Copyright 1995, R.Lanigan-O'Keeffe, Sydney Australia. Not for copying without permission.

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UPDATE IN PROGRESS

CHAPTER EIGHT

A SPY IN THE CASTLE.

Some misguided souls will argue that there are insufficient grounds to base, accept, or prove the magneto-mechanical atomic model. The principle rebuttal structured on the basis that the statistical base line (just 82 elements) is too small. In their arguments, without question, they assume as true an electro-chemical electron cloud model based on uncertainty, these same 82 elements, and faith in their beliefs. In their deception, in their attempt to maintain things as they are, over 400 known and statistically relevant isotopes are ignored. All the keys needed to interrogate and explain Nature's Chemistry were, in the main, documented before 1950. Unfortunately, owing to a fundamentalist mind-set in the scientific community demanding historical artefacts and delusions be accepted as the scientific truths, Nature was ignored and abandoned.

Although the Periodic Table is fundamental to the understanding of the chemical model, it lacks the information needed to explain its workings. Only at the atomic level can questions be put to Nature. Please consider an atomic core made of similar sized balls, protons and neutrons. The question to be asked of Nature is, What story does the full Periodic Table of elements tell? The first impression of the Periodic Table is of grand structure, similar to the view of a castle's facade made from 120 enormous blocks. An observation tower is noted on each side of the stepped battlements. This view does not tell very much about the castle, its architecture, use or purpose. As one must breach the imposing battlements to gain access, needed is a means to disable the unstable chemical security system. A spy must be sent inside the castle, to look around, seeking out the plans, to determine the responsible mechanisms of being. Only when the full picture becomes clear, can the structural plans be studied. When the weaknesses are found, the attack will begin.

The spy discovered information that should have been contained in the most basic Chemistry book, is disguised and restricted from general view. Found in obscure works, surveys and studies, are important trends, statistics, and data tables. The spy noted that significant trends and important data were piecemeal and abridged, concealed by unnatural sequences and irrelevant data.

As a history book, the Periodic table stands alone telling the story of Nature's atomic survivors, and humanity's passion to identify and exploit Nature's chemical elements. As a map, the Periodic Table illustrates a weird geography, where each element described is mankind's compromise of Nature's compromise. Only when the diverse data tables are compiled as one, does the Periodic Table become more akin to a technical manual, written in a simple but obscure language that inspires translation. Although it does not take that much time to decipher the atom's machine language, the simple style and peculiar grammatical structures make it difficult to translate and master. The language is extremely deceptive for the unwary. The translation appears difficult because some elements, for good reason, do not occur naturally. The concept that the Periodic Table is a flat representation of a sphere made from spheres is the translator's Rosetta Stone.

At first glance, the Periodic Table supplies information about the atomic number and the average atomic mass, the element's name and chemical symbol. Most of the elements have two or more complete working structures. Each structure is a complete atom and is considered as being a unique isotope. By international convention, the average atomic mass is calibrated to the mass of ( 6C12), Carbon-12. A specific isotope's atomic mass directly equates to the total number of protons and neutrons in the structure. With increasing atomic number, the number of neutrons increase at a rate greater than 1.5:1. The divergence of neutron numbers to the atomic number is described as a scientific mystery, even though the explanation is mechanically obvious. As will be explained, there are mechanical expectations, such as with the sequence, Argon, Potassium and Calcium, where, as the atomic numbers increase (18,19,20) while the number of neutrons decrease (20,19,19). To determine the number of neutrons in an element, such as Uranium-238 ( 92U238), subtract the atomic number from the atomic weight, ie. 238 - 92 = 146 neutrons.

One of the first really useful mathematical expressions learnt in junior school introduced students to the constant Pi, denoted by the Greek letter p. Although this constant has no exact solution, the approximate value 3.14159 (or 22/7) is close enough to link the radius of a circle to its circumference and area, or, in the sphere, the radius to its volume and surface area. The process used in determining the volume of a sphere involves fractions multiplied by the cube power of the radius, or V = 3/4 r 3. For the student, worse was to come, for if given a sphere's volume, the radius had to be determined by back-calculating. The cube-root look-up-tables (appendix 3) removed much of the hard work from those calculations.

The equation to determine the sphere's radius is r = ( 3/4 ( V / )) .

One must be careful because the assumption that, the atom is made from spheres can be indicative of other geometric shapes made from spheres from flat objects to pyramids. For instance, although the atomic structure may be flat, the mathematics of the geometry is satisfied by spheres. The total circumference of a line of circles is the same as a circle having the total radius,

ie. 60 circles (of r=1) and 1 circle (of r=60), have identical total circumferences lengths
60 x (2 x 1) = 2 x 60 = 376.9908 units.

Since the neutron and proton are believed to have approximately the same mass and volume, it is a viable argument to consider the unit of mass equal to a unit of volume. Consider the masses of the inert gasses in Group 0 being 4, 20, 40, 84, 132 and 220. This list can be extrapolated using Geometry to include masses 308 and 454.

Element's symbol He Ne Ar Kr Xe Rn Pred1 Pred2
The mass sequence 4 20 40 84 132 220 308 454
Calculated radius 0.985 1.68 2.123 2.72 3.15 3.74 4.1 4.77

To look for a patten; determine the running differences in the radius increase between layers.
Radial difference 0.69 0.443 0.597 0.44 0.59 0.44 0.59
or approximately 0.7 0.4 0.6 0.4 0.6 0.4 0.6

So, an alternating patten seems to exist in the sequence.

For the atom to work at optimum level and maintain mechanical efficiency, each additional elpron requires both free space and a suitable number of neutrons to allow rotation. As a pure geometric effect, the radial increase of near 1.03 spheres per complete layer involves alternating sub-layer shells of increasing radius by 0.59 and 0.44 units. Although the volume of a sphere's shell must increase with increasing radius, the geometry in this situation means that the complete shell layer is made up two equal volume sub-layers. These are not electron shells! As this geometry is expected and natural, the non-linear increase in the neutron numbers to the atomic number must also be expected and natural. Consider the atomic numbers of the inert gas;

Element's symbol He Ne Ar Kr Xe Rn Pred1
atomic number 2 10 18 36 54 86 118 a.

The difference in elpron numbers shows the Periodic Table's period sequence as,
difference 8 8 18 18 32 32 A.

This indicates sub-layer relationships.
relationship 0 10 0 14 0
.

Subtract the atomic number from the mass,
atomic mass 4 20 40 84 132 220 308 _
atomic number 2 10 18 36 54 86 118
neutron relationship 2 10 22 48 78 134 190 b.

This reveals the neutron mass difference between each sub-layer and layer in the atom's core
difference 8 12 26 30 56 56 B.

Subtract A from B to determine the increasing neutron relationship between sub-layers,
A. 8 8 18 18 32 32
C. 0 4 8 12 24 24

Since 4 + 8 = 12, C can be rewritten as

C. - - 12 12 24 24

Although Bohr identified what appeared to be the conclusion to each period, there is a great deal of evidence to suggest a second conclusion. There are arguments to suggest two physical limits to each period. When Bohr's conclusion, the inert structure is capped top and bottom, a Group 2 conclusion appears. This story unfolds in Table 8-1 with a revised Periodic Table structure.

One should be aware that packing differences will alter volume determinations. The highest possible packing density is hexagonal closest packed (hcp). A loose pack is face centred cubic (fcc) and the intermediate pack is hexagonal centred cubic (hcc). Using 1 cm balls, 28 balls would cover 28 sq cm when mounted fcc. Packing as hcp the same 28 balls forms an equilateral triangle with 7 cm sides, whose area is about 21.35 sq. cm. In this exercise, the packing density is considered as hexagonal closest packed.

The logic behind the Periodic Table is one of mindless magnetic-mechanical particles that clump together and rotate in response to environmental magnetic changes. As will be illustrated later, the atom's internal energy distribution mechanism will reach a critical limit. Giant atoms would not have the mechanical stability or integrity to respond to rapid environmental changes. These atoms would be subject to mechanical conflict, releasing fission products through structural catastrophes. The Activity Series should reveal a decreasing energy with increasing atomic number. Even though it is highly unlikely that any heavier elements will naturally occur, the geometry suggests the next Group 2 element Zz, #120, will have a mass around 328 amu. The next extension of super giant atoms would fill two sub-layers, each of 44 particles with a 6+6 intermediate layer. For interest sake, The next giant Group 2 element #164 would have a mass near 470 amu, completing the layer at element # 208. Inert Element #206 would have a mass around 580 amu.

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The Mechanical Atom's Periodic Table of Elements

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Distribution of detectable naturally occurring Isotopes.
Table 8-1

In low mass atoms, the atomic structure builds on the flat magnetic plane of the Helium atom. In response to magnetic throughput, pressure and stress, structural efficiency may cause these lighter flat structures to warp so far, that the centre may pop, giving rise to other bonding positions and structures. Increasing the size of the atom through endothermic fusion reactions would never form true spherical structures. The structures must be geometric, similar to the crystal structures, as sub-atomic balls mass together, layer by layer in particular geometric shapes. Repetitive magnetic ring structures would form in each hemisphere at distinct heights around the atomic axis. Mechanical logic demands that each latitude ring closes at the same position across the period, thus intermediate sub-layers and common traits are noted.

No matter how perfect, all mechanical devices will suffer from timing and efficiency problems. In the combustion engine, the timing system maintains the efficient operation of the motor. The crankshaft connects to the camshaft and the spark gap through gears or belts. Rotation of the camshaft opens and closes the exhaust and inlet valves at precise moments. For the motor to work, the spark must trigger combustion at a precise rotational moment after the fuel is mixed and compressed in the cylinder. If the main timing belt slowly slip out of step, the engine may start and run for a time until the compression cycle fails to produce a combustion cycle. Depending on the engine's speed, the motor could grind to a stop or destroy itself.

Similarly, the presence of an extra particle in the atom, could result in the same self-destructive outcome. The unbalanced unstable atom could run successfully for a time, only to break-apart in a fission event, a cataclysmic structural failure. When the atom's internal energy transfer rate is not synchronised with changing environmental conditions, sudden mechanical conflict and failures result from internal collisions. Extreme stress could result in a complete atomic structural failure forming two or more complete atoms.

Environmental factors and mechanical requirements demand that for a specific number of elprons, there must be a certain number of neutrons. The full purpose of the neutron is yet to be realised. In its crudest description, the neutron acts as a bearing, gear and separator. They have several other functions including energy transfer.

The disparity between odd and even numbered elements identifies mechanisms that balance rotational and magnetic forces within the atomic structure. Of those isotopes above the threshold detection level Table 8-1, there are 222 even and 63 odd numbered isotopic survivors. These relative counts are gleaned from the distribution table of naturally occurring isotopes (Appendix 2) lists 240 even and 88 odd isotopes. It will be noted that there are not that many isotopes below the level of detection, just 46. There are over 93 mechanically unsound or missing isotopes. This count does not include the possibilities immediately before and after each range. Most isotopes require an even number of neutrons (238 even and 90 odd). Of the 103 listed elements, only 11 highly unstable elements remains unknown. The crude and basic statistics of Table 8-2, tell the story of mechanical survivors and failures. Although Chemistry describes this effect away with the Pauli principle, unbalanced electron numbers would not promote atomic fission events unless the electron physically exists in the atomic core.

Isotopes
below
detection
Odd # element
odd neutron
numbers
Odd # element
even neutron
numbers
Even # element
odd neutron
numbers
Even # element
even neutron
numbers
8 56 53 165
45 made up of 15 10 14 8
Totals 23 66 67 173
93 Mechanically
Unsound
15 nil 76 2

Artificial or isotopic information not available = 69 isotopes
Elements without any specific mass/ neutron information = 11 elements
Table 8-2. Statistical analysis of naturally occurring isotopes (nuclides).

The differences between odd and even numbered elements and their isotopes proves beyond all doubt, that the cause of structural failure is in the core itself, as the atom suffers from mechanical timing problems. This conclusion refutes all electron cloud atomic models. The statistics of nuclides have been known for many years and ignored!

To add weight to this proof, one must examine an even numbered element with a diverse range of scattered isotopes. Consider element #30 Zinc. Its five successful isotopes have neutron counts of 34, 36, 37, 38 and 40. The natural distributions in order are 67.76%, 26.16%, 1.25%, 3.66% and 1.16%. Missing are structures containing 35 and 39 neutrons. This is intriguing for the only explanation possible is that these missing structures must be mechanically unsound. Copper has an isotope with the same mass (65 amu) as Zinc's missing isotope, yet in Copper, the isotope with 35 neutrons is missing. Thirty-five seems to be a bad number, as far as neutrons are concerned. An absolute structural failure point seems associated with other bad numbers. Appendix 2 identifies 19, 35, 39, 45, 61, 89, and 115 as bad. The list doubles when natural abundances below 1% are included;

1, 9, 11, 17, 19, 21, 23, 33, 35, 39, 45, 61, 71, 89, 115, 123, (127, 129, 131)

The absence of all even numbers in this list confirms a mechanical problem in the core. Obviously, this effect has nothing to do with electron clouds or electron spins. This is a core conflict effect.

An examination of any random sequence of four neighbouring elements, above element #10 reveals a regular trend. In the range #10 to #13, the even numbered elements, (10Ne) and (12Mg) (Neon and Magnesium) both have three naturally occurring isotopes, while the odd numbered elements, (11Na23) and (13Al27) Sodium and Aluminium) stand alone without any alternative structures. Sodium and Aluminium have odd numbered survivors with an even number of neutrons (12 and 14).

To illustrate the critical nature of the neutron mix, when the Sodium atom gains or loses a neutron, it would become mechanically unsound. The structure may seize-up and cleave into two or more complete atoms. Only stable structures remain at the end of the reaction, however, the reaction may take many millions of years to complete, waiting for the moment when the unsound isotope breaks apart. An unstable Oxygen isotope with 9 neutrons (8O17) may survive the test of time, or a few seconds. Stressing Sodium-23 could also break the atom into two or more complete structures. From (11Na23), the following balanced stress break products are possible; (2He4) and (9F19); (3Li7) and (8O16); (4Be9) and (7N14) ; (5B11) and (6C12) . Environmental throughput changes may also destroy some larger isotopic structures through mechanical conflicts and seizure, shearing-off an alpha-particle and two electrons. Reaction products may cleave throwing out one or more neutrons.

A half life is defined as the time taken for the level of radioactivity coming from a material to reach half that level. A mechanically unstable element is only radioactive when it undergoes fission, splitting into other complete atoms, perhaps releasing alpha, beta or gamma particles. Some of the fission products will be unstable. Although the amount of unstable material decreases with time, fission may irradiate and make unstable, neighbouring stable matter. After a period of two half-lives, only one quarter of the original unstable matter remains. A highly unstable material with a half life of 10 years, could be considered radioactive after a hundred years (10 life times), even though the amount of remaining matter is insignificant or dispersed.

Observations of fission products categorically state, the atom's electrons exist in the core with the protons and neutrons. Applying probability theory to the natural distribution of isotopes leads to one primary conclusion, each surviving isotope is a mechanical answer that works. Nature has attempted to form every conceivable isotopic structure, but only those refined by time and environmental factors have become survivors. The Periodic Table's long standing scientific mysteries are no more than geometrically related mechanical quirks arising from magneto-mechanical rotational effects.

There are massive differences between molecular failure and atomic structural failure. Atomic incompatibility can force extremely active chemicals in molecular form, to be dropped like hot-potatoes in chemical reactions. Changing the environmental factors will alter atomic and chemical compatibility and stability. Environmental factors can extend or diminish the half-life of some highly unstable isotopes. Some develop and maintain stability through chemical bonding while others become unstable with purity.

Positioned in a highly stable region of the Periodic Table, Element 43, Technetium is highly unstable and does not occur naturally. It is noticed in the Solar spectra. Its isotopes are artificial and do not exist for any substantial time in a pure form. In manufacturing, a temporary degree of stability is obtained through its chemical combination with Oxygen, as Tc2O7. Different nuclear refinement techniques form three radioactive isotopes (Tc @ 95, 97 and 99 amu). The half life of (4343Tc97) is 60 days while that of (4343Tc95) is 90 days. The most stable (4343Tc99) has a half life of 2.2 x 105 years. This semi-stable product is created by irradiating Molybdenum (42Mo)+ p --> (43Tc) in an atomic pile, creating a fusion by-product. In this situation, mechanical conflicts defeat the benefits of even neutron numbers (52, 54 and 56), so it is that Technetium isotopes are mechanically unsound and do not have sufficient resilience for longevity.

Although pure Uranium and its isotopes (U @ 234, 235 and 238) do not have extraordinary half lives, they are found in some of the Earth's oldest continental shield deposits, over 3,000,000,000 years old. An interesting anomaly becomes evident when one assumes a 0.0001% yield of useable Uranium from the mineral. Mathematically, it does not take much doubling to realise that several natural and ongoing mechanisms give Uranium longevity through its two natural oxides UO2 and U3O8. If the half life is five million years, then just one hundred and five million years ago the metal's purity must have exceeded absolute purity. Mineral uraninite UO2 is typically found in;

RADIATION:

Nature's dangerous elements must not be feared, avoided and rejected, rather they must be respected, understood, confronted and used. It is amazing that people who fear radiation and protest the loudest about the nuclear industry, fly in aircraft during the day light hours. At altitudes of 10-12,000 metres, solar radiation over several hours can irradiated one with a life-time's sea-level dosage, a dosage that can lead to thyroid cancer, leukemia and mutant births.

Steam and many other common-use energy-forms and chemicals are just as dangerous. History proves that when steam was first used, boiler explosions killed many thousands. The same can be said about electricity, fire works, guns, knives, spears, tools, food, water, chemicals, animals, fish, insects, pets, plants, germs, transportation, wars, land-mines, the weather, fire, wind, greed, expedience and stupidity. Hundreds of thousands each year, are needlessly killed, but do greenies practice what they preach? Apparently not. Some have even attempted to gain access to nuclear installations with an apparent aim, to vandalise the equipment and the site. Why not create an environmental disaster of the first order to blindly prove the case that radiation is dangerous. Some people are so deluded, thinking of today and themselves, to gain a reputation or self gratification. They fail to think of the future needs of their grandchildren's great-great grandchildren. The future is doomed when people act or react without thinking of the consequences.

The answer to radioactivity is to purify the material into its fundamental isotopes, separating and extracting all stable and unstable forms. Matter that can be recycled should be salvaged and returned, thus reducing the probability of irradiating stable materials. Unstable materials are a source of available energy. To convert this energy into power generation or some friendly technology demands research. To bury, sink, waste or store just ten tons of radioactive waste shows humanity's total incompetence, in establishing time bombs that will ultimately kill everything on this planet. Thousands of tons of radioactive waste have been dumped and stored in many sites. The clock is running and counting-down to extinction.

ATOMIC ENERGY:

By far the most important data table found by the spy was the activity series. Some educators use this table to determine the output voltages of electro-chemical cells. Others use it to identify the relative chemical reactivities, the reaction direction and the controlling element. The greater the voltage difference, the more intense the reaction. Very few educators realise the story being told. When Table 8-3 is examined, many questions should flood the mind because highly reactive elements are liberated through simple reactions. Others friendly chemicals appear to be very reactive. When the activity series is linked to the first ionisation table, in the Periodic Table's mechanical structure, the innermost secrets of the table are revealed. This study will tame chemical uncertainty by statistically allowing honest verifiable arguments and proofs.

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The Mechanical Atom's Periodic Table of Elements
Table 8-3 The activity series and first ionisation energy table by increasing atomic number.

One could simply graph the data using a spread sheet program (graph 8-1). The horizontal scale is given the coordinates of increasing atomic number.

Of importance is the method used to measure voltages (V), for all voltmeters require a current (I) to pass through an electrical resistance (R). The resistance creates a potential difference, so that an electrical current flows through the meter circuitry. The mechanics of the meter must be examined before one claims that a voltage is a potential difference. The electrical current passing in the meter's moving coil produces a magnetic field that interacts with the meter's permanent magnetic field. In turning the pointer, the electrical current does work, so a force is exerted to position the pointer. All voltage readings are measurements of energy. As the electrical current flow or available energy is chemically produced, so it is that any measured voltage relates to the release of potential energy as an available energy-form. Compatible magnetic spill fields align through attraction and repulsion, forcing electrons into the circuit, but only when the circuit allows electrons to flow. The voltages measured are relative to and dependent on the molecular pressure in the chemical bath.


Graph 8-1 Activity Series. Gaps are the inert gases.

Because voltage is an energy-form, much can be determined about each element. Simple mathematics can be applied to the output voltages of electrochemical cells. The Coriolis energy equation, E = 1/2mv2, will present an approximate guide. Any missing value is given a positive value of 0.00001 V. The purpose of this exercise is to determine the validity of the atom's mechanical energy transfer system.

For obvious reasons, the results must be considered as a guide only!

Derived from each voltage E and the element's average mass m in atomic mass units, the following equation suggests an atomic velocity factor v or chemical pressure;

as v = (2 E / m )

the following graphs appear:-


Graph 8-2 Velocity factor from the activity series voltages

Note: The off-scale values for Hydrogen and Helium are 1/10th of the calculated values.

These graphs identify what appears to be specific mechanical sub-layers and an exponential slow-down with increasing mass. Limiting the atom's maximum physical size would be a transmission factor caused by the total number of particles introducing mechanical conflicts. As the neutron would follow the elprons in responding to changed environmental conditions, the neutron should present a lag, or a drag. It could be argued that the neutron's effect may be determined using the atomic number as the energy giving mass. If so, subtracting the activity series' velocity factor from that determined using the atomic number should indicate a relationship. Although this may not be a valid scientific procedure, the following will still indicate a relationship that means something..

vn = (2 E / a# ) - (2 E / m )

Graph 8-3

The relationship in graph 8-3 illustrates that there seems to be some merit in the concept, especially with the increasing distribution of energy to the increasing neutron numbers. When calculated, the effective drag ratio of the neutrons progressively increases with each sub-layer.

To carry this argument further would be a distraction at this time, for it may not be a valid path to follow. The activity series is based on the release of available electrical energy and the geometric atomic relationships from which the electrons are released. Any discussion concerning the activity series is a discussion of electronegativities. This is because the standard of measurement is based on electron transfer rates as electrons are pumped from electrochemical reactions, through a circuit and return to the electrochemical reaction. Only when the circuit is completed, does the reaction occur. A chemical battery has a shelf-life because the local environment completes the circuit.

The number of protons gives the element its properties. As the proton is affected by a magnetic field, a flow of protons will produce a magnetic field, however, nuclear bonds prevent the proton from leaving the atom or alpha-particle during chemical reactions. The atom, having lost an electron becomes positive. In this state, the atom's altered magnetic state will allow chemical combination with other chemicals while magnetically seeking a molecule with an extra electron to form a balanced connection. Typically, the elements are classified into two groups, those with negative valence, having an electronegativity, and those with a positive valence, having an electropositivity. In view of this, the elements must be revisited with respect to an element's electropositivities. By convention, electropositivities are the compliment of the electronegativity.

It is stated, to determine the electropositivity, since the upper and lower voltages are 4.0V and 0.7V, merely swap the values around, so that the differences remain the same. A value of 4.0V becomes 0.7V, one of 3V becomes 1.7V. One of 2.0V becomes 2.7V and 1 volt becomes 3.7 Volts. In Table 8-4, the electropositivities are determined through this tried and true method.

SymbolHHeLiBe
Positivity2.5---3.73.1
SymbolBCNOFNeNaMg
Positivity2.72.11.71.30.7---3.83.4
SymbolAlSiPSClArKCa
Positivity3.12.82.52.11.5---3.93.7
SymbolScTiVCrMnFeCoNiCuZnGaGeAsSeBrKrRbSr
Positivity3.33.23.12.53.12.92.82.82.83.12.92.72.52.71.7---3.93.8
SymbolYZrNbMoTcRuRhPdAgCdInSnSbTeIXeCsBa
Positivity3.53.43.12.52.82.52.42.52.83.02.92.72.72.62.0---3.93.81

Lanthanides
SymbolLaCePrNdPmSmEuGdTbDyHoErTmYb
Positivity3.43.63.63.63.53.53.53.53.53.53.53.53.53.6

SymbolLuHfTaWReOsIrPtAuHgTlPbBiPoAtRnFrRa
Positivity3.43.43.52.32.32.52.52.42.22.72.72.42.72.72.5---4.03.8

Actinides
SymbolAcThPaUNpPuAmCmBkCfEsFmMdNo
Positivity3.63.43.43.33.33.43.43.43.43.43.43.43.43.4

Symbol Lw
Positivity 3.4

Table 8-4 The activity series for electropositivities by increasing atomic number.

The problem with such woeful mathematics, is that the mathematics are applied without basis. The procedure is unscientific due to a logical error. Graph 8-4 reveals that this method of calculating electropositivities does not give a true indication of an atom's binding energy. The excessive number of electropositive elements have greater energy than the available energy.


Graph 8-4 Electropositivities

Rather than using the compliment, one could return to the activity series, taking the half way point between the highest and lowest voltages as a datum line about which the element's voltage should swing. Several major problems become evident using the midpoint voltage swing (graph 8-5) because the majority of elements still exist below the line. As this is a graph of electronegativities, the positive values graphed are negative, while the negative values are positive.


Basic statistics must resolve the numerous problems that the midpoint graph generates. One method is to determine the mean; that is; to sum the electronegativities and divided by the number of elements. The inert gasses are not considered, not counted. When graphed, the mean voltage deviation (close to 1.7V) becomes the datum line. When the table is again graphed (graph 8-6) the hidden features of the activity series appear. Irrespective of the mean voltage, the inert gasses exist on the 0 V datum line.


The structures illustrated across graph 8-6 tell the story about each atom's sorting mechanism and the geometric location of the bonding electrons. Although the first two electrons in each period are related to the period, the large differences to the neighbouring group 3 elements suggests a change in structure. Bohr noted this effect in producing a filling structure based on electron cloud shells and sub-shells. The graph becomes more impressive when the mean for each period is independently used as a shifted mean. These will be examined further in the describing the atomic structures.

An important question to be answered is "How much energy is available in one gram of matter? If the reader suggests using Einstein's equation E = m c2 to determine the answer, don the dunce's cap and sit in the corner for blindly following the mob, accepting a flavour-of-the-month theory, accepting poor assumptions and false-beliefs. Albert made some horrendous blunders caused by his belief in Newtonian physics and the desire to do things differently. Einstein's equation is in absolute contradiction to the laws of thermodynamics. Perhaps the biggest blunder is the energy equation itself, for E m c2, rather the total available energy equals the sum of all (n) energies in a mass, E = En. For a mass of 1 gram, the equation E = m c2 states categorically that one gram of Hydrogen has the same energy as one gram of coal, as one gram of Iron, as one gram of Uranium, irrespective of motion, position, gravity, temperature, bonding, volume or pressure.

Many people believe the propaganda that the energy released from an atomic bomb proves Einstein's equation. This belief is without basis or justification. The claim shows ignorance. Each chemical and nuclear bond has a specific energy. Energy must be added to form various chemicals and nuclear bonds. In Nature, fusion and chemical bonding are endothermic mechanisms, taking-in and storing energy as nuclear and chemical bonds. To build one gram of Iron takes considerable energy, and even more energy is needed to fuse a gram of Uranium from Hydrogen. Stored energy must be released in exothermic reactions, as magnetic fields and space requirements change. Why is there such a massive difference in energy outputs between the Hydrogen and Uranium bombs?

In terms of mass, one gram of Hydrogen will have exactly the same total number of sub-atomic particles as one gram of Uranium, however the primary difference will be the number of atoms present. As Hydrogen has an atomic mass of 1, a mole of H2 has a molecular weight of 2 grams. In a gram mass of H2, there must be 3.01 x 1023 Hydrogen molecules, or 6.02 x 1023 sub-atomic particles. In comparison, the Uranium-238 atom is 119 times more massive. There would be fewer atoms in a gram mass of Uranium, a total of 2.5294117 x 1021 atoms. The definition of the mole suggests that one mole has equal numbers of electrons. This cannot be so, as every atom has a proportional distribution of free electrons. The ratio of neutron numbers to atomic number states that Hydrogen has more electrons. A gram of Uranium contains 2.327058764 x 1023 elprons and 3.692941082 x 1023 neutrons. For heavy Hydrogen or Deuterium bomb, there is half the amount of Hydrogen for the same number of particles. In one gram of Deuterium (1H2)2, there must be 1.505 x 1023 elprons with an equal number of neutrons. How can E = m c2 be true?

From the number of chemical and nuclear bonds, the Uranium bomb should be more powerful, however, the Hydrogen implosion bomb is far more powerful. Apart from using several Uranium bombs as the primary trigger in the Hydrogen bomb, the Deuterium is shattered in the implosion, releasing high velocity protons and neutrons. These high speed particles shatter the surrounding environment to produce an atmospheric-environmental detonation.. It is not just the ten Uranium bombs that detonate a half ton of Deuterium that explodes. Try adding several hundred tons of atmosphere and several million tons of solid matter into the equation. Everything in the nuclear fireball, is fused into atomic soup. These weapons actively involve the surrounding environment in the detonation! The region is destroyed forever. The amount of energy released in the Deuterium and Uranium bombs are insignificant when one considers the total amount of matter involved. Chemical weapons can cause an equivalent amount of destruction, especially when the reaction involves burning atmospheric Nitrogen. The nuclear weapon is a cost effective delivery system.

So, what is the equation E = m c2 actually stating? To answer this profound question, the equation is best described as an approximation. In real terms, it is a mass to mass conversion equation. Any mass multiplied by a constant is still a mass. That is, M = m, not E = m. Irrespective of how it is written, Albert's equation E = m c2 should be written as M = mc, or munit1 = munit2, because a constant is a constant! Please try this simple test. For the value of c, use 1.483239697, then square it and multiply the answer by 1 Kg. This is the same as multiplying one kilogram by two point two, so the answer will always be 2.2 Imperial pounds. This has converted the units of measurement from Metric to Imperial. Irrespective of how one calculates the value of Albert's speed of light, c and c2 are both constants with constant values, and should be written as mc. A mass when multiplied by a constant, remains a mass. To multiply a mass by a variable, is a momentum or an energy-form. Any constant can have units, however to incorporate a speed as a constant, places the accuracy of the value in great doubt, especially when the laws of Nature are deliberately distorted to make light's speed relative to the observer, irrespective of the motion speed, position, and gravity of the source or observer. As will be discussed shortly, the speed of sound and light are not relative the observer or source, rather both are relative to the environment of propagation.

As it stands, Albert's equation can only be used as an approximation to convert a mass into a mass. This equation is not Einstein's entire theory of relativity, rather it is an equation taken from the General Theory. Under the banner of General Relativity, the speed of light changes with gravity. In the Special theory of Relativity, the speed of light is absolute and unchanging. Is this not a contradiction? Which theory is correct? To maintain the belief that light speed is fixed and absolute discredits the General Theory, but to accept Blackholes, neutron stars, and the mass determination of distant stars from their spectral shift, one must accept General Relativity and discredit Special Relativity. Einstein's greatest error can be traced to Lorentz, for Lorentz made several nasty assumptions about matter, since his experiments were based on the accepted electrical theory; a theory that is invalid and wrong.

Some may attack the ownership of the equation, KE = ½mv2 attributed here to Coriolis, which they will categorically state is Newton's equation of Kinetic Energy. Those making such accusations need to look at the history of both Calculus and Science. More than likely, Leibnitz invented Calculus. Newton apparently stole the idea and concepts, for Leibnitz had previously outlined the principles in a letter that he sent to Newton. Then, Newton seemingly changed the name to Fluxions and gave himself credit for the discovery. There was a nasty dispute over the ownership of this intellectual property. Leibnitz accused Newton of intellectual theft, and then the outraged Newton accused Leibnitz of theft. Although Newton could not prove when he allegedly invented fluxions, Leibnitz had more than enough evidence, having worked on the system of calculus for seventeen years. To determine rightful ownership, an unfair competition was held. Politically, whether right or wrong, Newton had to win.

This became a one-sided competition; as the question asked was vague, for each contestant had to determine mathematically, the quality of motion. The correct answer given by Leibnitz was "mv" . Today, this is called momentum. Oddly, Newton won, even though he used the wrong method and gave the wrong answer, which he determined incorrectly as " mv2 ". At the time, there was no one who could correct or confirm the answer. It is a recognised fact that Newton, now considered to be the father of calculus, would fail today's elementary calculus due to the errors he made during that competition and his use of calculus. A century later, Gaspard de Coriolis, a very astute Nineteenth Century mathematician introduced the necessary corrections and the factor of one half into the equation. If Newton can be given credit for Galileo's equations of motion, by simply adding +C or +ut, then History must give Coriolis the owner of the energy equation KE = ½ mv2. Physicists closed their eyes to the truth, but accepted Coriolis' correction, because, in death, Newton became far more powerful, adored and worshipped by many as a scientific icon.

When Coriolis first described a strange effect caused by the Earth's rotation, he proved that with respect to a universal stationary frame of reference, the Earth actually rotates on its axis. Even today, many scientists promote a false-belief, stating that the only proof of the Earth's rotation comes from the strange motion of the Foucault pendulum. This is pure propaganda, for it shows little or no appreciation or understanding of rotational energy or the Earth's motion. In 1852, the French scientist, J.B.L. Foucault made a giant pendulum. As the Earth turned beneath it, the pendulum continued to swing on its original arc. The direction of the pendulum's figure-8 path drifted at a rate proportional to the Earth's rate of rotation. To test his concept of rotational energy, Foucault built a rotor and mounted it inside a three ring gimbal. As the rotor spun, the device defied gravity and Physics. Foucault called his invention the gyroscope. In 1911, Sperry mounted three gyroscopes facing perpendicular directions to form the gyrocompass, the forerunner of the autopilot system. These strange rotating devices defy Physics and are treated as scientific mysteries, when the answer is obvious. Members of the scientific community seem to regularly close their minds to Foucault's research, his gyroscope, Sperry's auto pilot, the inertial guidance system and the Coriolis effect.

The Coriolis force is claimed to be a pseudo-force. It causes the atmosphere to separate into three specific zones per hemisphere and influences the motion of projectiles travelling North and South in each hemisphere. These effects have been wrongfully classified for they are not mysteries. Each is simply explained when one abandons laxity and the notion of linear motion. The Earth is a rotating body that turns on its axis, as it orbits the Sun, and moves around the galaxy with respect to the Universal stationary frame of reference. Foucault's gyroscope and pendulum are universal devices, referenced to the Universal stationary frame of reference.

Albert Einstein did away with the universal frame of reference in promoting the Special Theory of Relativity, because Isaac Newton preached linear physics in a three dimensional rotating Universe. Why should the three dimensional rotating Universe be treated as being one of linear physics? As both Isaac and Albert were products of their education, they introduced a great deal of excess baggage into today's Science. Baggage that is deluded and wrong. It is necessary to destroy many scientific myths in subsequent chapters, merely to restore the universal frame of reference into the sciences. If a gram of matter is destroyed, the rotational energy in those atoms would be liberated and lost forever. To make the Universe work, Einstein had to introduce the concept of curved space-time. Scientifically, one simply cannot do that, for linear physics is completely different to three dimensional rotational Physics. Linear physics only works with respect to a fixed point in space where all motion has ceased, at the Universal Stopped Point, or directly along the line of zero rotation. Newton avoided this when he stipulated with his theory's conditions, "is travelling with constant and uniform motion in a straight line". The line of zero rotation is the vector solution of all rotation, where rotation is minimised. Until Einstein curved all space and time, everyone related motion on the Earth to something travelling in a straight line. Time is not curved, nor is space, rather one must consider all things rotating in the three dimensions of position in a steadily ageing Universe.

What proof is there of a universal stationary frame of reference? There is a great deal, but why not ask the question, What proof is there that the star called the Sun actually rotates on its axis? If one cares to look, one will see the answer, but one must know how to observe the Sun, and then, one must know what one is actually looking at, and have the intellectual fortitude to stand by their observations. The most basic proof is that as the Earth travels around its orbit in 365.25 days, sunspots on the surface of the Sun are seen to travel on the solar surface, around the axis and appear again at the same position from 23 to 31 days depending on the latitude of the sunspot. As the average rotation of the Sun's visible surface is about 28 days, so one assumes the answer to be 28 days. Such an answer is "Wrong". When one understands what one is actually looking at, the entire mechanism of the star will unfold like a massive tapestry.

The Sun is seen to be rotating because the sunspots are like cyclones that form in the convergence and divergent zones of the solar Coriolis weather cells; cells that divide each hemisphere into three zones (Polar, Temperate and Equatorial). These zones are physically observed on magnetogram images of the Sun. So, what in Nature are these weather cells referenced against? There is nothing within Coowee of the Sun capable of causing such an effect to become apparent, yet the eleven year sunspot cycle is a physical reality, as is the Sun's axial rotation. With respect to the background stars, the Sun physically rotates. The answer will be expanded in the section dealing with planetary and stellar magnetism. Convection cells form directed fluid flows over the surface of a rotating body with respect to the universal stationary position, causing a path change. The convection cells slip across the solid solar core along curved Coriolis paths. As the Sun, Earth and internals of the atom are rotating, they are gyroscopes.

The workings of the atom, the little-picture, is intimately linked to the big-picture of the Universe. To explain Coriolis forces in the weather, or on the Sun, or in a galaxy, demands knowing what happens at the atomic level. The Chinese philosopher Confucius illustrated this belief with a single wooden stick and a bundle of sticks. He showed that one stick requires very little energy to break, but it takes enormous energy to break the bundle of sticks. The analogy points to the power of the wind, where a single moving atom or molecule has no real force, but when all the atoms in the air move at the same time in the same direction in a certain time frame, the effect can be from a gentle breeze to a wind of total devastation.

As a body moves across the surface of a round rotating planet, differential rotational energy must be considered along with all the forces experienced with respect to the environment through which the object moves. Any object moving through a moving environment will be influenced by that external influence. It is necessary at this moment to bring into this discussion Einstein's clock paradox, for there is a massive disparity between satellite and Earth based observations. Although this is a well documented, no one questions the facts. This was a ploy to sell atomic clocks.

To prove relativity once-and-for-all, (as it was reported) three portable clocks were built and calibrated. As they sat together, there was no change in the time. To prove the accuracy of relativity, one clock was flown around the Earth in an East direction, another was flown West. When the two mobile atomic clocks completed the round-the-world tour, they were united with the clock that stayed at home. One clock gained time, and the other lost time. This was claimed as the proof of relativity, when the timing accuracy of the atomic clocks should have challenged.

Within twenty years, navigational satellites were in orbit, carrying on-board computers (quartz clocks) and atomic clocks. Some satellites travelled on polar orbits while most others journeyed East, however a few travelled Westward. Because satellites clocks do not reveal a direction related time-dilation effect, one must look to the local environmental situation to identify the fact that the loading of the clocking atoms is changed in the heavy atmosphere. The differences in local rotational energy loads each clock mechanism differently. When the clocks flew slowly in a thick environment, the mechanism is affected by the slow moving external environ, loading the clock and altering the timing rate. Satellite clocks are not subject to the same local loadings, so they can maintain the same time, therefore their time registration is relative to the Earth in orbit around the Sun, not to the Earth's axial rotation, or to the geocentric direction of travel. These variable aspect satellite clocks are used by global positioning systems. At the atomic level, the mechanisms that caused these clocks to alter their timings will be further explored.

Coriolis, Carnot, Joule and Kelvin in the Nineteenth Century, introduced the distinction between potential and kinetic energy, based on Newton's notion that potential energy increases with increasing height. When Newton's equations are followed, potential energy decreases with height. Potential energy is not an exclusive gravitational effect, rather, potential energy is the available energy stored in a system's atoms that may be released in part, or in full, during a second time frame, as one or more unique energy-forms. The amount of energy liberated is dependent on the applied energy-form's magnitude, compatibility, and the time through which the trigger action was applied. To release a specific energy-form, a specific compatible event or threshold energy type is required to initiate the reaction. Just any event may not release the desired energy-form.

The most powerful form of stored energy in the Universe is rotational energy. At the atomic level, rotation is proportionally distributed throughout a mass. Individual atoms in a system store different degrees of rotational-energy due to differences in position, motion, throughput and stress. Any energy change to an atom or molecule is distributed through the atom's components as a change in rotation or stress. Energy transfer within the atomic structure requires both an efficient structure and time, else, mechanical rotational conflicts will fail the structure.

From the activity series and the distribution of isotopes, an optimum transfer rate and mechanical limit to the physical size and atomic structure of the isotope is indicated. Increasing the atomic size initially improves the atom's internal transfer rate, however, with larger atomic structures, the energy transfer rate decreases as the structure becomes more unstable. As elprons in an atom store local rotational energy, individual neighbouring atoms do not share the same unique rotational speeds about the primary axis of universal rotation (not the local axis).

Atoms respond to and exert stored rotation with respect to their relative position and alignment with respect to a universal stationary position. The explanation of the centre of mass becomes almost mundane as throughput and the distribution of energy around the apparent central point establishes a local centre in a satellite or lever system with respect to the primary axis of rotation. A rolling ball (a shell) has several degrees of rotation, from the rotation about the local axis of rotation, to that around the primary axis of the Universe.

This distraction has been necessary to determine the energy contained in a gram of matter. There is enough electrical energy in one gram of matter to infinitely supply a small city. It should be realised that the primary unit in electrical measurement is the electron. By itself, it is claimed to present a tiny charge. When a sufficient mass of electrons flow, things become more meaningful in terrestrial terms. A Coulomb is the standard unit of charge measurement and equals

6.24 x 1018 electrons.

The electron has a charge of 1.6 x 10-19 V. The Amp or Ampere is the rate at which an electrical current flows, defined as being a charge of one Coulomb of electrons, flowing in a circuit for the time interval of one second. The number of electrons is dependent on the total number of elprons in matter. Hydrogen will have the greatest number of atoms in a gram, simply because there are no neutrons to complicate the situation. Each Hydrogen atom unites with another to make the diamagnetic molecule, H2. According to Avogadro, a mole of gas contains 6.02 x 1023 molecules. A mole of gas is a volume about the capacity of the home bar refrigerator, that is, 1 mole = 24.5 litres. The atomic weight, expressed in amu, is normally listed in the Periodic table underneath each element's symbol. As Hydrogen has no neutrons to worry the calculations, it has more electrons per atom than all other matter. However, in 1961, Chemistry accepted Guggenheim definition of the mole, to include equal numbers of atoms, molecules, radicals, ions and electrons, as there are in 12 grams of (6C12). In a mole, Hydrogen has more electrons than any other element. Every element will have a different number of electrons, so acceptance of this definition is wrong.

At standard temperature and pressure, a gram of Hydrogen H2 would exist in 12.25 Litres, containing some 3.01 x 1023 molecules. Each atom in this case is an elpron, consisting of one proton and one electron, the gram mass of Hydrogen must contain 6.02 x 1023 electrons. The speed of the rapidly spinning elprons is unknown, however, if the standing state radio signature of Hydrogen gas is bandied as being a number, such as a frequency of just 1.4 GHz, or 1,400 MHz or 1,400,000,000 Hz, an underestimation or starting figure can be calculated for Hydrogen's electrical flow.

The total electron flow in one second is 6.02 x 1023 x 1.4 x 109
= 8.428 x 1032
That is ( 8.428 x 1032 ) / ( 6.24 x 1018) Coulombs per second
= 1.350641 x 1014 Amps.
135 million-million Amps at 1.4 GHz!

If this energy could be harnessed, the environment could power a small city for an indefinitely long period. The environment is supplying and maintaining a greater energy level through magnetic means. In the long term, Albert's calculation pales into insignificance when certain materials are known to resonate over the frequency range 1010 to 1019 Hz. One must ask two questions. "Why is it necessary to destroy matter to supply energy?" And "Why should so much money be ploughed into attempting to get energy from Fusion (an impossibility since Fusion is an endothermic reaction) when such a wealth of energy is available in the environment?"

ATOMIC RADII:

As certain facts cannot be illustrated or confirmed in the classroom, concepts and beliefs must be accepted without proof or reason. It is often stated during the introduction to the Periodic Table, (See Appendix 5) as atomic mass and number increase across each period, atomic radii decreases. From that moment, atomic radii is treated as fact and understood. Chemistry texts fleetingly refer to this scientific mystery. Often reference texts neglect to mention that two atomic radii measurements are realised, the covalent and ionic radii. These measurements have nothing to do with the atom's legitimate radial measurement.

The term atomic radius is poorly defined, misleading and misunderstood. To describe the atomic radius, many authorities involve and then contradict, Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle (of 1927) in promoting Rutherford's electron cloud atomic model. Heslop and Robinson wrote, "The nature of the electron cloud about the nucleus makes it difficult to define the size of the atom. However, the distance between a nucleus and its nearest neighbour is a precisely measurable quantity." In this quote, uncertainty is contradicted with certainty. The quotation gives sufficient grounds to challenge the definitions, the measurements and Rutherford's atomic analysis. Without exception, the quoted radial distances are not the true radius measurements. They are molecular bond lengths.

In a 600 page university text dealing with Inorganic Chemistry, the covalent radii is dealt-with on a single page, listing almost every element, while the description of ionic radii requires several pages to convince the readers, expounding this truth uses a partial listing of about 30 elements. To fill in the gaps becomes more difficult when authorities fail to state the measurement system used, or when the published measurements differ from text to text. Almost every chemically active element has numerous radius measurements due to different magnetic attractions to other atoms.

The covalent radii refers to the measured distances between neighbouring atoms in non-crystalline solids. This measurement is determined using X-ray, electron diffraction, or spectroscopy. The distance is subject to molecular activity and packing anomalies, be it fcc, hcc or hcp. One must be very suspicious of the accuracy of such measurements, for the results are subject to interpretation as so many assumptions are based on a static electron cloud atomic model.

Ionic radii measurements are also dubious, being determined on crystals using X-ray diffraction. Many molecules, like Calcium Carbonate (Calcite, Marble, and Limestone) form several unique and different crystal structures, having differing ionic separations. During the crystal formation stage, temperature, pressure and motion produce a loading that alters the crystal structure, its growth and shape. When crystal structures are described, each crystal is considered as being 100% pure, when many crystals may contain enormous quantities of water and other materials.

Although water plays an important role in many crystal structures, rarely is the term anhydrous found in Chemistry texts relating to these structures or atomic radii. Anhydrous means that the material is completely free of water content. Some texts refer to Oxygen, not water. The structures of anhydrous NaCl and its dimer Na2Cl2 are unknown. When common salt (NaCl) is labelled, 100% pure salt, manufacturers risk being sued. The presence of water in the crystals comes under the false and deceptive advertising laws. A common salt crystal (NaCl) only exists because water plays a major role in the crystallisation process. The inert gasses have never been included in these listings, even though complex catalytical reactions can force some inert gasses to form molecules. One is extremely lucky to find a list with more than 40 ionic radii.


The values for Atomic radii (appendix 2) are rather useful in that one can predict approximate bond lengths for simple molecules by adding the appropriate molecular values together, as I (Ionic) or C (Covalent). These measurements must be considered as a guide only, owing to the number of exceptions that exist. Both methods of radial measurements refer to bond lengths.

As an example: Fluorine's atomic radii measurements are given as I = 1.36 Å and C = 0.72 Å Each Fluorine molecule illustrate a diversity of values, such as with Hydrogen 0.74 Å, Carbon 1.38 , Nitrogen 1.36 , Oxygen 1.42 , as molecular Fluorine 0.92 , with Silicon 1.56 , Phosphorous 1.54 , Sulphur 1.58 , Chlorine 1.28 , Bromine 1.76 and Iodine 1.60 Å.

These values will themselves vary from those listed in appendix 2. For instance Iodine is given the atomic radii I = 2.16 and C =1.33 Å.

Pauling made a very important observation concerning the inter-nuclear distances of metals. He found that the metal-metal bond is approximately twice the metal's covalent radius. This fact alone should be thrown at the feet of Science, for it challenges Rutherford's atomic conclusions made in the explorative stage of his research, from which Rutherford introduced the electron cloud model of the atom. In this experiment, an alpha-particle beam bombarded thin Gold leaf foils. When Gold leaf is just a few atoms thick it appears transparent. Because the Gold atoms are easily moved about and can be rubbed from the foil onto most surfaces, adhering like a paint, gold-leaf is normally used for decoration, giving the illusion that the decorated object is real Gold. This is an odd numbered element with 118 neutrons. Gold (Au) exists naturally in a pure state, and although not very reactive, trace quantities can be found dissolved in sea water.

If the measurements can be trusted, as most Hydrogen salts have values around 0.29 Å, the alpha-particle could be considered smaller than 0.45 Å.. Because Gold's ionic atomic radius is 1.37 Å and its covalent radius is 1.34 Å, the diameter of the metal-metal Gold structure would be around 2.68 Å, perhaps as a face centred cubic structure. Three ways to illustrate the massive inter-atomic gaps are used in figure 8-1 relating the gaps between neighbouring Gold atoms in the thin foil to the alpha-particle. The particle and atoms would be much smaller and exist inside the respective circles. By any standard, the alpha-particle is an easy fit, being a Helium core, mass 4 amu. The approximate relative radial sizes can be determined through geometric and mathematical means. Gold's mass is given as 197.2 or 196.967 amu depending on source. A flat alpha-particle would measure 2 x 2 x 1 mdu, compared to Gold's calculated spherical diameter of 7.2176 mdu.

Made from spheres, the Gold atom could have a 7+14+23+34+47+34+23+14=196 structure. As each magnetic ring is virtually complete, this structure would be virtually inert and very soft, requiring a structural change to chemically combine. The illustration does not reveal the magnetic fields or magnetic envelope that would exist around and between each atom and the alpha-particle, fields that would allow alpha-particle streams to pass through without deviation, that could move Gold atoms clear. Another likely consideration is the bucket brigade effect, whereas an alpha-particle is absorbed by the structure, only for the structure to eject another alpha-particle with the same direction. This is a probability with odd numbered elements. This effect is evident with many thick materials where irradiation by one type of particle liberates another type of particle.


Figure 8-1 Gold and the alpha-particle

Since it is known that Gold has such enormous gaps between neighbouring atoms, why must Science continue to promote Rutherford's analysis as the absolute truth? His conclusions were fashioned during the explorative stage of his research. In this research stage, all conclusions are susceptible to massive errors. One must suspect that Nature deceived Rutherford as different mechanisms can produce all the observed effects.

Aligned by magnetic envelopes, Gold atoms have a protective magnetic cushion; a seemingly non-directed spongy toroidal field with directional attributes. Magnetically, the integrity of the alpha-particle beam could remain intact after passing through Gold's atomic matrix, just as does the molecular electron beam travelling in a television image tube. The electron beam maintains its integrity from the cathode to the anode as the beam passes through a grid and along the magnetic axis of the focussing coil. The interconnecting magnetic circuits that link Gold atoms together in the foil could easily spiral most alpha-particles through any gaps without touching the sides. Many other physical illusions can be traced to the spatial atomic toroidal magnetic envelope; such as Avogadro's number.

As the environmental field is compressed through pressure or temperature, the field envelope size is reduced. This increases the coupling and flow rate with the neighbouring atoms, increasing the elpron speed. Any increase in the environment's energy increases the elpron speed, and this increases the magnetic field strength forcing the apart. The greater the pressure, the greater the elpron's rotational speed and the higher the energy stored. This is a feedback situation that actively resists an increase in pressure. In part, this explains the ideal gas law, P1V1T1 = P2V2T2 , (where P is the pressure, V the volume and T, the temperature) along with Avogadro's number as a direct function of energy and the mutual repulsion of the magnetic envelop or cushion that protects each molecule. A linear increase in force only occurs with an exponential increase in the energy exerted. The rate of increase or expansion, when applying Newton's equation F ma, is exponential, not linear. Expansion is dependent on the molecular structure of the material and may change with an alignment or structural change.

This leads to an interesting problem, because the ideal gas law predicts that the volume of a gas increases at a linear rate, for every Celsius degree of temperature, not at an exponential rate. The rate of increase in volume is by a factor of 1/273 per degree. According to the theory, as the temperature is reduced, the volume of gas becomes negligible at minus 273°C, at absolute zero, where Rutherford's atomic model states that the inert gas must reach infinite density and solidify as the electrons crash into the nucleus. Suddenly, the Rutherford atomic model is a minefield, because any rise in temperature above absolute zero means that all the electrons must be launched from the high gravitational surface of the atomic core and be returned to their previous stable orbital configurations. This is all done without rockets, telemetry or intelligence.

It must be noted here that some materials expand with decreasing temperature. With the mechanical atom, with decreasing activity, the elprons slow, so the magnetic cushions holding matter apart shrink. Although the volume requirements lessen, the alignment of matter changes to compensate for the greatest energy throughput and may cause an expansion, as in the case of water. With this explanation, super-cooled superconductors can be explained. Magnetic throughput is maintained as elprons respond to the environment's changing magnetic influence. Irrespective of temperature, motion will maintain activity in matter. These contrived temperature measurements scales are based on observational illusions without any direct connection to the true activity of matter, or knowledge of matter and its properties. Matter's actual level of activity is hidden. The standard for measuring temperature, is pure water in both the Fahrenheit and Centigrade scales. Water is treated as the standard because it is convenient, and agreed to by many people. It is blindly accepted in the scientific community and enforced by Law, only because it has been used for so long, it must be true. These unnatural scales have no real justification in Nature.

One must ask the question, What is temperature? To chase this fundamental error back to its source requires examining the chronology of temperature measurement. In the sixteenth century, Galileo made the first thermometer using expanding air in a sealed flask where a temperature change altered the height of a column of coloured water. In 1612, the Italian physician, Sanctorius Sanctorius, published a work outlining a method to measure the temperature of the human body using a similar thermometer. Thirteen years later he suggested a link between body temperature and illness. Around 1632, Jean Rey improved the design using an expanding water column. In 1654, Ferdinand II of Tuscany introduced the fore-runner of today's alcohol expansion thermometer, overcoming the problem of the water expansion tube freezing. The design incorporates an alcohol filled bulb, connected to a long sealed calibrated tube.

By 1700, thirty-five temperature scales were in common use. In 1701, Isaac Newton, proposed another scale using water's freezing point as the lower datum point and the other being that of the human body at 12. Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit refined this idea (1714), establishing water's boiling point as the upper level of calibration. Since salt water froze below that of pure water, Fahrenheit's scale started at 0. From geometry, he chose to use 180 uniform graduations, or degrees between pure water's melting point of 32 to its boiling point (212). In 1742, Anders Celsius divided water's liquid activity range into 100 equal divisions but set the melting point at 100 and the boiling point to 0. Within a year, Celsius conformed to the view that an increase in temperature is an increase in temperature, so he revised and reversed his temperature scale, setting water's freezing point to 0 and boiling point at 100. Medical science finally accepted the view that one's body temperature is related to illness and metabolism in the late eighteenth century. Since that time, not much has changed in terms of calibration, although massive changes in technology have changed the methods of measuring temperature.

A fascinating trick can be used to calibrate temperatures below freezing point. Although both Centigrade and Fahrenheit use the same points of reference, the scales have different cross-over points and rates of climb, both scales will relate to the same degree of activity at a temperature at -45. One could do the same with any arbitrary third and fourth scales, calibrated to water, using different linear scales and cross-overs to find other intersection points, calibrating other activity equalisation points. The reason for this will become apparent.

Fundamental to temperature measurements are the expansion properties of matter. To assume a linear expansion of atoms and chemicals (water-alcohol) with a linear increase in the activity of matter, is naive. This promotes a delusion. To increase the throughput energy at a linear rate, increases the rotational speed of the elprons. The magnetic field produced exerts a force between atoms and molecules. So it would be that the force experienced is proportional to the rate of change of magnetic throughput, of elpron rotation and the subsequent magnetic force. The temperature scale may be calibrated as linear, when it is exponential. It is a logarithmic function. The problem of the temperature scales becomes apparent, for this logarithmic scale is presented as a linear function, where a logarithmic increase is calibrated using uniform linear scale graduations. In a way, this linear scale could be considered as an anti-logarithm to a specific base.

As an example, one could graph the increasing atomic masses, or the brightness scale of stars. These are both curved functions. To turn the increasing atomic masses into a linear function, one could use logarithm scales. When graphed normally, graph 8-8 a smooth curved line deviates at a rate greater than 2:1. Mechanical conflicts are evident as glitches, making the curve somewhat bumpy. When Logarithmic scales are used, the line becomes almost straight. The exercise is completed when the logarithm scales are removed and replaced by a linear scale.


Graph 8-8.

On the right hand side of graph 8-8 is an arbitrary linear scale denoting mass. The scale produced has nothing to do with the appropriate Physics and Chemistry and is meaningless, even though the logarithmic linear scale represents a mass reading. To accept this scale would divorce mass from Nature. Mathematically, this procedure would be frowned upon because of the mixed scales, even though the line could lend itself to many calculations. This linear description of a logarithmic function clearly identifies how matter is seen to expand at a linear rate with a linear change in measured temperature. It is this effect that explains the reasons why a daytime temperature of 25C is pleasant, compared to a day time temperatures of 28C or 32C. A few extra degrees makes for an enormous jump in the activity and throughput of matter. The link between temperature, pressure and volume is related to the magnetic fields holding matter apart..

A degree of temperature could be likened to the magnitude of brightness used in Astronomy. This is a scale of relative stellar brightness. Although the scale appears linear, the brightest star is first magnitude and the faintest visible star to the naked eye is between magnitude at 6.5 and 7.5. Astronomers use the logic, the greater the magnitude, the fainter the star. So, each magnitude rise is a decrease in the intensity. Each magnitude is a brightness decrease of 2.51, so that a third magnitude star is 6.31 times fainter than a first magnitude star. The sixth magnitude star is 100 times fainter than the first magnitude star. (To the novice astronomer, the stellar magnitudes also seem to be related to the number of visible stars. Using the approximation, 4.4 raised to the power of the magnitude,(4.4M) so, to sixth magnitude, some 7,256 stars should be seen.)

In the ideal gas Law, it is argued that with a temperature decrease of one degree, a volume of gas reduces by 1/273rd of that volume. This would not be possible due to the prevailing standing state throughput conditions (caused by the Earth's motion) as the temperature logarithm flattens nears absolute zero. When the Ideal Gas Law is used, all the temperatures must be positive, so it is necessary to peg temperature measurements to an absolute zero point. As the force between matter is dependent on the molecular energy and throughput, the need is to determine the means of calibrating temperature to absolute zero, in both the local and universal situation.

In the case of water, as it expands and solidifies into ice, Mercury and alcohol thermometers detect a constant temperature despite an increasing degree of cooling. At standard pressure, when water ice is chilled by liquid Nitrogen (-196C), the ice temperature seemingly remains constant at 0C, when the ice shatters like rapidly cooled glass. Extremely chilled water ice may burn the skin with the ferocity of liquid Nitrogen. As super-chilled water ice adheres to bare skin, the freeze-burns are that much more serious. This effect suggests that water's standing state thermal signature is above its real temperature. Water's thermal signature maintains a pseudo-temperature. Water's very interesting properties will be discussed in other sections. As will be explained shortly, matter in the standing state absorbs and liberates energy across the entire magnetic spectrum, from radio to X-rays, depending on matter's state of activity. Matter will be seen to have emission lines, absorption lines, rejection lines, thermal lines, re-transmission lines and voids. In a void, there is absolutely no spectral energy. The standard temperature for the Universal absolute zero point must be the temperature of a void spectral line. The local absolute zero point is dependent on the environment's motion. The lower the rotation, the lower the temperature.

With this review of temperature, the melting and boiling points of the elements can be examined, for they too represent standing state energies that bind atoms and molecules together in the solid and liquid forms. Gases that normally occur at standard temperature and pressure have boiling temperatures below the 20C. Table 8-5 identifies several other trends. When graphed, the structures reveal the growth and development of layers and intermediate layers. These tell a fascinating story about an element's molecular interconnections, especially when compared to the activity series. These will be explored in the next chapter.

Element #80 is Mercury, a liquid metal at room temperature. Earlier, in Figure 8-1, Mercury's immediate neighbour, element #79 the Gold atom was depicted as stacked balls. In placing a cap on this structure, Mercury forms a structure similar to the group 2 elements, so one could argue that it should have a valency of 2, and Gold would have a valency of 1. This is half-way through a sub-layer, and begins the layers concluding series. Element #78 Platinum is similar to the monatomic inert structures, however, it has eight active bonding positions that firmly clamp the Platinum atoms together. The problem with Mercury is that the caps also make it react more like an inert gas, having much lower melting and boiling temperatures than its immediate neighbours. This means that Mercury will evaporate at normal temperature and pressure.

SymbolHHeLiBe
melting-259-2701801280
boiling-253-26913302480
SymbolBCNOFNeNaMg
melting20303730-210-219-220-24998650
boiling39004830-196-183-188-2468921110
SymbolAlSiPSClArKCa
melting660141044113-101-18964838
boiling24502680280445-35-1867601490

SymbolScTiVCrMnFeCoNiCuZnGaGeAsSeBrKrRbSr
melting15401670190019001250154014901450108341930937817217-7-15739770
boiling2730326034502642211030002900273026009062400283061368558-1526881380
SymbolYZrNbMoTcRuRhPdAgCdInSnSbTeIXeCsBa
melting15001850242026102140230019701550961321156217631450114-11229714
boiling293035804900556046003900373031252210765200068513801390183-1086901640

Lanthanides
SymbolLaCePrNdPmSmEuGdTbDyHoErTmYb
melting920795935102010301070826131013601410146015001550824
boiling34703470313030302730190014403000280026002600290017301430

SymbolLuHfTaWReOsIrPtAuHgTlPbBiPoAtRnFrRa
melting165020003000341031803000245017701063-39303327271254302-7127700
boiling333054005430593056305500450038252970357146017401560962335-626801530

Actinides
SymbolAcThPaUNpPuAmCmBkCfEsFmMdNo
melting1050170012301130640640850---------------------
boiling32004200---3820---32302600---------------------

Symbol Lw
melting ---
boiling ---
Table 8-5 Melting and boiling points in C by increasing atomic number.

The caps make the Group 1 elements extremely soft, for the bonding allows the atoms to slip and change alignment. As will be explained, although the structure of the inert elements prevents chemical activity, weak magnetic forces are present that allows attraction to other matter. This is further indicated by their low melting and boiling points. The inert gasses can be deformed to present temporary directed magnetic fields. The layers and intermediate layers are now telling a story about the sorting and packing mechanism, giving the inert elements a logical and natural explanation. Ever so slowly, the scheme of things about the internal workings and atomic structures are coming together. Each graph has told another story about matter.


Graph 8-9

The environment supplies an available energy to all matter, converted to rotational energy, producing a magnetic cushion of equal strength forcing the atoms apart and together as a liquid or as a gas in an organised crystal structure. In an environment, at a particular temperature and pressure, the throughput holds those atoms and molecules in proportional volumes. This means that for a certain a small atom like Hydrogen or Oxygen, as a molecule, has a great deal of energy throughput, so it will take up the same volume, as would a big atomic molecule like gaseous Mercury or Uranium. The mechanism will become obvious.

The magnetic field is somewhat like a force field, where magnetic flows force atoms apart. However, this system has weak points. If sufficient pressure is applied along a specific directional axis, mechanical conflict will occur and fusion through pressure must take place. This is the sweet-spot magnetic direction, Geological evidence of cold fusion is overwhelming. As many members of the scientific community state, fusion is exothermic, they seek some new mystical energy source that defies science and Nature. Few bother to look for evidence of cold-fusion.

In the Broken Hill region of Australia, as sedimentary strata beds (deposits of mud) solidified, they were folded and folded some more, over-and-over-again on themselves, through so much pressure. In the region of greatest folding are tremendous deposits of Silver, Lead and Zinc. All the chemical and geological explanations for such enormous deposits do not make sense. The Broken Hill deposits are believed to be an ancient rift valley that dropped below sea level and flooded. Geothermal molecules are believed to have chemically reacted with the sea water, depositing almost pure super-heated metals on the sea-floor, Iron, Manganese, Copper, Silver, Lead, Zinc, Gold and Nickel were deposited. The metals are believed to have been buried by mud and heavily folded until they were pushed to the surface. Erosion finally exposed the deposits.

The Chemistry of sea water reactions to produce almost pure metal deposits of Silver, Lead and Zinc are rather intriguing, because they could not have occurred together. Each chemical reaction is different involving differing temperatures, concentrations and pressure ranges, where the reactions give rise to oxides, sulphides and chlorides. The Broken Hill deposits do not appear to have been formed through passive crystal growth. Apart from the mysterious growth of deep ocean metallic nodules, vulcanism occurs in the oceans. In Geology, the Uniformitarian Law must be applied. This states that the processes that occurred in the past, still occur today, and will continue to apply in the future. Around volcanic pipes, vents and dykes, one must expect to find regions of gross chemical pollution, as predicted by laboratory experiments, where the ocean's colour would be more than obvious. Because each chemical reaction is different, each produces a different fingerprint colour. With the concentrations deemed necessary, sea water experiments reveal the most amazing chemical cloud colours; vibrant yellows, intense blues, greens, reds and bright oranges. Each chemical cloud precipitates as a unique deposit that identify the precise chemical reaction that took place. One specific chemical reaction is required for Silver, another for Lead, then Zinc, Gold and Copper. The reaction must be complete before the next reaction begins. In the world today, there is no evidence of the ocean pollution demanded. There is no evidence of the cloud deposits. There is just no evidence of active pure metal growing deposition mechanisms. There is no common explanation for so many different metals to existing together.

Associated with the geosynclinal event (mountain building from a deep ocean trench), greywacke deposits include massive deposits of metal ores, Silver, Lead, Zinc, Gold, Molybdenum, Copper, Tungsten, Mercury, Platinum, etc. No one has been able to explain the presence of such ores, for the geosyncline is claimed to start as deposits of deep ocean mud in the trench. This mud is then compressed, folded, distorted and uplifted by extreme tectonic forces forming mountains and land-masses. The rocks have be metamorphosed through heat and pressure. Deposits of limestone became marble. In some marble deposits, Gold and other metals are found. Ask the question "what processes would form Gold in Marble? " Limestone and Marble are both Calcium carbonate. Not too far away from Broken Hill, massive marble deposits are found of similar age.

When one examines the Periodic Table and plate tectonics together, in relation to the Calcium carbonate and water molecules placed under pressure, a mechanism is identified. Calcium Carbonate and water form limestone. When subjected to great pressure, the molecules twist and deform the molecules. At some point the magneto-mechanical compatibility of the elprons and neutrons find the sweet-spot magnetic direction. When the tectonic pressure is excessive in that direction, the common mechanism that would form pure metals together without chemical deposits is Cold fusion.

In situ solid matter can be crushed, and flow with pressure and depth. Crushing can break and form both chemical and nuclear bonds. As the compression of soot forms graphite as chemical bonds are relocated, the diamond is the next chemical structure. When the pressure is excessive, nuclear bonds are pushed together, it mechanically possible for pure Carbon to form Magnesium, Chlorine, Titanium, Molybdenum, etc. Evolution of marine life without predators allowed great deposits of discarded shells and skeletons to settle with mud onto the sea-floor to form Calcium Carbonate deposits as chalk or limestone. Over time, massive world-wide deposits solidified with different degrees of impurities. Limestone and chalk are soft minerals that are easily broken. It is chiefly Calcium Carbonate and water, that is CaO:CO2: nH2O. Calcium Carbonate is a rather complex and interesting molecule. The water content varies greatly. When heated, both the water and Carbon dioxide can be removed, leaving the highly reactive dust like powder, Calcium Oxide. Adding water and Carbon dioxide to Calcium Oxide sets hard due to the rapid crystal growth of Calcite. This process is used in the formation of cement, mortar and lime.

In tectonic regions, depth can prevent the water vapour and Carbon dioxide leaving the rocks that are being heated under great pressure where the limestone deposit are metamorphosed into different grades of marble, depending on the impurities and water content. Marble is a much stronger, more resilient form of Calcium Carbonate. When one examines Broken Hill, the presence of Marble deposits, and the fact that the metal mineral sites are extremely folded in comparison, simple mathematics will progress the Marble deposits through cold fusion to form Gold, Molybdenum, Silver, Lead and Zinc. As Carbon's mass is 12, Oxygen 16, Calcium 40 and Hydrogen 1, pressure affects the basic molecular structures (40+16 & 12+(16+16) & n (2+16)), the game becomes one of cut and paste to form the atomic mass of Silicon (28), Sulphur (32), Zinc (65), Silver (107), Lead (207) and Gold (197) as (62 + 62 + 48 + 16 + 9).

Geologists need to review their model of Broken Hill. The geology of Australia shows a massive "Y" shaped geosynclinal crack, one that almost tore Australia almost in half, extends through Adelaide in South Australia to Broken Hill in the North-East direction (as the Main Barrier Range), with the other arm running to the North (in the Flinders Range). In this deep crevice, sea water, alive with life, in the turbidity and warmth of the ocean, gave rise to a prolific growth of corals and other marine organisms, forming massive limestone deposits.

With time and continental drift, Australia began to spring back and restore itself. As the crack closed in-on-itself, a geosyncline formed pincerring the deposits, crushing and compressing the rocks. With the enormity of pressure, cold fusion physically changed the limestone and mud into many heavier elements and associated chemicals. The geosynclinal compression folded and pushed the strata beds through different sweet-spot angles initiating many different elements, including strange, completely alien, almost unexplainable oxides and sulphides. Such ore bodies are expectations in such regions. When pressure is taken to the extreme limits, thermonuclear reactions begin. The trigger is the production of super massive unstable elements. This is followed by a nuclear soup condition where all solids, complex molecules and atoms become so liquid, they are recycled into their primordial elprons and neutrons.

---------- END CHAPTER EIGHT ------------
size 13,900 Words


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