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Copyright 1995, R.Lanigan-O'Keeffe, Sydney Australia. Not for copying without permission.


Changing the Universe

THE THEORY UP FRONT

FUNDAMENTAL CONCERNS:

'Changing the Universe' is an explanation of Nature's Universe, not a simple single new theory. Incorporated into this work are the major changes needed to correct the errors found within the sciences, allowing them to work correctly within the framework of Nature's Universe.

As the notion describing the nature of an observation was formulated, the limited technology and knowledge of the day promoted concepts that seemed to work. Observations confused by experimental illusions introduced serious errors into the very foundations of the evolving sciences. Research conclusions drawn far too early, made beyond technological and conceptual knowledge meant that great insights into Nature's very being were explained in terms of deluded theory. An alarming number of self-replicating, self-proving errors became accepted as bona-fide scientific theory. Each error, each knowledge virus, spread rampantly infecting the young sciences.

Accepted incorrectly from that date as THE working mechanism, several highly respected concepts have never been reviewed, or challenged in the light of current knowledge, for the established beliefs are the framework of the science. The scientific method will never detect such errors because everything is explained within the framework of that science. Normal reactions that defy scientific explanation are deemed exceptions to the rule or as scientific mysteries.

Maintaining acceptance of such errors and misguided notions without challenging the sciences arrogantly spreads virulent knowledge viruses that spawn greater errors. The simple response is to accept scientific knowledge 'as-is' and work around the errors. This has the unfortunate side effect that since no one has identified the problem, errors are incorporated into the explanations of current day observations. Only when an error is pointed out can that error be worked around. Scientific education establishes a mind-set that accepts known errors whilst rejecting all challenges to blindly accepted deluded theory.

As the errors discovered are so numerous, proliferating conventional scientific thought and teaching, this work establishes the basic arguments for a massive rewrite of the sciences. Each knowledge virus must be identified and eradicated before a science is inoculated. There are no simple modifications, no simple cures. To refurbish scientific knowledge will take a great deal of time and effort owing to the inertia of learnt-beliefs and the fixed mind-set produced through education. Major changes must be implemented to remove and replace delinquent notions and inept theory. The future of Science depends on the success of this urgent task.

Nature is apt to deceive the unwary, the ignorant, the arrogant and the sophisticated. In seeking answers to questions about Nature, one must ask Nature the correct question at the correct level or expect to be deceived. Nature's answers to complex problems are so complex that one can only realise the simplicity of the Nature's answers when the event is examined at Nature's frame of reference, at the atomic level, process by process, mechanism by mechanism, system by system.

Fundamental Changes

Any description of Nature must be like the ISO 7-layer model of the computer, since the complexity results from the many process reactions occurring at any instant at the atomic level. The greater the number of reactions, the greater the time taken for the reaction. Every reaction occurs in the order of most active to the least active, one process at a time. This is the "being" of matter in Nature. At the atomic level, all reactions are simple and obey simple magnetic effects, causing molecules and atoms to link magnetically. For every action that occurs, the energy of the action must be transferred through matter before matter responds to the action. This may involve many different conversions as particular energy-forms are received, absorbed, rejected, converted, and liberated. The linear motion of the Snooker cue is converted into rotational motion of the cue-ball. At the atomic level, this rotation is distributed throughout the ball depending on radial position within the ball. The cumulative effect of the atom's differential rotation give an object its standing state inertia, rotational inertia and its magnetic properties.

Illustrated below is the diamagnetic Helium Atom, a lone atom that exists in the crystalline magnetic matrix of the lower atmosphere, as a free entity. This atom is a magneto-mechanical machine capable of storing energy through rotation in an efficient mechanism that packs, sorts and protects each atom magnetically. Gone are all electron cloud models of the atom, for they do not work and cannot explain simple chemistry without calling on faith, uncertainty and chaos.

The magneto-mechanical atom is composed of two fundamental particles, the neutron and the elpron. The elpron is an active ELectron-PRotON magnetic field generator, while the neutron acts more like a bearing and a separator. The larger atoms are lumpy structures that work as differential engines. The relative chemical activity of the atom is dependent on the atom's 3-D magnetic field shape and magnetic break out zones.

Rotational energy inflates and pumps the atomic magnetic field. The greater the pressure applied to matter, the greater the magnetic field strength in response as the diminished magnetic circuit pumps the elprons faster to rapidly circulate the magnetic field. Pressure is applied through magnetic means (as are all other energy-forms), thus the definition of energy is that when a reaction is said to liberate or use energy, the magnetic effects from an event in matter are transferred through matter, to affect and cause effects in other matter. With this definition, energy becomes a function of matter. The Universe has three fundamental ordinates,

The ordinate of position has three fundamental coordinates, and is relative to the Universal Stationary Frame of Reference in an ageing Universe. In the local environment of the Earth, all forms of motion are subject to the rotation and orbit of the Earth as the Solar System moves around the Galaxy and through the Universe. The fundamental rotational energy of matter on the Earth is the cumulative rotational energy with respect to the Universal Stationary Frame of reference. As the local environment is moving at a relatively similar rate, all measurement of motion is subject to rotational forces. Hence, Coriolis forces apply to the Foucault's Pendulum as it swings with respect to the Universal Stationary Frame of reference. The pendulum maintains the direction of slip at the time when the pendulum started to swing until additional throughput from the local environment alters the direction of travel. The axial position and rotation (to the Earth, Sun, Galaxy and Universal Centre) presents different loadings on the atoms. This means that a clock travelling with and faster than the direction of the Earth will run faster and gain time as the atoms have a reduced loading. A clock travelling in the opposite will lose time due to the increased rotational loading.

Matter as individual atoms, occupies a physical volume in terms of the size of its primary components and exists within a greater volume of magnetic influence. This greater volume is the circulating magnetic field of matter. At the atomic level, magnetic field flow and resonance hold matter together and apart. When conditions are compatible, different atoms will lock magnetically together through close magnetic bonds, until such time when incompatibility or pressure is applied to cause the magnetic bonds to break. Matter can exist in several states depending on pressure, proximity and bonding. These are

Matter is affected by gravity and as matter accumulates around a gravitational body, the refractive index of the medium will increase and this alone will influence the passage of light through that matter. Light and other forms of magnetic radiation are not affected by gravity, being a single side band s-wave transmitted by matter through matter across the Universe. The description of light and other forms of magnetic radiation comes from an unlikely source. It is the evidence obtained by Hubble regarding Red Shift observations of distant galaxies, that something else becomes obvious. It is here one can apply Hubble's Harpoon to destroy all the expanding Universe theories. The proofs against the many big bang theories are almost unbelievable and irrefutable.

Hubble's Harpoon is HUBBLE'S LAW. This egocentric relationship positions the Earth at the very centre of the Universe, by way that "all objects with increasing distance from the Earth recede with greater velocity." Cosmologists using the principles of curved space, described in the theories of Einstein, Feynmann and others, do so without referring to a centre of expansion or the centre of the Universe. They do so without understanding the basic geometry of the Universe. They argue that the angles used in simple triangulation do not apply, when these very laws of Geometry are applied in Astronomy to determine solar parallax. Accepting theory as being above Nature is a major blunder.

It is further argued by cosmologists that since Einstein's General Theory defines space in the Universe as curved by gravity, the geometry of the Universe is neither flat nor spatial (3-D). Assuming too that light is curved by gravity, then all Euclidean geometry is claimed to be invalidated as in the Feynmann-Lemaitre theory where curved space must be considered initially as quad dimensional (having the three common coordinates of length, width, depth and time). However, in accordance with Lobachevsky's non-Euclidean geometry, this becomes a geometry with more dimensions. In mathematics, a space with "n" dimensions can exist in theory, but theory does not prove that such dimensions actually exist. Several cosmologists are so convinced these additional dimensions exist, they are trying to build universal cosmological theories with as many as 8 dimensions. The reasoning of curved space is complicated further when gravity is said to distort the dimensions.

Euclidean geometry defines the triangle as having three straight sides, existing on a flat plane, so that the sum of the angles adds to 180°. When one considers a triangle drawn on the surface of a sphere, the triangle formed can exist with three obtuse angles (each greater than 90° ). Therefore, a simple triangle can exist where the sum of the internal angles is greater than 270°. For a plane cutting through the Earth joining three equidistant points, will create a line-of-sight Euclidean triangle, where each direct path makes an angle of 60°, so 60 + 60 + 60 = 180. When taken as across the surface each angle is near 180°, so 180 + 180 + 180 = 540°. Warping the triangle in three dimensions, convoluting the design through twisting can allow some sides to approach with angles of almost 360°!

The geometry and relative angular directions between Sydney and London, with respect to the Bombay is an example of curved space over a curved surface, but such is not the case when one takes the most direct route between each site, through the Earth. Curved space does not enter this distance calculation! All direct-line or line-of-sight observations are examples of Euclidean geometry. The true direct-path measurements form a Euclidean triangle, cutting through the Earth as would a plane, (x1,y1,z1),(x2,y2,z2),(x3,y3,z3) linking the sites by the shortest possible route. The same applies to astronomical objects viewed in a telescope. Relative to the Earth, the object has a position angle. There must be corresponding position angles from the Earth and that object to the centre of the Universe.

Any excursion into curved space geometry is invalidated when such line-of-sight observations between the Earth and distant objects are considered. It is here that Hubble noticed a constant rate of spectral change with line-of-sight distance irrespective of the angle of observation. All expansion as seen from any point in the expansion must vary in accordance with Euclidean geometry with respect to the centre of expansion.

Consider the radius of circle, with the Earth at the Origin so that the circumference passes through several distant galaxies. The accompanying diagram targets Hubble's Harpoon as it illustrates the Earth moving in an expanding Universe from A to B away from O, (the point of expansion). If the rate of expansion is seen to be linear with distance, Hubble's observation must have been made from O, not from the Earth at points A or B.

The observation angle to each galaxy is theta. This is with respect to the Earth's position and the centre of expansion. Any triangle drawn from the Earth at radius 'r' million light years (the adjacent side or hypotenuse) must obey the Euclidean laws of Geometry, not curved space.

If the Big Bang occurred and the Earth is not at the very centre, every position on that circle or radius 'r' would have different rates of expansion owing to Cos(Ø) or Sin(Ø) with respect to lines drawn from the Earth and the objects to the centre of expansion. One should be able to calculate with ease, the relative direction to the Universal centre of expansion from less than a hundred observations in each hemisphere. But such is not the case; rather, Hubble's law applies. For Cos(Ø) or Sin(Ø) to be accepted as a constant (Hubble's Constant) for all angles, any proof would invalidate fundamental Geometry. The Universe is not an infinitely long pencil thin line.

As Hubble's Law maintains a constant rate for all angles, even for those objects at a fixed radial distance from the Earth, Hubble found proof of something quite extraordinary... His observations prove that either

There is no proof that Hubble observed a Doppler shift resulting from any expansion or motion away from the Earth. Since a constant rate of dispersion with distance is refraction in matter, Hubble's discovery, in revealing a conservation of energy in the medium of intergalactic space proves the existence of the Æther. When this conclusion is connected to the following definition of energy,

"Energy is an event arising from matter
that affects and causes effects in other matter through magnetic means"

the AD 2000 Æther theory is postulated. Thus, the magnetic fields of matter transfer all energy as specific energy-forms, through matter to affect and cause effects in other matter. This Æther theory, in explaining all chemical bonds as magnetic bonds, scraps all electron cloud models of the atom, replacing them with a mindless magneto-mechanical atomic machine.

The concept that all energy transfer is a function of magnetic matter in an aging rotating Universe, (where time is always expressed as greater than zero and absolute), is the foundation stone of the AD 2000 Æther Theory. This theory replaces all previously accepted concepts of energy in the Universe, including gravity, electromagnetic radiation, chemical, mechanical, rotational, electrical, nuclear and thermal energy, defining specific energy-forms within each form of energy propagation. Through matter energy can be absorbed, rejected, converted, retransmitted, lost, or applied.

All this is provable in this simple Æther experiment. When a laser beam grazes a straight edge, the diffraction formed is contrary to all accepted wave, wave-particle and particle optical theory. The diffraction pattern formed is in accordance with the AD 2000 Æther theory with the production of a linear diffraction fan, (a re-transmission fan) perpendicular to the edge and along the direction of the beam. The effect varies from the polar diagram of the dipole aerial to that of a high gain Yagi aerial. The grazed magnetic fields of the exposed edge receive and then re-transmit the grazing light signal with the characteristics of the material struck (colour), with a different phase relationship to the original wave frequency, being passively amplified by the exposed magnetic array in the direction of travel.

Thus, light is identified in the AD 2000 Æther theory as a single side band magnetic wave form that migrates across the Universe, from magnetic field to magnetic field. The alignment of matter that passes light and other frequencies of magnetic radiation will alter the refractive index of the medium. So it is that light is not directly affected by gravity, rather the matter through which light propagates is gravitationally affected. One has the ability to determine the mass of a star as light passes through a star's atmosphere, for the light undergoes a refractive dispersion and subsequent red shift. There are many more proofs for the conservation of energy being a major factor in the Universe. Light is not special and above Nature as dispersion with distance (a red shift) is noted in radio, electrical, video, seismic, hydrodynamic and audio signals.

This means that around a gravitational body, the refractive index of the medium promotes refractive optical effects. The Solar Corona is five solar diameters across! All distant star light passing through the refractive medium of the Solar Corona will be seen to "swim-about" due to the changing refractive index of that medium, as distinct from any exclusive gravitational bending (where any path deviation is directly related to the gravitational potential along the path. If this were the case, a gravitational path should not "swim-about" unless the solar gravitational field is violently fluctuating).

The background radiation from space, owing to the lack of detail found in such maps proves the observations were made through a spectral absorption band. Such images reveal nothing but a mottled map and will only reveal the most powerful nearby objects that transmit on that frequency. As the conservation of energy applies, the speed of light increase results in a reddening of the spectrum. Red light travels faster than Blue light. Matter receives, converts and on-passes different energy-forms at different rates. Thus, objects appeared coloured and may change the polarisation angle of the magnetic radiation. Thus, a distant moving star may appear as a star without being smeared through chromatic separation owing to spectral truncation bands (ie. absorption bands).

Throughout the Universe, irrespective of scale, the conservation of energy in a wave motion passed magnetically by matter must obey the same intrinsic laws. Gravity is a matter to matter feedback situation. As the feedback increases, the energy of matter increases, in accordance with Newton's law of gravity, but in reverse to the inept translations of potential energy. The potential difference increases with height, while potential energy decreases with increasing height. The ideal gas laws and the effects of gravity on , and above the Earth's surface attests to this. So, where does all this leave Einstein's theories of relativity?

Language and Communications

Throughout the sciences, concepts are communicated through two distinct languages,

Common language is that used within a species as a means of fundamental communications, whereas mathematics is a more universal human language where certain symbols are given common interpretations, irrespective of humanity's common language barriers. Mathematics is not the language of Nature. Mathematics is an invention of humanity. Just as one can use the common spoken and written language to deceive and tell lies, so one can use the language of mathematics with the same effect.

There are four internationally recognised major operands + - x ÷ with the results displayed through a range of various symbols ~ ± < > = etc with different brackets [{( x )}] to define different functions. An understanding of a symbol's defined meanings allows amazing concepts to be explained and simplified, one needs that understanding, else such symbols are no more than meaningless hieroglyphs until translated. The only other internationally accepted language, where symbols and gestures carry common specific meanings, is sign language for the deaf.

Mathematics will allow accurate predictions when certain conditions are established. The procedure may relate to any of the following

The mathematical description may or may not parallel Nature's mechanism, such as when empirical solutions are used to satisfy; far more complex removed mechanisms. This means that it is possible to obtain the correct answer through the wrong mathematical process. An example of using a distantly related empirical mathematical structure is the Titus Bodes' law for planetary orbital relationships. The baseless relationship works without explaining the Solar System's planet forming mechanism. One of the ambitions of this work is to explain this strange relationship.

About this work.

The greater problem is that facing the author, for to explain the necessary corrections, conventional science and deluded historical theory must be used. Being an inexperienced guide on this tour of Nature's Universe, it is obvious that mistakes will be made, perhaps in presenting an invalid description, through an oversight, in giving a poor appraisal of analysis on some event from the pages of scientific history, or in ambitious over-editing.

What ever a readers thinks of the work, judge me on those descriptions I do get right, for if just one of my arguments is true, the sciences are wrong! At that moment, all of science will have a massive problem, because the sciences are interconnected at the atomic level, for this is Nature's Universe, not mankind's Universe. If the sciences are wrong and need major repairs, my advice will be to fix the problems, making all adjustments until that time when the errors are eliminated, never to be "just worked around".

This work will only cost the reader their time to read. Follow the hyperlinks and journey through Nature's Universe, but take care, traps have been laid by the scientific community and the old paths may be washed away with the incoming tide of change.

------------------ END OF UP-FRONT -----------------------

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