who wish to improve their skills in alien 
	communication.
3.	tlhIngan Hol: Alien Language Primer:  Book 3	$10.00
	An advanced textbook for those who wish to continue their mastery of alien 
	tongue.
4.	pIqaD Exercise Book.	$10.00
	Learn alien calligraphy. Read and write the warrior's tongue in their own 
	unique alphabet.
5.	Audio Cassette: Speaking Boldly.	$l0.00
	This tape corresponds to the vocabulary and text of Alien Language Primer: 
	Book I.
6.	qIb HeHDaq: On the edge of the Galaxy and membership	 $l0.00
	This journal is printed sporadically, but membership gives you four issues as 
	they come out.
7.	Lord's Prayer (3 Colors -- red, blue and green)	$3.00
	The  Lord's Prayer is in pIqaD, Romanized, and Federation Standard.
8.	The Warrior Tongue at Warp Speed	$5.00
	This phrase book tells you things you need to know as a tourist in the 
	Homeworld..
9.	Good News for the Warrior Race:  Advance Edition	$15.00
	The New Testament in interpreted by Christian missionary to the Klingon 
	Homeworld.
10.	pachmu' Crossword Game Kit	$12.00
	The definitive parlor crossword board game for Klingons.  Includes a paper 
	board (in color), tile labels (to cut out), and  rules included.
11.	The Warrior's Unabridged Dictionary	$12.00
	If you CAN'T find it in The Klingon Dictionary, check in the Warrior's 
	Unabridged Dictionary.
12.	Homlet:  Prince of Kronos  (The Hard Bone Blues)	$18.00
	This adaptation is a paraphrase of the classic play and takes place in 
	ancient Kronos.
13.	No Smoking Poster	$2.00
	Get the message across to the Klingon speaker as well as make a nice 
	conversation piece.
14.	Klingon Imperial Church, certificate of membership	$5.00
	You may want to have this handsome certificate to show support in promoting 
	the Gospel.

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