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© Copyright 1995 AD, Robert Lanigan-O'Keeffe, Sydney, Australia.
Not for copying, publication or distribution without permission.
Changing the Universe, Introducing The AD 2000 Æther Theory.
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Advance to
Chapter 7

Solving a series of problems.1
Being the Devil's Advocate.3
Defining Nature's mechanism.5
Newton and Gravity..6
Rejection and Absorption.10
Energy and
the Æther.
The Stationary Reference Frame,
Time and Natural Ordinants
Rotation and The Stationary
Frame of Reference.
Wave and Particle Theory.26
Introduction to magnetic
Chemical Bonding
Friction, Electrostatics,
Lubricants, and Abrasives.
Chapter Notes.40
Attached Files
Grinding and Polishing.mirror.htm


Nature's "BEING"

Solving a series of problems.

Newton's empirical equations describing gravity, force, motion and light, without involving mechanism, began a series of error trails that extended and mutated throughout the sciences. On reading Newton's Principia in 1689 CE, the Dutch telescope maker, astronomer and clock maker, Christian Huygens decided to visit Newton, suggesting an atomic mechanism propagating light, as waves moving in a hypothetical Æther medium. Blinded by his fixed mind-set promoting Descartes' corpuscular theory and Ancient Greek beliefs, Newton arrogantly demanded Huygens proves the wave theory, defining light's frequency range from Red to Violet. Unfortunately, Rőmer's very close light speed measurements of 1675 CE only gave the first tool needed to solve Newton's demands. Although Huygens retaliated proposing the Æther theory as more appropriate theory, challenging and attacking Newton's corpuscular theory, primitive Seventeenth Century technology and Huygens death in 1695 CE prevented such frequency measurements being made. In sanitising history, Twentieth Century propaganda openly states the following; "Huygens wrote and published two important works, under the influence of Newton, on light and on weight respectively."

Around 1800 CE, following the serendipitous discovery of the diffraction grating showing dark bands in the solar spectrum, Young's optical diffraction experiments confirmed Huygens' principle and the Æther theory. However, many problems surfaced as the Æther Theory relied on a mystical hypothetical diamagnetic medium, and then both theories appeared to work. Some twelve years later Young's explanation of the newly observed optical polarisation effect, with the twin slit experiment conclusively showing light as an S-wave vibration, pushed much of Newton's optical theory into disfavour, being treated for a century as supplanted erroneous theory.

In the late Nineteenth Century, International Telegraph companies sponsored an attack on Marconi (the inventor), an attack made by respected members of the scientific community in an attempt to discredit his wireless invention and Marconi's belief that radio signals propagate through the Æther. As a consequence, a great deal of misinformation entered the sciences. Although Marconi won the battle proving the scientific community wrong, advancing radio communications to the international arena, Einstein and Quantum theorists re-birthed and re-invented Descartes and Newton's corpuscular theory, based on extremely primitive electronic observations, and much scientific ignorance treating Light as an energy unto itself and different to radio propagation.

Without completely understanding atomic, electrical, and optical behaviour, without the necessary links placing light in the magnetic spectrum along with Marconi's radio waves and Mr. Röntgen's X-rays, without any comprehension of electrical quantisation affecting all low level electrical measurements, with Nineteenth Century Science treating Light as a unique energy-form, in 1905 CE, for all the wrong reasons, Einstein's interpretation of low-level photoelectric observations led him to challenge Huygens' Æther Theory, and light's very properties. Rather than blaming the tools used in measurement (only registering the electron's quantised charge), through errors in judgement and interpretation, accepting the illusion of optically quantised low level photoelectric observations as the answer, Einstein reinforced Newton's acceptance of Descartes' corpuscular theory, extending Newton's tendentious theory, defining Light as being composed of uniquely coloured photons existing with quantised masses and energy. In failing to attribute quantised measurements to the measuring equipment's resolution, poor research and naive conclusions reinforced contradictory scientific relics and artefacts that isolated and treated light as a distinct and different energy-form to electrically produced radio waves and X-rays.

At a time before researchers began using radio telescopes, radar, high quality electronic amplifiers, computers, satellites, and Charge Coupled Optical Devices refining humanity's view of the Universe, confirming light in the magnetic spectrum, with both Einstein and Quantum theory giving photons contradictory wave-particle dualities, Werner Heisenberg proposed an interesting extension, a compromise giving matter a wave-particle property. In the "Uncertainty Principle", calling on this wave-particle description, he emphatically stated, "... it is impossible to determine accurately both the position and momentum of the particle simultaneously." With this Heisenberg failed the sciences by ignoring the nature of magnetic chemical bonds at the atomic level and matter's interconnected structure. Due to propaganda and indoctrination, the scientific community cannot rationalise the fact that irrespective of matter's composition, Heisenburg's description applies to all matter including the source, intervening matter and the detector, because all methods of measurement affect matter magnetically, producing response reactions affecting matter's magnetic environment, so that all normal means of measurement and communications fail, making observations at the lowest resolution limit virtually impossible.

Unfortunately, to honour and defend a pseudo-scientific belief-set, giving credibility to Newton, Einstein and Quantum Theory, with tendentious theory hijacking genuine observations, indoctrination and propaganda within the scientific community deliberately concealing observational truth through (deceptive) sophisticated contradiction and confusion, educators ensured their job security and status. Those that call on particle optics as light's explanation show to all their total ignorance of basic Physics. To overcome intrinsic problems in the photon theories, some authorities go so far as to re-write Physics, turning the light beam into a photon bucket-brigade, with intervening matter receiving and then transmitting photons. Particle optics involves a great deal more Physics than simply manipulating baseless speculation into a sweeping statement of fact.

When Einstein simplified explanation with generalisations and empirical approximations based on false assertions in the scientific belief-set made without mechanism or proof, then, without correction, although many rotational effects and chemical reactions identify motion as relative to a stationary reference frame and absolute time, he could only abandon and negate both the Universal Reference Frame and the appreciation of Absolute Time. In forming major scientific error junction points, Einstein and Quantum theorists trivialised Nature's Universe, and in so doing created a series of self-confirming tautologies branching and extending delinquent error trails, that not only retrograded much explained science, noumenons became accepted as real objects and real events, and then real objects and genuine observations became scientific mysteries, exceptions, and invalid proofs.

Unfortunately, due to the convoluted contradictory view of Science held at a time when astronomers and atomic physicists realised that Einstein's theories did not work without fudge factors, in the quest to prove Einstein, or to advance the contradictory Quantum Theory, using empirical means negating genuine observations, Niels Bohr, Max Plank, Steven Hawkin, and many others hijacked the sciences, force-fitting and linking contradictory complex relativistic and mysterious Quantum solutions into scientific explanation, which in giving credibility and popularity to tendentious confusing theory, extended and reinforced mutant error trails.

A far worse situation developed when the entertainment industry eroded and weakened Science by promoting these scientific noumenons as real objects and real events through fanciful and convincing science fiction stories, often using pseudo-scientific double-talk and improbabilities, dramatic plots and scare tactics, with voyeurism and emotional situations, to graphic animations expounding baseless conspiracy theories, Quantum uncertainty, Einstein's hypotheticals, and fictional science, as truth. Beguiled and convinced by Hollywood's "Star Trek" speculation showing probable technological development, the planted seeds began germinating as young individuals who saw Hollywood's truth in certain concepts established a technological revolution with invention and commercial refinement. Just as technology advanced so did tendentious theory with much international rivalry seeking to prove Hollywood's version of Science. Ignorant of Nature's Universe, and because it seemed correct at the time, the scientific community not only hijacked genuine observations, they applied and honoured all manner of genuine observation that appeared to confirm Hollywood's interpretation of tendentious theory.

The Devil's Advocate.

In testing the view that the sciences placed self-confirming tendentious theory on a pedestal above reproach, above Nature, and above God, the Scientific Method demands the causal researcher isolate and quarantine the accepted scientific belief-set, before opening and looking inside the scientific too-hard-box, where the scientific community hides all genuine observational data and objects that contradict accepted theory and belief. As the Devil's Advocate, the causal research student must attempt to scientifically disprove and deny, or confirm and prove, matter's properties, physical effects and motion at the atomic level, including the Stationary Reference Frame, Absolute time and Space time, the atomic structure, chemical bonding, the 7-layer ISO model, Environmental Relativity and the measurement standards. The researcher must look at technological change and observational developments made since that time when the scientific community accepted a particular explanation as the answer, because many present-day observations categorically deny historically accepted ignorant conclusions and poor explanation.

The causal researcher must carefully examine the scientific belief-set as suspect theory, seeking and testing all supporting evidence before determining more suitable explanation. As a consequence of explaining the scientific mysteries through commonality of cause and mechanism, the process itself should challenge, divorce, and remove bad theory from the scientific belief-set. Although Einstein openly stated that, " ... one experiment may disprove a Science forever," it must also be stated that people do not want to know any truth that could change the basic ground rules. With this ignorant attitude hiding and maintaining false beliefs and genuine observations, the causal researcher may face great opposition, perhaps forced to conclusively disprove the same false-beliefs many times using totally different procedures and methods, merely to overcome the scientific community's inertia, a community attitude resisting all change and all correction, one that accepts contradiction and convoluted theory, an attitude that demands a deluded scientific community attack and deny suitable replacement theory.

Many problems surface when physical events described within the atomic reference frame produce cumulative effects in the terrestrial reference frame, where an invalid interpretation of the terrestrial response becomes an observational illusion giving invalid reason and explanation. Scientific history identifies many examples where personal beliefs, religion, fears and insecurity, rivalry, anger, arrogance and ego, led to the acceptance of, or extension of, tendentious theory. Several classic examples of blind scientific acceptance include electrostatic theory, the electrochemical theory, Faraday's magnetic lines-of-force concept, the Michelson-Morley Experiment, and as relativistic proofs, the contradictory photon theories, gravitational lens effects, the time dilation effect, neutron star theory, Oppenhiemer's silly, stupid, and uncorrected error that led to the black hole and worm hole noumenons, and of course, the fifteen contradictory Big Bang theories described and independently used in the singular as THE Big Bang Theory to answer logical criticisms.

With early Twentieth Century inferior research methodology and analysis giving light an exclusive particle nature, and as a wave-particle duality, the various photon and Quantum level concepts introduced massive contradictions and much deluded science, denying the involvement of all natural mechanisms, processes and explanation. Unfortunately, with late-Twentieth Century prolific publications provocatively perverting Physics promoting problematic photon propaganda, precocious pernicious peer pressure proclaimed Einstein's infallibility and god-like ownership of the Universe to the detriment of the sciences. The scientific community breached the scientific method, retrograding the sciences to Newton's pre-1800 belief-set, by failing to challenge and supplant these errors as new technology provided genuine observational evidence proving the Æther's existence, but in a different form to that suggested by Huygens and Young.

As described more fully in this work, from the causal researcher's standpoint of attacking and eradicating indoctrination errors and tendentious theory from several directions, it becomes apparent that an object's colour, spectral absorption effects, polarisation effects, diffraction effects, and the molecular effects detected with radar signals penetrating a tornado's vortex, that with present-day observations accurately described through common mechanism, such explanations challenge, refute, remove and supersede all hypothetical Æther and photon concepts. It becomes obvious that the principal concepts of BEING defines the Æther and energy's propagation mechanism, as, "the atomic and molecular magnetic environment, where any change or shift in the atomic and-or molecular magnetic field transfers energy through magnetic-means to other atoms and molecules." Depending on the nature of the magnetic change, as different energy-forms affecting matter uniquely, energy propagates at different rates through matter's crystalline structure. This could result from a change in magnetic throughput, magnetic field strength, spatial requirements, loading, resonance, position, and alignment and-or vibration, et cetera.

As the transport and communications medium between mindless matter, in passing magnetic changes to other atoms and molecules, depending on the nature of the event and the time frame through which the released energy-forms apply, irrespective of the nature of a material, or packing density (from the most concentrated to the most sparse vacuous regions), all matter magnetically links with all nearby matter into a crystalline structure spanning the Universe. Subsequently, through matter's magnetic influence on matter at the atomic level between atoms and molecules, the AD 2000 Æther Theory identifies matter's magnetically aligned crystalline structure throughout the Universe as the Æther.

The atom and its protective magnetic envelope must be described as a mechanical scavenger processor, with magnetic input, magneto-mechanical logical processing, and magnetic output functions. When an applied force-form magnetically affects the atomic magnetic field structure as an input signal, a series of magneto-mechanical responses take place dependent on the input's magnitude and direction (with concern to the 7-layer failure points), and subject to local environmental loading, characteristic translation and interpretation signal reception processes modify and eventually propagate diverse signals-of-change affecting neighbouring matter. When the environment's changed magnetic conditions exceed specific magnitudes, a 7-layer mechanism's failures initiate a range of rejection effects from structural change altering chemical and or nuclear configuration, to effects producing diverse response reactions, perhaps releasing force-forms of greater magnitude than the trigger signal's input energy level. As described shortly, upper and lower 7-layer rejection events may involve magneto-mechanical structural changes affecting chemical bonding (making each atom and its molecules, mechanical chameleons). Many factors influence an atom's opportunity and ability to absorb, store and liberate energy, even when forming and maintaining specific molecular structures.

Within a 7-layer system's normal operating range, the atom's response influences neighbouring atoms and molecules through its protective magnetic envelope, propagating force-forms and a range of magneto-mechanical translation and interpretation output responses, identifying each particular atom along the propagation path. Due to matter's common input and output interface, as propagation travels forward, restoration effects also propagate these signals in every direction, locating Huygen's principle as the third principle of BEING where, "Each atom in a medium must be considered as the point source for the production of signals-of-change that propagate with uniform speed in every direction through a medium unless influenced and affected by a medium's structure and loading." Displacement waves propagating over the pond's rippling surface must be considered at the atomic level, composed of interconnected molecules, so that with motion, recoil and restoration effects, each waveform propagates through molecular interconnections. Experiments with non-connected particles reveals massive absorption properties devoid of restoration effects. Due to matter's interconnections and couplings, signals propagated in the reverse direction give rise to the truism, every action produces an equal and opposite reaction.

The interaction of mindless magnetic matter held in a matrix of magnetic couplings, in obtaining energy from the local environment, in storing energy rotationally in the magnetic structure, establishes processes liberating energy-forms into the surrounding environment. Just as different chemical Groups relate to common magnetic circuit shapes, descriptions later in this work examine different chemical bond types forming as a consequence of magnetic couplings and links, which through magnetic repulsion effects give rise to bond angles, bond lengths, and bond strengths, not just in the molecule, but also between molecules forming crystal structures, linking all matter across the Universe.

Figure 6-1

Since normal testing procedures only detect open directed magnetic fields, several magnetic field structures exist that cannot be detected in the laboratory. Despite remaining invisible to all conventional tests, these closed magnetic field circuits affect and produce effects in matter. Any comparison between a conventional laminated E-I transformer and a toroidal transformer reveals startling differences in both efficiency and response characteristics. Although very difficult to manufacture, for the same output power, the toroid's advantages include operating at much lower temperatures, with less volume and less mass (Copper and Iron), reducing noise and cross-talk, improving sensitivity, bandwidth and frequency response, so necessary for the computer industry's communication protocols and power requirements. Until recent times, in treating the toroid as a laboratory novelty, as a toy, researchers and educators generally ignored this research area.

Figure 6-2 An Inert gas structure
When applied to atoms and molecules, with Coterie rings forming resonant circular magnetic fields around each atom's axis, a mechanism presents itself permitting the propagation of both P and S-waveforms, whereby as the magnetic field responds to environmental throughput changes (strength, direction, and frequency), rapid magnetic responses produce a propagating magnetic distortion which as waves (X-rays, light, radio, gravity, and mechanical signals) propagate into and through the environment. In this situation, both sound waves and fluid flow structures must be described as mechanical waveforms.

Defining Nature's Mechanism.

Far from being perfect toroidal magnetic fields, an inert gas atom's complete Coterie ring structure forms a series of tiny directed breakout magnetic fields that jump from elpron to elpron across the ring's regularly spaced neutrons. Between the occurrence of these inert gases across the Periodic Table, with increased atomic number, another 8 distressed and incomplete atomic capping structures form with far more powerful directed spill and magnetic gap fields that impinge, link and couple into the environment's three-dimensional magnetic matrix. Simple mindless logical magnetic response reactions take place forming apparent and non-apparent chemical bonds magnetically locating, positioning, aligning and separating all atoms through three-dimensional magnetic interconnection bonds, that not only give the greatest magnetic throughput efficiency for energy distribution processes, they serve to establish matter's two principle bonding operations using temporary and semi-permanent chemical bonds.

As the various chemical elements and their isotopes produce different strength magnetic spill and gap fields with changed environmental conditions, different breakout points occur as the element's magnetic field structure changes. As these open directed fields extend from each atom into the local environment producing an alignment, any activity altering an atom's magnetic field structure or field strength, produces volume, resonance, compatibility and structural change, leading to subsequent chemical changes as semi-permanent bonds break forming temporary bonds, or temporary bonds become semi-permanent bonds and new molecules, thereby influencing matter's state with temperature, volume requirements, and pressure.

Equally, an object's motion through a medium produces detectable chemical reactions as weak temporary bonds break, link and while sliding along the object reverberate, before breaking away and restoring in the object's wake. Consequently, any change initiated by an event in matter produces magneto-mechanical response reactions affecting the prevailing magnetic environment and neighbouring matter's standing-state activity, conditions, situations and secondary responses. With this, various force-forms propagate in three-dimensions as atomic response reactions trigger other responses on-passing diverse signals-of-change through matter's interconnection bonds.

These simple interpretations lead to several basic statements and mathematical conditions of Nature's mechanism described by the interaction of Nature's BEING, the 7-layer ISO model, the AD 2000 Æther Theory and Environmental Relativity, in defining and giving full explanation to matter's standing-state crystalline structures, responses, propagation and energy storage processes (including chemical bonding, equilibrium conditions, drag and friction, lubricants, motion, rotation, and mechanics, the thermodynamic laws, magnetic radiation, transparency, and gravity).

Humanity's concept of Nature's Laws concern matter's response to a particular stimulation, however, through simple logical operations and response events occurring in absolute time, Nature's "BEING" references all natural processes at the atomic frame of reference, where simple response reaction operations give matter its characteristics, properties, and behaviour, in accordance with Huygens' principle, relative to a Universal Stationary Position, and therefore to a Universal Stationary Reference Frame, irrespective of all other motion at that position. BEING's second principle states, Nature's "BEING" applies to all matter in the Universe before humanity's Natural Laws apply. As a consequence of BEING's unchanging machine language logic, the principle of Uniformitarianism states, "Where-ever matter exists in the Universe, The Natural Laws that applied in the past, continue to apply, and will continue to apply without change forever."

Newton and Gravity.

When Newton penned the equations for light propagation, gravity and motion, he made several intrinsic mistakes. Fundamental corrections made by Christian Huygens, Pascal, Jean le Rond d'Alembert, Thomas Young, Lord Kelvin, Gaspard de Coriolis, and others, disappear from view with late-Twentieth Century propaganda giving Newton exclusive credit for the mathematics and terminology used today. Consequently, causal researchers must be extremely wary of works published since 1940 CE, for in sweeping the truth under the carpet, propaganda presented as present-day scientific history not only glosses over these fundamental corrections, it hides the greatest crime of all with propagandists hijacking and applying genuine observations and corrections to deceptive tendentious theory.

As a human with human weaknesses, the word vindictive describes Newton. Following Newton publishing a treatise on Optics in 1666 CE, the president of the Royal Society, Robert Hooke accused Newton of plagiarism, for stealing his optical work and experimental results. Some years later, with Newton elected as the Royal Society's president, Newton who never forgave Hooke, spitefully attempted to remove all records of Hooke's contributions from scientific history.

Around this time, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz began promoting his invention of a new mathematical procedure. Johann Benoulli described the Leibniz procedure as, Calculus Integralis. Although initiated by Pascal, Huygens expounded the virtues of differential calculus, to which Newton not only praised his mathematical exposition, he paid Huygens the compliment of confessed imitation. In letters to Newton and others, Leibniz used the word "omnia" representing the addition process, being the summa of each integralis. When published in 1684 CE, Leibniz replaced omnia with the long "S" symbol used today. Following Newton's publication of a similar procedure in 1687 CE, Leibniz accused Newton of both plagiarism and intellectual theft, of stealing his invention of the Calculus and of changing the method's name to "Fluxions". Newton claimed inventing the procedure in 1666 CE, some 20 years before.

To test the truth, Hooke organised a competition, where both Leibniz and Newton must solve a difficult problem. The abstract question asked during this competition dealt with defining "the Quality of motion". From experimental evidence, Galileo derived a series of basic empirical equations linking acceleration and motion. Although Newton derived the answer as "mv", which Leibniz insisted on being "mv2", many saw The Royal Society bestowing credit on Newton as a political move. For the next 57 years the controversy that this decision promoted continued, until d'Alembert showed both answers as correct, since each defined different qualities of motion, in accordance with Galileo's findings. As a means to distinguish motion's qualities, Thomas Young introduced the word "energy" in 1807 CE; which Lord Kelvin defined as kinetic energy in 1856 CE; but then the mathematician Coriolis made the necessary correction defining kinetic energy as ½mv2 + c.

Unfortunately, Newton's parallel mathematical approximations buried all gravitational descriptions. Inadvertently, Kelvin and others labelled an object's potential difference as its potential energy. Referred to by many as Newton's Law of Gravity, the empirical equation of gravitational force (F), as an application of the inverse square law, best explained by Huygens' principle and the Æther theory, appears as;

Due to the effect of increasing distance geometrically increasing the transmission coverage perpendicular to a signal's direction, this equation tells an interesting story describing many effects including general propagation and gravitational potential energy effects. Under the misconception that, with greater height both potential difference and potential energy increase, a particularly mean and devastating knowledge virus spread into the sciences. The above equation predicts that with increased distance, the potential energy decreases as Potential difference increases. Rather than being a linear function, Pd=mgh, the correction involves slamming Newton's equation into the centre of this equation, replacing "g". So,
Needless to say, as height and distance equate above the surface to a common altitude, then
Although explained in more detail elsewhere, Newton's empirical equations work from a gravitational body's surface, not from the centre of mass, and then, the observed gravitational effects suffer from local gravitational conditions. Depending on depth beneath a gravitational body's surface, the overburden presents a gravitational pull towards the surface cancelling local gravitational effects at the core, so that at the centre of the Earth's mass, with equal overburden attraction, cancellation produces a weightless effect as the Earth orbits the Sun. When measured above a gravitational body's surface, the empirical mathematics wrongfully reveals a curve that appears to level off at infinite force on the surface where d=0. In making a great deal more sense, it becomes obvious that as an object approaches a gravitational body, its potential energy maximises to the gravitational body's surface, and then decreases with proximity to a major gravitational body's centre. Due to the macro-system effects, a mass's potential difference depends on the prevailing local reference frames. At the Earth's core where zero gravity seems to apply, references the Earth to its orbit around the Sun. At the solar core, the zero gravity effect references the solar system as being inside the galaxy, and finally, at the galactic centre the galaxy being inside the Universe.

To make sense of and test any mathematical expression, causal researchers should try a few simple tricks. Rather than using MKS measurements, consider the standard distance in terms of units and the standard intensity or magnitude of a force as a frenum. As a name and in name only, equivalence alone defines this arbitrary measurement scale. Since constants and conversion factors (like G, a value of 6.67 x 10 -11 Nm2 / kg 2) must be used to change the units into something meaningful, in relating universal measurements to humanity's convenient measurement standards, the researcher should simply replace the values of all constants with unity. As c2 remains as a constant in Einstein's equation, the statement E=m should upset many beliefs.

This throw-away method looks for the problem's correct mathematical appreciation rather than the correct answer. In the rest of the equation, substitute simple integer values into the equation's variable elements. Each equation becomes one of proportionality, where F ~ ( m 1 m2 ) / d 2 and Pd ~ ( m1 m22 ) / d . The important operators begin with the values of the masses m1 and m2. The value of the principle mass m1 (be it the Sun or Earth), and the object's mass m2 (be it the Earth, a person, or an atom). As the causal researcher must do, when taking the mathematics to the very limits making both masses equal, the potential difference equation reveals an obvious problem in the empirical equation's relativity.

In the force equation, the distance d squared becomes a far more interesting factor presenting a directed force-form between the surfaces of the masses, proportional to the masses m1 and m2. If the measured force experienced at a distance of 1 unit above the surface presents a value of 1 frenum, then the force experienced at 10 units distance, must be one hundredth (1/100th) of that force, (or 0.01 frenums). This leads to a potential difference between the forces experienced at the two heights of 0.99 frenums, and obviously, a great difference in potential energy, where at the greatest height, the potential energy tends towards zero, so that as the object's activity becomes less, the object gets colder with increasing height.

However, all scientific books refer to the potential energy equation as PE = mgh. If true, then at an infinite height from the Earth, the object must possess infinite energy becoming hotter with increased height, and equally, if falling from an infinite height must liberate infinite energy on striking the Earth at a temperature below absolute zero. This misleading and wrong equation should be scrapped, because potential difference and potential energy exist between certain limits. As given by Newton's empirical law of gravity, the gravitational force decreases as the height increases, as an inverse square effect on the value of the force experienced on the object's mass m2. So, as an approximation, with d2 being the greater height, the potential difference becomes;

So it stands that with greater height, the potential difference increases as the potential energy decreases. In Nature's BEING, as the tenth principle states, potential differences have maximum values that cannot exceed the system's maximum available energy, then another problem appears when considering any mass at a gravitational body's surface, where d=0 or h=0, with Newton's empirical equation dividing by zero producing an infinite result. To avoid division by zero, the immediate repair must be;

Gravitational potential energy stands at the bottom of an enormous list of conditions defining an object's real potential energy, and matter's uppermost energy limit. The above equation actually requires an addition, + K which for the sake of brevity describes the system's enthalpy, not just through nuclear and chemical bonds, but also through standing state magnetic throughput due to relative velocity, molecular activity, alignment, pressure, and resonance.

Other Chapters describe the mathematics necessary to determine the exact value of K at any given moment in time, owing to variants produced by motion, activity and pressure, because without proof, means or mechanism, Einstein guesstimated an, "it-sounds-convincing-value" of K as being precisely equal to c2, despite heavier atomic masses having increasing potential energy by way of the endothermic requirements forcing matter into heavier atoms. So, according to the thermodynamic laws, 1 kg of Lithium must have a much lower energy than 1 Kg of Uranium. Thus, e mc2 !

Due to a feedback situation between neighbouring mindless magnetic matter, the scavenger process occurs as matter aligns and positions mechanically for the highest possible throughput energy level giving rise to the point of least resistance, with best efficiently obtained along the shortest possible communications pathways. Because matter affects all other matter through magnetic-means, then the same must apply at great distances where matter receives and responds to signals-of-change propagated by other matter. With matter aligning to the greatest signal strength, it also propagates its own signals into the aligned environment, producing a cumulative differential rotational force affecting alignment, position, and motion. An interesting illusion occurs with this alignment to the greatest signal intensity, where cumulative mutual attraction effects appear along the line drawn between the apparent centres of mass, which in turn gave rise to the parallel description of gravity used since Newton first described the effect.

As a magnetic-feedback situation between matter in the Universe, as a property of matter produced by mindless matter seeking out energy sources, in throughput causing an alignment, in moving matter to the point of highest possible energy throughput, in initiating motion, although giving rise to a directed gravitational force, at the sub-atomic level, gravity does not exist within the atom, even though changes in magnetic throughput alter the atom's internal rotational attributes and magnetic properties. As an example of Environmental Relativity, on the Earth's rotating surface, gravity becomes one of the most amazing forces, for it seems to hold bodies firmly to the planet's moving surface even though the Earth's surface speed (relative to the Universal Stationary reference frame) varies so greatly. As a consequence of applying observational illusions and parallel mathematical manipulation to explain those illusions, conventional science avoids describing this relative effect, simply because the accepted theories predict that changing centrifugal forces produced by orbital motion, daily rotation and the Moon's orbital motion should knock objects over and throw equatorial objects into space.

In Nature's crystalline Universe with matter magnetically linking, with throughput and change creating interactions that identify matter's standing-state presence to other matter, a feedback condition between matter through matter introduces the pseudo force of gravity as matter aligns to the greatest transmission strength, be that a direct effect or a vectorial solution. According to this description of gravity as a property of matter, since local conditions alter the gravitational forces experienced between objects, this explanation gives description and explanation to a plethora of natural effects above the planet's surface, because the imaginary line to the Earth's centre of gravity, or centre of mass varies from the vertical. It becomes obvious that as the feedback situation increases, a system's relative energy increases, giving rise to the gravitational potential energy illusion.

In more specifically relating relativity and interaction of reference frames inside reference frames, using the 7-layer model of Nature, Environmental Relativity identifies many areas where invalid interpretation, pre-conceived beliefs and poorly conceived convenient measurement standards, hijacked genuine science in providing the observational evidence supporting fanciful speculation. If applied correctly, while providing suitable replacement explanation, Environmental Relativity invalidates and supersedes many notions and claimed proofs derived from thought experiments, observational illusions, preconceived beliefs and tendentious theory.

Environmental relativity stems from Nature's "BEING" which logically organises the order of natural events as mindless matter mechanically interacts with matter affecting neighbouring matter, initiating many energy transfer processes, perhaps through changes in atomic position, alignment, shape, structure, activity, magnetic field strength, volume requirements, vibration, and resonance. Similarly, as the interactions between matter's 3-D magnetic structures produce varying degrees of attraction and repulsion, different conversion and transmission processes apply affecting a reaction's response and energy propagation speed. The same applies in life, where a comment designed to provoke a reaction may be rejected, ignored, absorbed and stored, or actioned, so that the immediate effect produces a range of emotional and physical responses that change with time, loading, situation, and circumstance.

Please consider, contemplate and compare the various emotional behavioural responses stimulated by family and friends, neighbours and strangers, reporters, politicians and religious leaders, in opposite situations, particularly the happy fun times and in the sad times, in good and bad situations, in celebrations and confrontations. Depending on one's personality, temperament, motivation, and learnt restrictions, each individual experiences different spontaneous and long-term response effects, with different response levels. To some, a well told joke may bring tears with the laughter, but then, it may fall on deaf ears, bringing back sad and tragic memories, perhaps feeling insulted, defamed or vilified, or through translation errors incite others to the point of hostility demanding revenge and compensation. (An example of this could be the use of the first name, Mohammad, in a politically sensitive joke, referring to some ubiquitous individual, perhaps the boxer, and not to The Prophet, but then taken out of context and translated by Islamic extremists seeking religious conquest through jihad, treated as an inexcusable remark directly attacking The Prophet thus demanding revenge and death.)

As an academic exercise, when represented in three-dimensions as a solid graph, with good effects at the top and bad effects below, a population's response to a given stimulus forms a Gaussian distribution curve that appears more like a galaxy or poached egg, (with the hump-like curve, vertically mirrored and rotated around the curve's central axis). From community to community, as the commonality of effect changes with cultural loading through education, social standards and beliefs, then the graph's central axis moves to each community's mean social response point, dividing the population into numerous response groups with different acceptance and response levels. Abraham Lincoln stated the obvious when he said, "you can please some of the people some of the time, but you cannot please all the people, all of the time."

Rejection and Absorption.

Just as game playing specialisation techniques simplify learning and the acceptance of some subjects, the mind makes many other tasks so extremely difficult to comprehend, entire knowledge branches, specific topics, conditions, and situations may be rejected through emotional conflict, attitude, and fear, intolerance, anger, frustration and arrogance, grief, stress, and anxiety, laxity, expedience, distraction and ignorance, to a point that personal rejection may trigger emotional outbursts and a plethora of violent responses. As distinct from absorption, when the human mind perceives something as wrong, what actually defines personal rejection, and the magnitude of emotional responses?

After considerable thought, most people answer this question from personal experience, describing effects varying from apparent absorption, where the mind simply blanks and ignores some concept, to that of active rejection invoking diverse emotional phenomena including regression and sadness, anger and retaliation, et cetera. With shock, stress, or memory recall triggering hormonal releases, active rejection responses appear with extreme changes in mood, attitude, expression, communication and body language, pulse and blood pressure change, to numerous physical activities depending on situation. Although one's personal response varies from grief and loss, to satisfaction and contentment, emotions can reach extreme levels of indignation, frustration, and resentment, blocking acceptance, logic and truth. Given the correct opportunities, an individual's emotional response, threats and arguments may with time, sway and align others in reinforcing specific response reactions, which through peer pressure could unite, divide, change, or destroy a community, its culture, history, and knowledge. Equally, a soul wrenching life-threatening disaster may with time be rejected and forgotten by the victim and witnesses, perhaps treated as an amusing party anecdote, a miracle, as a fantastic experience, as a behavioural lesson to others, or as an inexcusable action demanding revenge and compensation. Rejection may also result in correction, where in extending the basic concept, or in challenging the concept through clarification and explanation, new research areas open, changing the concept for the better.

Rejection must therefore be viewed as producing diverse effects from negating reaction responses to activating greater reaction events. The same must be said about mindless matter in Nature's Universe. Although passive amplifiers respond to vibrations producing resonant amplification without adding energy, where signal rejection and absorption effects totally remove entire frequency bands, in some cases resonant amplification and signal rejection may reach critical limits destroying the amplifier and its local environment. Consequently, the use of the term rejection identifies major flaws in the appreciation of energy and the thermodynamic laws, where the accepted belief defines energy as "the ability to do work", without a real definition invoking time or mechanism, in a theory that identifies stimulation, threshold energies and all process reactions as either being exothermic (liberating energy), or endothermic (in storing energy).

The cumulative reaction energy liberated, or absorbed by a reaction being dependent on the system's total available energy, not just from the action but also from the energy-forms released by the reaction. What may appear as an endothermic reaction (absorbing energy) must involve exothermic reactions (releasing energy) and vice versa. When triggered, an event's cumulative reaction energy equates to the sum of the action energy and the energy released or absorbed through subsequent action-reaction responses at the atomic frame of reference, every time the magnetic structure, field strength, volume requirements, alignment, position or bonding structure change. Without any concept of Nature's mechanism, Newton correctly deduced that for every action, an equal and opposite reaction occurs, however in Nature's Universe, unbalanced exothermic and endothermic reactions occur, releasing and-or absorbing energy. When considering the entire reaction chain, chemical reactions appear balanced as equal and opposite.

Please consider a rejection reaction where a force of one Newton metre applied suddenly as an impact to a tenth of a gram mass of nitro-glycerin produces an explosion, where the output energy greatly exceeds the input energy. The obvious difference due to the available chemical energy released from the terribly unstable nitro-glycerin molecules in that small mass. As each molecule breaks apart releasing reaction products, new chemicals form demanding greater spatial requirements, releasing numerous energy-forms and force-forms that propagate through the mass in a short-time triggering similar reaction events in the remaining nitro-glycerin. When any molecule physically breaks apart, a chain of step-by-step chemical reactions take place across each break, for in every case, new chemical bonds alter the molecule's magnetic field shape, structure, and field requirements producing alignment, pressure and resonance effects until the reactions cease and restoration events return the environment to an increased normal state. When a molecule breaks, two components require molecular satisfaction. So great and sudden the alignment, volume and pressure changes caused by nitro-glycerin breaking apart, in producing a high degree of environmental motion and activity, intensifies the reaction burning atmospheric Nitrogen, forming fingerprint residue chemicals that identify the reaction's components.

These step-by-step reactions occur according to Nature's 7-layer, in considering each layer as a telephone exchange routing the action from signal communication points through various party lines, taking the most efficient path to the central processing core and then back through the same layers to numerous response points. Obviously, a period of time elapses before the action produces an echoing response and-or, a measurable conversion event affecting neighbouring matter, causing alignment, positional or spatial change. However, rejection may occur anywhere within the 7-layer model, producing a response, perhaps as the signal enters an internal layer as it descends to the logical core, or ascends from the logical core to matter's interface. Irrespective of a signal's acceptance or rejection, non-instantaneous responses produce numerous effects that eventually reach the interface's transmission point influencing neighbouring matter.

Rather than using the word stimulate or its synonyms in describing the conditions necessary to activate some reaction, inferring a delay or the need to reach a specific threshold energy level before any signal processing spontaneously takes place, matter's interface must receive, and the mechanism must process each signal-of-change in real time before signal rejection reactions affect and influence the local environment. Nature's "BEING" defines absolute time and propagation effects through the sixth principle, which simply states, "a reaction's response cannot be instantaneous, or as occurring before the triggering action." Restoration effects occur when neighbouring matter's response effects affect previously affected matter (according to Huygens' principle), returning the situation to a different and relatively constant equilibrium condition. Even at a temperature of absolute zero, with individual molecules held and aligned in position, as any change to the prevailing environmental conditions produce response reactions, matter displays Brownian motion, (an irregular vibration caused by processing and propagating environmental signals-of-change).

Perceived as a reaction's cumulative effects, using the computer's 7-layer ISO model, as a series of concentric circles or layers, applied numerous times defining each smaller system encased in a larger system, to the central most atomic mechanism, modelling Nature's apparent complexity reveals Nature's mechanical simplicity at the basement processing level. Although the 7-layer model eventually describes the atom itself as yet another hypothetical 7-layer action-reaction response shell-structure, as distinct from the atom's physical structure and operating mechanism, matter's 7-layer atomic responses create a series of observational illusions and cumulative responses that appear to support a physical shell structure. Because the normal reaction path involves hypothetical reaction-response layers (perhaps better described as the overview, the operation, the system, the transport layer, the module, the mechanism, and the processing core), then the processor core's response only becomes observable when the action's response eventually returns to the overview-layer, where mechanism-modified reaction responses influence neighbouring matter, giving rise to fingerprint signal propagation and restoration effects.

7 level ISO computer Model7 level Natural Processing Model
Physicalthe overview
Data Linkthe operation
Networkthe system
Sessionthe module
Presentationthe mechanism
Applicationthe processing core

Since a great deal of matter exists between any event and the measuring equipment, and as unique atomic response reactions propagate, modify, and convert signals-of-change through intervening matter (which includes the signal detector, its processing circuits and the recording devices), cumulative reception-transmission cycles establish the signal's propagation speed, quality and resolution. Therefore, propagation speed depends on BEING's seventh principle, where, "In response to an action influencing matter applied during one time frame, as response reaction events occur during subsequent time frames, signals-of-change influence and produce effects in neighbouring matter propagating as various energy-forms and force-forms through matter." Consequently in absolute time, every natural reaction involves reception, processing, response, transmission and restoration delays.

When extended to the limits of the 7-layer model, as numerous 7-layer mechanisms exist within 7-layer modules, within 7-layer systems, within 7-layer organizations, from the atomic source to the observer's organizational position (perhaps across the Universe), medium specific propagation delays occur. At the terrestrial level, the signal detector must be considered as a 7-layer environment, having its own internal 7-layer systems and 7-layer modules affecting conversion, propagation, and communication, limiting response speeds, resolution, and apparent reaction duration.

Irrespective of an event's perceived overview and apparent terrestrial complexity, in accordance with BEING's fifth principle, "Reactions occur one step at a time in order from the most active to the least active," then simple opportunistic action-reaction processes organise matter in the atomic environment by activity and opportunity, with sequential actions and opportunistic responses. Consequently, matter's structure, alignment, position, and loading with pressure, stress, activity, magnetic resonance, field strength and direction play key roles altering matter's inertia, preventing, permitting or changing a reaction's duration, energy processing efficiency, propagation rates, and the reaction's outcome.

Problems arise when relating terrestrial and galactic environs to atomic events, where matter's structure, complexity and size affect propagation routes, duration, reaction sequence, and energy distribution. Although opportunistic reactions occur in activity-opportunity specific order, due to matter's three-dimensional matrix and the number of mechanisms processing an event's signals-of-change at different reaction sequence steps, terrestrial observations made during a time interval reveal a blurred and complex view of all physical, chemical and nuclear response reactions. This becomes apparent when applying a common atomic mechanism at the basement machine language level to any system or organization, whether described as a terrestrial entity or by observations and experiments. A 7-layer organization must be composed of 7-layer systems, sub-divided into 7-layer sub-systems, 7-layer modules, 7-layer functioning blocks, and the 7-layer operating mechanism, else (and as scientific history reveals), researchers create observational illusions and tendentious theory by incorrectly interpreting observational effects as the operating mechanism.

All organizations, systems and modules operate between upper and lower rejection points, limiting the system's processing ability to a specific energy range, so that as an applied energy-form's magnitude increases, other processing operations become active at the system's response failure point, adding to the illusions of quantised energy states and threshold reaction energies. In the pass band between lower and upper signal rejection points for a specific magnitude energy-form, apparently normal processing operations occur, with matter receiving, absorbing, converting and processing the signal-of-change, before on-passing energy-forms and force-forms as signals-of-change. However, as losses occur due to matter's structure and energy distribution processes, in propagating differing energy-forms at different rates, matter's dynamic energy window alters with applied loading forming physical processing boundaries and demarcation barriers, giving rise to a reaction's environmentally dependent failure points and to matter's states (thermonuclear, solid, liquid, gas-vacuum). Thus, different pass-bands produce different outcomes for the same reactive components.

As a consequence of BEING's fourth principle, "The addition, subtraction, and affect of simple actions increases the complexity by the number of mechanisms and reaction steps involved before the reactions reach a relative equilibrium point." When described at the atomic level, a simple push that suddenly overcomes a stationary object's inertia becomes enormously complex with the number and distribution of active response reactions, perhaps requiring a super computer to accurately display any real-time simulation. As a generalisation stating a system's energy as inversely proportional to the size and-or mass of the system, a reaction's duration, processing and propagation rates depend on the system's physical size, reactant availability and opportunity, complexity, activity, and loading affecting energy distribution processes. The greater matter's three-dimensional organizational complexity, structure and energy distribution routes, the greater the resistance and time required communicating and transferring energy between and within 7-layer systems and 7-layer modules, increasing a cumulative reaction's duration before reaching the final relative equilibrium outcome and state.

The same applies to business and governmental organizations, divided into a hierarchy of departments, with the basement mechanism being the human element. Unfortunately, in such organizations, with communications jammed by incompetent management practices, as employees fearful of taking responsibility refer every decision making request to committees or managers, necessary decisions occur very slowly. Efficient communications, good decision making policies and job satisfaction increase an organization's efficiency, reputation, respect and profit margin.

Influenced by an organization's inertial mass, structure, energy distribution, and communication rate, matter's resistance to change, energy transmission speeds and availability of reactants, modular processing (as best described by committees) can fail with conflict and rejection (being diverted through translation, conversion, terms of reference, frustration, and distraction), or succeed (by agreement and acceptance). Equally, the organization may be strengthened or weakened by the structure, staff competence, communications, frustration, fear, incentive, job-satisfaction, and-or by the purity of motive. In decreasing reaction speed, improving communications and the reaction's efficiency, in reaching a feedback condition resonantly amplifying the energy output, the mechanism itself may explosively self-destruct, taking with it the entire organization, best illustrated by successful companies and corporations suddenly going "belly-up", or when a massive planetary sized object becomes a star.

With the knowledge that matter remains after a nuclear event, where the reactants simply cleave into reaction products, and that other physical, chemical and nuclear reactions take place involving enormous spatial requirement changes, chemical bonding, hypersonic motion, and restoration effects, causal researchers must absolutely refute any interpretation of Einstein's mass-energy conversion and annihilation approximation (E = m c2). Scientific propaganda gives this annihilation approximation equation credibility by deceptively describing nuclear events.

Equally, when two or more effects combine in human communications, effectively filtering, colouring, changing, or amplifying certain concepts, with differing emotive levels producing effects and interpretations, the reception of an idea may produce translation errors that could remove, reinforce, or add salient points or remove some through distraction during the reception-conversion-translation process. Although Hollywood scriptwriters produce plots with predictable responses, the audience response depends on the actor's translation and rendition of those words, the production and direction (including lighting and sound effects, background music, editing and graphics), which if excellent manifests itself in making the story believable.

Rejection also comes from the translation process where, because ignorance of the language prevents something being translated, however nice a compliment, innocent the remark, or vile the insult, a message stated in a foreign language without translation produces a range of reactions, from the person ignoring the remark with a simple smile, to frustration, extreme anger and hostility. A scriptwriter's scientific double-talk, the folly artist's audio effects and the special effects department's graphic interpretations in making some hypothetical event more dramatic and realistic, often produces confusing acceptance situations between reality and fiction. Sometimes the contrived images and effects initiate thought processes demanding answers, that may, or may not lead to a valid explanation. Often, dramatic media productions initiate urban myths and the general acceptance of total rubbish as genuine fact (such as that displayed in Western and detective movies where the impact event of a 45-calibre bullet throws the villain through the air).

From drawing a few parallels to basic language and comprehension, it becomes obvious that a propagated signal must be received, translated and interpreted before the meaning becomes apparent, else rejection occurs. At the point of understanding, important communications produce a response that may absorb, reject or promote an active response. Unfortunately, the translation and interpretation may result in confusion, distortion, attenuation, conversion, or amplification, giving rise to secondary effects adding to, changing, or filtering the signal, which when added to the original signal produces rejection, absorption, or reinforcement effects, resulting in various degrees of activity to state and position changing events. Therefore, as matter affects other matter atomically, under the 7-layer ISO model, the following response reaction steps occur.

Under the concepts underlying Environmental Relativity, the Postulation of BEING, and the AD 2000 Æther Theory, the atomic mechanism receives, interprets, translates, converts, stores, responds, releases, propagates and distributes energy through atomic magnetic field effects that alter the atom's field strength, internal rotation, position and alignment propagating fingerprint magneto-mechanical energy-forms and force-forms along with the original signal-of-change affecting other matter. The energy-form or force-form may appear as a potential energy change (as pressure/ gravity/ chemical/ magnetic, thermal); as a kinetic energy change as motion (movement/ acceleration/ particle radiation); as rotation (a lever/ gear/ flywheel); as wave motion, (* P, S, and L-waves); as magnetic bonds (nuclear/ chemical); as differential and hybrid events (hydraulic/ aerodynamic); etc. (* refers to the Geological definition of Pressure waves, Sheer waves and Local waves.)

Energy and the Æther.

Although the sciences refer to the Thermodynamic Laws as infallible, many terrestrial illusions and self-confirming tautologies make these apparent Laws appear true. As certain underlying conditions of BEING reverse matter's apparent behaviour and properties at the atomic level, corrections must be made that give meaning to this mystery. Rather than being a presumption, observations show that irrespective of consequence, BEING'S first principle applies where, Irrespective of consequence, simple logical mechanical process reactions in Nature's Universe take the most efficient path to reach the point of maximum energy throughput (the path of least resistance), absorbing environmental energy and releasing excess energy into the environment through simple response reactions. This means that a molecule considered as the reaction's end-product with the lowest possible thermodynamic level, in being at its most efficient alignment, possesses more potential energy, and therefore as it actually exists at the highest thermodynamic level requiring less threshold energy before entering into another reaction. Explanation for this inversion of thermodynamic effects appears much later in this work.

From the elegant simplicity of each atomic process, unique and different energy-forms arise, propagated as various signals-of-change, including gravity, magnetic radiation, activity (spatial requirements, and resonance), through structural and alignment changes giving rise to force, motion, and many other effects, all of which influence other matter. The application of a directed energy-form during a time frame as a force may, or may not be suitable to initiate the process required to reach the desired reaction or to maintain a reaction. It must be stressed that as all processes operate at the atomic level, they do so when compatible energy-forms apply within a specific time frame, with an appropriate magnitude and direction. Such reactions may be a consequence of signal rejection. The energy-form's available energy may not be fully accepted or utilised in subsequent reactions.

All energy equations and descriptions include many hidden factors responsible for a reaction's response delay and consequences, such as opportunity, threshold energy requirements, alignment and position change, magnetic field strength and structural change, propagation and dispersion effects. These factors include alignment, proximity, opportunity, and resonance producing compatibility, rejection and several propagation delays that give all atomic, chemical, and physical reactions, duration, conversion rates, transfer and transmission rates, as well as module failure points. Using specific energy-forms and force-forms affecting matter, energy distribution and alignment processes normally transfer the environment's standing-state available energy throughout matter. As illustrated by the speed differences between water waves on a pond and a tsunami, with signal intensity causing a 7-layer failure, much higher propagation speeds occur in the tsunami.

Since all matter links magnetically, matter magnetically propagates energy-forms to neighbouring matter producing effects that affect and influence matter's response. In every state of matter, magnetic forces align matter into crystal structures for maximum magnetic throughput. Depending on atomic matter's magnetic compatibility and alignment, physical energy-forms applied in a specific time frame may change magnetic throughput, resonance, vibration, alignment, and-or position. As the external magnetic environment responds to magnetic changes, distributing this energy, matter stores excess energy rotationally, affecting magnetic throughput, position, and resonance. As a consequence of the environment's energy distribution mechanism, where a feedback situation occurs, matter attracts matter (as gravity).

Depending on an event's severity, step-by-step processes occur as magnetic bonds break and new magnetic bonds form, in the order from the most active most opportunistic to the least active least convenient. In physically changing the molecular magnetic field structure, the spatial requirements, and resonance, the magnetic field undergoes various response reverberations that may release magnetic radiation characteristic of the elements involved, and-or through alignment or positional change, propagating various signals-of-change, which in affecting the local atomic neighbourhood give rise to the next most active, opportune and convenient reaction. As examples, please consider,

This primitive communications protocol allows atom to atom energy transfer, through alignment, position, resonance and throughput in the magnetic environment, producing field strength change, creating stress and strain, deformation, pressure, position and alignment change, motion and flow structures, vibration, and restoration effects as the environment returns to normality following an event-of-change. Because of this, after an event-of-change occurs with the reaction products loading or slowing-down the toroid's magnetic throughput, in changing the field's structure or volume requirements, the affected elprons must then spin-up or spin-down to meet the environmental magnetic throughput giving rise to both energy absorbed and liberated, as endothermic and exothermic effects, resulting in a differential energy change that as a cumulative response reaction may appear as an endothermic or exothermic reaction.

When adding an atomic or molecular contaminant to a substantial quantity of water, a three-dimensional magnetic alignment change takes place, producing observable effects. Equally, as garnets slowly grow and solidify in cooling magmatic deposits, spiral garnet structures form as the Earth's magnetic field changes over the cooling time in both strength and direction. These examples illustrate the crystal nature of all matter through magnetic coupling, linking and aligning. Since energy propagation and measurement require a mechanism influencing matter producing effects in matter, logically, as a property of matter, energy becomes measurable when it propagates through matter, for without matter, energy cannot propagate, or be identified as existing in the pure form. Since energy does not occupy a volume, nor has it mass, means of origination, means of transport or propagation, energy cannot exist in a pure-form or can it be considered as a dimension.

Logically, when Einstein advanced the Pure Energy concept, his empirical matter annihilation approximation E=mc2 and his theories of relativity became tautologies, since the equation demands energy existing with mass, and mass existing with energy, so therefore, mass cannot exist without energy and pure energy cannot exist without mass. By way of storing energy in matter through rotation and the production of magnetic fields that attract, link, couple and repel matter producing alignment and structure, the interaction of two or more atomic magnetic fields establish the mechanism allowing explanation for everything in Nature's Universe from chemical bonding and energy propagation, to motion, position, alignment and structural change.

When an event in matter liberates an energy-form, the energy-form propagates through matter by producing effects in matter, which may or may not affect matter producing secondary force-forms. Obviously then, depending on the liberated energy-form, the energy-form transported by that matter might produce force-form effects in other matter. In every situation, when increasing a system's energy or activity through internal or external means, the application of energy depends on the energy-form's compatibility to matter's crystalline structure producing force-forms. Best illustrated with a high powered laser beam cutting through a solid, as a consequence of secondary energy-forms radiated by the solid, the air only becomes heated near the beam's surface contact point.

Therefore, in Nature's Universe, energy liberated by an event, stored rotationally affecting atomic magnetic field strength, may be liberated, applied, converted, absorbed, wasted, lost, rejected, conserved, re-directed, and transferred by matter to other matter. Irrespective of matter's separation or the intervening matter's composition, due to matter's crystal structure, when a compatible energy-form or a rejection affects and influences matter, any change in atomic matter's alignment, position, activity, spatial requirements and field strength, separation, and energy differences, influencing neighbouring matter by way of the difference producing a force, the energy-form acts as a force-form affecting matter, its alignment and activity. Consequently, under the principles of Nature's BEING, energy's general definition becomes:-

" Arising from an event in matter,
transferred to and through matter by magnetic-means as force-forms and
energy-forms affecting and producing response effects in other matter.

This all-encompassing statement describes all energy categories including all associated distinct and unique energy-forms that produce various force-forms. The forms of energy specifically describe the energy categories, where a particular phenomenon produces a class of associated energy-forms, each of which involves specific energy-forms and force-forms. As general categories, energy's forms include, gravitational, rotational, chemical, and mechanical, electrical, magnetic, molecular alignment fields, and magnetic radiation, to pressure, thermal, stress and strain, et cetera. As matter's interactions and response reactions create specific energy-forms, specific force-forms act on neighbouring matter propagating the energy-form.

As a property and function of matter, when applied naturally or artificially, energy-forms appear through matter's response to changing environmental conditions, manifesting the available energy through various force-forms, (some of which, by way of producing motion, present identical physical attributes and characteristics). The force form affecting matter produces conversions from one energy-form into other energy-forms and force-forms, which may then manifest themselves, changing the energy category and associated energy-forms (eg. as chemical, hydraulic, solar, wind, tidal, and mechanical energy-forms produce electrical energy, which while propagating magnetic radiation, audio and thermal effects, the electromagnetic effect drives motors producing rotation and mechanical energy capable of doing work. In this simple example, involving several basic energy-forms, over 100 different energy-forms and conversion effects apply, each producing a series of interacting force-forms with different propagation effects.) As a Seventeenth Century concept, in working without mechanism, Newton's empirical equation F=ma, in giving rise to a displacement, appears to bundle all force-forms together as equivalent, when totally different response processes produce force-forms with common attributes.

Although each event in matter consists of an action, translation, response and a reaction, environmental circumstances may initiate several unique response reactions affecting and energy-form's availability supplied in a time frame to neighbouring matter through specific force-forms. Depending on the magnitude of the action, the interaction and response of all affected matter in a three-dimensional matrix, an energy-form's available energy appears as the measurable energy released as a cumulative response reaction. In on-passing one or more energy-forms and force-forms, with application, energy-forms can be liberated, absorbed, rejected, wasted, shared, used and applied, resisted, filtered, reinforced, amplified, re-transmitted, modified, scrambled, and converted into other energy-forms.

By itself, an kilowatt radio signal cannot move an object, however, when connected through a mechanical system (a winch or gear-box), in the same time frame, after rectifying the alternating current radio signal into direct current, a kilowatt electric motor's mechanical rotation moves heavy objects. One can hammer a nail into concrete very slowly, often with disastrous results, however a ram-set gun easily drives a six inch nail so swiftly into a block of concrete, it does so without bending the nail or breaking the concrete. A hollow soft straw carried by cyclonic winds can imbed itself deeply inside a tree. In repairing a motor vehicle's steering linkages, with conical connections, motor mechanics must hammer a "pickle fork" between the linkages to break the linkage coupling. These examples show that when applied in a time frame, the energy-form and its magnitude must be compatible to create the desired reaction.

Dependent on the particular changes taking place in matter during a time frame, an energy-form liberated by matter may affect and produce effects in other matter. Although some events seem to create energy-forms restricted to a local region (sound and motion) as a change in placement, state, vibration or positional change, such activity alters the magnetic state of the surrounding environment, through pressure differences and local atomic interconnection bonds on-passing energy-forms to other matter. Cumulative high intensity, high frequency energy-forms arising from matter (light and radio) exhibit the capability of propagating energy over vast distances, virtually to the observable limits of the known visible Universe, as a series of events in matter passing energy through the magnetic medium affecting response reactions in atomic matter.

Just as certain conditions apply in making an energy-form compatible promoting a chemical or physical reaction, rejection conditions also apply promoting other reactions forming compatible energy-forms fostering further reactions. An unstable molecule's simple explosive disassociation promotes the formation of complete molecules, as reaction-products, with additional space requirements and activity increasing environmental conditions heralding other reactions, until environmental energy distribution returns the environment to a new point of equilibrium. Such reactions may be slow and almost continuous or sudden and extremely violent. Unless modified by local atomic forces (a catalyst, loading, or the environment), reactions follow a process priority system, determined by opportunity, through magnetic-means from the simplest to the most difficult, from the most active to the least active process.

Under BEING's revised Law of least resistance, (all atoms remain at the point of equilibrium, maintaining the highest possible energy throughput until acted upon by internal and-or external energy-forms), the conditions for equilibrium change. Depending on matter's alignment, position and rotational inertia, energy received by an atomic magnetic field can be absorbed, rejected or re-transmitted, through response reactions whose magnitude ranges from indifference to amplification.

Some authorities fail to consider pneumatic Chemistry and relative environmental activity in discussions concerning catalysts, maintaining the view that catalysts alone increase the desired reaction speed forming specific products. Other Chapters explain more fully environmental change effects (such as temperature and pressure) and the presence of a catalyst creating specific local molecular and atomic deformations, and-or environmental alignment loading effects that allow opportunistic reactions ahead of reactions that otherwise fail or naturally occur. In real-world situations catalysts and changed environmental circumstances prevent or suppress particular reaction sequences, where opportunistic secondary reaction paths become available as the primary reaction, not necessarily accelerating or retarding the desired reaction. Similar effects occur with changed activity, applied pressure, local environment, and chemical impurities.

In response to the changed environmental conditions, elprons store environmental energy through several energy processing and distribution processes, (perhaps changing the atom's internal rotation and field strength, magnetic throughput, Coterie resonance, chemical bonding, alignment change and motion), altering the atomic magnetic envelope affecting other matter. Energy-form apathy or indifference and signal loss occurs when an incompatible energy-form cannot be stored, converted, or on-passed through numerous reasons.

The Stationary Reference Frame, Time and Natural Ordinants.

Not to be confused with space-time, a dimension, an ordinance, an ordnance, an ordination, or a coordinate, Nature's Ordinants of Mass and Position, establish the fundamental structure and BEING of Nature's Universe, in Absolute Time. Just as Absolute Time cannot be created, propagated, distorted, converted, transmuted, replicated, negated, exhausted, reversed, or destroyed, the same applies to Nature's Positional Ordinants. Expressed mathematically by real scales with coordinates, Ordinants describe physical dimensions, giving rise to a volume, density, mass, and motion. In discounting beliefs describing energy or light as unique or as dimensions, in describing gravity as a scientific mystery or as particles, through the use of coordinates, Ordinants produce attributes defining energy, gravity, and magnetic radiation as properties of matter.

The Ordinant of Position defines the three-dimensional coordinates of length, width and depth, as a position, area or volume, relative to the Universal-Stationary-Reference Frame at a moment of time. Irrespective of matter's real motion through a region, or its activity, a Universal Stopped Position exists at every three-dimensional point in the Universe from which matter shows linear and rotational motion. At an instant in time where all perceived time and motion cease, then all matter exists at a stationary position requiring infinite force and infinite energy to move a single atom from that position. Although describing basic geometric constructions, using Ordinants demands describing each object, motion, or a path, in three-dimensions and in real time.

Obviously, a straight line-of-sight path being the distance between two positions as,
(x1 , y1 , z1) to (x2 , y2 , z2).

A plane, defined as the hypothetical surface formed by connecting three positions,
(x1 , y1 , z1) to (x2 , y2 , z2) to (x3, y3 , z3 ).

Thus a volume becomes a cubic space existing between four or more positions not on the same plane,
(x1 , y1 , z1) to (x2 , y2 , z2) to (x3 , y3 , z3) to (x4 , y4 , z4).

and complex or irregular volumes being defined mathematically with three-dimensional geometry around a central point.

As an Ordinant, existing at a moment in time with specific positional coordinates, considering mass as a fixed value with a precise number of atomic particles (elprons and neutrons), with activity and pressure change altering matter's magnetic field requirements, field structure and strength, with the local environment influencing packing structures, alignment and density, the measured atomic masses vary so greatly it becomes almost impossible to accurately determine an object's true mass. Due to this mass difference effect being outside this work's terms of reference, a discussion on matter's changing mass with atomic number appears in the second work Absolutely Aether. Since all matter exists in Nature's Universe at a moment of time at various unique positions, then, BEING's ninth principle states, "At the same moment in time, no two pieces of matter (even at the sub-atomic level), share the same universal stationary position." Within a uniformly moving galactic medium, producing the illusion of a moving universal stationary reference frame (with light apparently propagating at the same speed in all directions through the moving medium with respect to the medium), detectable environmental relativity effects apply between the galaxy and the actual universal stationary reference frame.

At the atomic level it becomes obvious that as the empirical equations of motion relate to individual positions affecting rotational energy within the magneto-mechanical atomic structure, a distribution effect gives the illusion of restoration, balance and equilibrium. These illusions become more apparent with the effects seemingly related to a radius or position from the object's mean centre of mass (a hypothetical point) the effective mean centre of mass, the axis of rotation, and the rotational speed. (eg. A satellite in orbit with a mean centre of mass, with orbital radius and a speed, also realises an effective centre of mass and gravity with and about the parent gravitational body, such as the Earth. The Earth-Moon system creates an effective centre of mass just below the Earth's crust. Equally, the Earth with its mean centre of mass, an orbital radius and speed, realises an effective centre of mass and gravity within and about the Sun's centre of mass). Consequently, the actual laws of linear motion only apply from an absolutely stopped-position in a stopped medium, where motion constitutes a change in just one coordinate direction, along a straight line, as realised in the following three examples;

(x1 , y1 , z1 to x1 , y1 , z2)
(x1 , y1 , z1 to x1 , y2 , z2)
(x1 , y1 , z1 to x2 , y2 , z2)

As all other motion in the Universe (including motion inside the atom) must be considered as rotational, vector solutions between the Earth's axial rotation, orbital motion, and motion around the Galaxy, identify the fact that the only linear motion possible on the Earth occurs along a specific straight line, where all rotational forces minimise to zero, relative to the Universal-Stopped-Position. In relating all motion on the Earth to three or more centres of rotation, true linear motion does not exist on, in, or about the Earth, and may not exist on any moving or rotating body in the Universe.

From the smallest atomic particle to the most distant perceived galactic object, with matter receiving, processing and on-passing signals-of-change, producing various propagation rates and delays in all mediums (including all measuring equipment), technological problems influence and restrict all measurement. As technology evolves with both invention and the application of better processes, delving deeper into matter and further back in time extending the size of the visible Universe, humanity's perception of the visible Universe changes.

When viewed as a statement of Universal ageing expressed numerically against an artificial time standard, as a statement of moment or age, in treating a Time interval as the period between two numerical points representing unique moments, as events in the past to the apparent present, or probable future, as indicating an on-going moment during the irreversible and measurable changes in the visible Universe, then irrespective of matter's position, activity, motion, or events taking place in both the visible Universe and beyond, as this moment of the now universally presents the same moment throughout all matter, propagation delays in all mediums and technologies prevent matter instantaneously responding to an event in the now, or being perceived as occurring now in the apparent present.

The use of apparent present means that the Universe progressively ages with greater distance. Although perceived as taking place in, what appears to be, the now, the Theory of Environmental Relativity states that all perceived events actually occurred in the past, in accordance with the AD 2000 Æther Theory stating that propagation delays, dispersion, resolution, and low level signal intensities hide the responsible object's true now position. Although an astronomical star chart may be considered as highly accurate and relatively unchanging, as a statement of the perceived Universe as at a particular date, within a human lifetime so dramatic the changes, all star charts become obsolete at the moment of the observation plotting each star's position and brightness. Not only do the positions change with the object's true motion relative to the Earth's true motion, natural evolutionary events vary stellar brightness and compositions.

Since star charts merely document Nature's greatest and most magnificent illusion, they becomes a trap for the unwary who look to the most distant objects and assume that the radial distance to the Universe's observational limit identifies the Universe's finite size and age. Foolish people fail to realise the effects of improving technology, and the fact that these distant objects existed at that position then, not now, and as such must have evolved and become bright enough for detection now, at a time well before reaching the object's apparent now position. Chapters 11 and 12 show the ramifications and foolishness of such limited thought processing. Overcoming this artificial obstacle pushes the age of the Universe to well over an imperial thousand-billion-billion years (1026 ).

Although devoid of attributes, when illustrated graphically as coordinate points on a line, or as samples used to represent moments and specific events during a time period, or to describe a rate of change, or to record an event sequence, then commonsense states that no mechanical process could allow time travel. Although many scientific observations and mathematical explanations describe time slowing, in every situation, with the reaction calibrated against Universal Standard Time, simple observations identify an observational illusion as Universal Time progresses at the same standard rate. Rather than looking for the truth behind the observation, poor research and preconceived notions validate tendentious theory varying time.

As a compounded example, Einstein accepted and introduced the finite speed of light in vacuum, and the time dilation effect based on a notion by Lorentz suggesting that as electron speeds approached light speed, time changed within his apparatus. Rather than accepting this at face value, as a convenient empirical notion without mechanism that simplifies calculation, the causal researcher must examine the claimed proofs and Einstein's theoretical extensions. In proposing the time dilation effect, not only did Einstein change time, his extension to this notion also involved changing an object's mass with its velocity. The experimental support and proofs come from many dubious sources, where subject to interpretation based on preconceived beliefs, the observational data became the proof needed to prove Einstein more correct than Lorentz. When shown, the causal researcher must identify such proofs as breaching the scientific method, because the observational data actually describes other natural effects.

The evidence providing proof states that as radioactive particles approach light speed, their half-life increases as the number of observed events decreases. In other words, researchers noted that in the terrestrial environment, radioactive decay events slowed down as matter travels faster. Due to the interaction of two reference frames, one smaller and enclosed by the other, these observations lend themselves beautifully to an Environmental Relativity application.

Please consider as an analogy, a gramophone record, say, one that normally plays at 45 rpm, and a record player with the three standard playback speeds. Please listen to and compare the audio effects when played at the three different speeds. Playback at 45 rpm appears quite normal and acceptable, however at 78 rpm, as time slows within the enclosed reference frame, more events occur in the external environmental reference frame, so that the increased speed and lengthened time rate produces more events in the external environment, thus, the frequencies increase by a factor of 1.7 relative to Universal Time. Alternatively, at 33 rpm, with the enclosed time frame becoming faster relative to the environmental reference frame, playback produces less events, with the decreased speed increasing the time rate, the frequencies decrease by a factor of 0.7 relative to Universal Time, producing a slowing effect.

Environmental relativity
between two reference frames.
Figure 6-4

As the figure describes, in "A", to slow or lengthen time's progression in an enclosed reference frame relative to a standard external environmental reference frame, it becomes apparent that more events occur in the slowed environment during the standard reference frame's progression, increasing the effects perceived in the standard reference frame. Equally, to hasten or shorten time's progression (in B) as an enclosed reference frame relative to the same standard environmental reference frame, the event rate decreases. Since fewer observations appear in "B" relative to the normal environment, then, because the observations reveal a slowing effect, logic challenges and reverses the claimed time dilation observations.

As distinct and different to Einstein's Space-Time concept, in moving an object from one position to another, or with an event beginning at a moment in time and the primary reactions finishing at a second moment, as the event occurs with duration, time must be carefully considered and applied defining each location with absolute time and positional coordinates. Therefore a line-of-sight observation across a room or across the Universe must be defined as,

(x1 , y1 , z1 , |t1| to x2 , y2 , z2, |t2| ).

Since every event occurs at a particular moment along the Universal time line aging the system, an event can never occur again at the same coordinates, since time must always be expressed as a positive value. To mathematically view the history of an event from a moment just before an event's original position, the procedure involves changing the coordinates and positions so that the equations relate time as starting from that moment as the first point in the event's history, moving forward in time, increasing to the most recent time, of t3 . Thus, the mathematical history shows the event moving through three positions as,

(x1 , y1 , z1 , |t1| ) to (x2 , y2 , z2 , |t2| ) to (x3 , y3 , z3 , |t3| )

Another claimed proof of Einstein's time dilation effect appears in the explanation of The Three-Clock Experiment, which highlights a tragic observational illusion. The three-clock experiment fails to consider the effect of local rotational energy on, or above the surface of a rotating body. As environmental loadings affect each of the three clocks by matter's axial rotation, then each clock's statement of the present time varies. Although Universal Time continued and remained consistent, as one clock gained time, one clock lost time, and the stationary clock remained true, the observations reveal a clocking problem. As examples of clocking problems, just as some broken clocks run backwards; stopped clocks show the correct time twice a day; incorrectly adjusted clocks running at the wrong rate produce the correct time with regular periodicy; even though the City Hall's clock stops, the Earth continues to turn and orbit the Sun, sundials continue to work and Universal Time marches on. None of these mechanical failures or devices alter Universal time.

With tendentious theory extending the Time dilation effect through several deceptive sophistication levels, some science fiction writers propose instant travel across the Universe between worm holes by negating time in the equation, giving time the value of zero throughout a reaction's duration. The same must be said when smashing the clock, for in slowing or stopping the measurement standard, in stating that all time stops at that moment the clock stops, and therefore time ceases, it becomes contradictory when actual time does not stop, nor does a time-warp occur when a wrist-watch runs slow. In these situations, each clocking mechanism demands, diagnosis, inspection, and repair, so that the clock operates correctly, running at the correct rate with respect to the progression of Universal Time.

Using the rotational energy equations describing linked particles moving across a rotating body's surface, Coriolis forces load an atomic clock's mechanism producing expected effects and clocking anomalies. The illusion produced denies Einstein's theory this critical proof. The observed results reveal a fatal diagnostic interpretation error. The experiment itself and the results prove the existence of a Universal-Stopped-Position where local rotational energy loads each clock producing the observed clocking effects. Accepting the time dilation conclusions prove extreme scientific gullibility. One must ask, why should Science blindly accept observational illusions as proof? Some argue that because, "Einstein made the prediction of time dilation, it must be true since Einstein's theory is greater than Nature and God." As an insult to one's God, to Nature and to one's intelligence, the logic of time dilation and scientific acceptance identifies indoctrination, propaganda, sycophancy, and ignorance.

This insult reinforced by the acceptance of light's propagation speed as the standard unit for measuring time and distance. As a refractive dispersion effect through matter, being medium and frequency dependent, although technically light speed appears as remaining invariant in a uniform and homogeneous medium, an invalid interpretation of Einstein's confusing and complex work led to a tragic scientific error, caused by accepting light speed as invariant to everything, and as the standard of measurement. Although it must be stated that irrespective of a source of light in the medium, that light speed remains invariant when moving with the medium within the medium, Environmental relativity surfaces when the detector moves relative to the medium within the medium, for here light speed changes.

As described more fully in Chapter 16, to change light speed, the observer simply moves relative to the medium, and when the medium moves relative to an observer. Although Universal Standard Time does not change when moving at a different speed relative to the propagating medium, Doppler Radar identifies detectable matter changes in both frequency and matter's apparent clocking speeds. Although proven as a real event, as a real observational effect, indoctrination within the scientific community promotes tendentious theory denying light's environmental relativity.

Due to reception-transmission effects taking time, all concepts of instantaneous reactions throughout the Universe must be abandoned and rejected as unscientific nonsence. When describing matter at a moment in time, in negating time, the term "instantaneous" should be avoided. Logically, the instantaneous velocity of any object, irrespective of motion must be zero, with infinite force required to move that object at that instant.

Rotation and The Stationary Frame of Reference

With energy throughput maximised during every process at each position before, during, and after the event, distributing environmental energy throughout matter, energy equilibrium depends on matter's ability to transfer the signals-of-change. Across an object, energy differences average within the mass (with respect to the local region's environmental throughput) may cause that mass to rotate and tumble, or follow a curved path, with respect to differences in environmental energy surrounding the object, even though the total energy remains constant. Due to Natures BEING, the mass responds to and promotes changes in the local environment, with chemical magnetic couplings to the surface giving rise to drag, friction, acceleration, rotation and heating. Proof of the Universal-Stationary-Position appears through this energy distribution principle, evidenced by the Coriolis effect, and displayed prominently in the gyroscope, inertial guidance system, gyrocompass, Foucault's pendulum and the three-clock-experiment. In describing Nature's Universe as a three-dimensional structure, rotational energy must be identified as Nature's principle energy storage mechanism, quite different to linear energy-forms and forces. Even so, as Newton explained, through the use of empirical mathematical arguments, a rotating body's average velocity and total energy may be determined by integrating the structure into rotating samples, treating each sample at that moment as travelling in a straight line, where the total moment around the axis equals the sum of the individual samples. In the real world, things change, because energy distribution processes migrate the ever-changing environmental throughput energy towards the axis, while, centrifugal forces from the axis increase the throughput energy of each atom progressively from the axis. This averaging and radial distribution effect gives rotating bodies the attributes described in Chapter 14.

The true inertia illusion appears when systems remove an object's frictional effects, such as a beam balance. As illustrated best at Florida's Coral Castle, with the 9-ton finger touch door and the 1-ton rocking chair, the builder, Ed Leedskalnin proved that it takes very little effort to overcome inertia, however, once a large inertial mass moves, a great deal of effort must be applied to overcome its cumulative gyroscopic slippage.

In taking the terrestrial view, of a fixed and relatively unchanging world, a child's spinning top becomes a source of entertainment and great amusement for the inquisitive mind, for it creates a series of disturbing intellectual problems. From infancy to adulthood, these daunting problems remain in the too-hard-box for the answers seem to defy logic and reasoning. Described under the general term the gyroscope, empirical mathematical explanations complicate and confuse the issues, often presenting false and misleading answers that do not make sense. When spun, although most gyroscopes resist the force of gravity, standing on the axial point without falling over, the topsy-turvy top flips its axis while spinning, reversing its rotational direction without losing energy. The explanation of rotating bodies, the Foucault pendulum, and Coriolis effect, become obvious when described using rotating elpron-neutron structures, with each atom acting as a differential scavenger processing engine, on-passing and distributing differential environmental energy throughout a system. In giving the system a non-uniform inertia by way of internal atomic rotation and energy distribution processes, averaging local received energy radially through differential energy cancellation effects, opposing and reducing the effect of received energy-forms, the top seems to defy gravity as rotational energy minimises rotational energy along the rotational axis to the point of balance.

In the atom's Coterie ring structures, magnetic field generating elprons and neutrons align axially into rings presenting toroidal magnetic fields that link and couple both internally, and externally with neighbouring matter, communicating responses with changing magnetic throughput, resonance, and pressure. In a system moving in an environment, relative frictional effects occur between the system and the greater environment, creating and transferring numerous signals-of-change into the system and the environment, perhaps displacing the environment, creating differential drag and resistance effects along with a plethora of interesting and explainable effects. Some differential effects appear when smoke rises, and when a wind blows around a building, producing differences in flow direction, pressure and wind speed. The Coriolis effect reveals other differential effects, where the ends of a horizontal rod experience different throughput effects with alignment to the Earth's axis; at latitudes between the Equator and the Poles, the rod's North end exhibits different rotational throughput to the South end.

At a solid's atomic level contact interface with the atmosphere or any other medium, magnetic couplings occur wetting the solid's surface, creating a more densely populated surface effect, with coupling presenting a resistance to change. In a vacuum chamber, all exposed solid surfaces present a greater local gravitational force on the free molecules that exist in the vacuum, than does the Earth. For a considerable time, the surfaces remain chemically wet. Although magnetic coupling differences normally lock atoms together in four basic structural forms (solids, liquids, gases, and nuclear), some elementary molecules (like Oxygen) actively resist forming solids unless placed in a strong directed magnetic field that slides and opens the molecule forming long string solid molecules parallel to the field direction.

When a disk spins in air, the denser contact zone produces some fascinating atmospheric flow effects across the disk's surface. In rotating the disk about its axis, neighbouring matter acts as bearings, through alignment making and breaking temporary magnetic bonds, transferring differential signals-of-change into the solid, where processing and propagation delays in the solid average and cancel local environmental throughput creating an inertia that in part isolates the object from local environmental throughput. The body's rotation enhances the effect, differentially distributing rotational throughput within the disk.

Although Chapter 14 describes gyroscopes and spinning objects in greater depth, this averaging process gives such devices certain attributes resisting any twisting or yawing motion. With the gyroscope spinning, and aligned to some distant star, the rotational attributes readily allow two slippage directions, along the axis (up and down) and also perpendicular to the axis (side-to-side). Researchers can easily make a fascinating and highly dangerous toy, encasing the gyroscope in a ball-like cage. The fascination continues when overcoming the spinning disk's rotation resisting forces, deliberately forcing a tumbling situation with the disk's axis rotating about another perpendicular axis to the disk's equator. When released on a large flat surface, with the disk's double rotation slipping giving the mounting cage an impetus, the cage rolls much further than most thrown balls.

With the atom storing energy rotationally, then since rotating elprons and neutrons exhibit the property of differentially averaging gyroscopic effects, taking energy from environmental throughput, any motion affecting the structure and magnetic field shape produces response effects resisting the change. So, for motion to occur, the directed force-form must be greater than the atom's standing-state inertia. (Note: As with any gyroscope, since it takes little force to slip the gyroscope along the rotational plane or along the axis, then atomic-molecular structural engineering (nano technology) may one day produce three-dimensional low inertial chemicals.)

Due to the Earth's spherical rotating nature, small differential effects become obvious when the object moves North or South. In responding to differential environmental throughput at one location over the object's length, in moving to the next location with different throughput conditions, a system's inertia (being subject to environmental throughput distribution) in maintaining common environmental differences, rather than being caused by Newton's external force, the object appears to turn. Without making the necessary course correction, inertial turning continues until the object's direction parallels the Earth's Equator. Objects travelling from the Equator, in travelling from fast rotation to a slower rotation appear to speed up, travelling faster than the planet's rotation, however when the object travels from the slower high latitudes towards the equator, the object appears to slow down, falling behind the Earth's rotation. In swinging from a fixed pivot or swivel point, the Foucault pendulum identifies the prevailing throughput magnitude range produced by the Earth's rotation over just a few metres. Over even shorter distances, vibrating piano strings also reveal the Coriolis effect, distorting the grand piano's sound quality, causing clockwise and anticlockwise wound strings to vibrate differently. (A more complete discussion of this effect appears in "Absolutely Aether".)

It therefore becomes obvious that when describing objects on the Earth's rotating surface, a body at rest, slipping with uniform motion maintains that slippage direction until acted upon by an external force. When calibrated to the Earth's rotational-orbital slippage, since gyroscopes align within the Universe averaging local throughput, the gyrocompass and inertial guidance system operate with correction factors built into the computer program to correct and maintain sidereal slippage direction. Not only does the gyrocompass detect the Earth's daily rotation, it can detect the Earth's sidereal rotation along the orbital plane. To explain away rotational effects, using linear physics negating errors generated by accepting Seventeenth Century terrestrial observational illusions, through consensus of opinion producing a subject taught with little or no appreciation, the sciences introduced descriptions involving scientific mysteries, complexity, rotational moments and correction factors without mechanism.

Wave and Particle Theory.

Although the scientific community describes the magnetic spectrum from long wavelength radio waves to ultra-short X-rays, when researchers specifically defined the optical frequency band exclusively with contradictory and unique descriptions, they created a series of scientific deceptions supplanting the fact that wave motions propagate through molecular and atomic interconnections. In the face of overwhelming evidence negating scientific beliefs, the present-day scientific community blindly accepts without basis, seven contradictory light theories.

An absolute distinction must be drawn between wave and particle optics as totally different signal processing families describe wave and particle effects, despite the fact that the propagating medium contains connected and linked particles. The differences in these optical theories so great, only ignorant misguided fools blinded by indoctrination accept the duality of light as being a wave-particle motion. Those that argue or claim proof of light's duality accept at face value, worthless and meaningless unscientific contradictory beliefs. Note Well: Wave theory states that simple harmonic motion in the medium itself propagates the optical signals, while particle theory states that discrete particles with specific frequencies and quantised energies travel at a propagating speed irrespective of the medium.

Wave theory defines the Pressure or P-wave as a non polarised compression-rarefaction cycle moving in the propagating direction; Sheer or S-waves propagate as polarised waveforms at right angles to the direction of propagation; and Local or L-waves propagate as complex P and S waveforms (much like stereo sound reproduction). P and S-waves propagate at different speeds in the medium with P-waves generally travelling 2.3 times faster than S-waves. The L-wave effect generally occurs near the source between two or more sources, and rapidly separates into its P and S-wave components through dispersion effects. When modulated or encoded, these waveforms reveal other wave resonant and propagation properties that particle physics cannot explain, such as Amplitude and Frequency Modulated radio signal's modulation loss with distance, compared to (upper and lower) Single Side Band transmissions that propagate light's spectra across the Universe (e.g. the Balmer series). Digital encoding increases the number of intelligent signals propagated on a specific carrier frequency, allowing accurate timings of specific frequencies in each medium.

no polarisation possible.
No Polarisation.
Horizontal & Vertical
Circular Left & Right
Elliptical Left & Right
L-wave or P & S
Horizontal & Vertical
Circular Left & Right
Elliptical Left & Right

Figure 6-7 Common Wave Types

Due to some geologists explaining the opacity of the Earth's core to S-waveforms, categorically stating without proof as a perfectly rational reason, the Earth's core must be liquid Iron because the Iron generates the Earth's magnetic field and as S-waves do not pass through liquids the core must be liquid, they breached the scientific method perverting the sciences with unscientific deluded statements to prove personally ignorant beliefs. In discounting the problem of opacity being caused by a plethora of natural resonance, cancellation, absorption and rejection effects, denying the existence of S-waves in fluids (liquids and gases), some geologists betrayed the sciences with their ignorance, promoting and establishing indoctrinated false belief-sets, infecting the sciences with two distinct savage knowledge viruses at loggerheads with geological and physical evidence.

Geological seismic observations conclusively show the Earth's core as having a crust like Silica density, and therefore not Iron. Since S-waves travel in fluids at about half the speed of P-waves, audio signal cancellations occur in the atmosphere as the waveforms diverge. The simple proof of S-wave sound comes with listening to a stereo or quadraphonic Hi-Fi, with phase shifts and time delays from multiple speakers producing a 3-dimensional audio image, vanishes, muffling the audio signal with distance as the amplitude variations decrease to common resonance and frequency shift. In building up an image of the human anatomy, medical ultrasound examinations detect and resolve S-waves travelling through soft tissues and liquids. Light, as an S-waveform travels through solids, liquids, gases and vacuo.

Please carefully examine and consider the reasons for rejecting the following particle assertion as very tragic, wrong, and deluded. "In a sound absorbing room, because supersensitive microphones and amplifiers detect quantised energy levels at the lowest signal detection point, quantising the background hiss to electron potentials, sound propagation in the atmosphere and through most mediums must, when extrapolating Einstein's theory, involve a quantised sound particle, be that an audion. Since each audion contains and transfers energy, then the audion has both mass and a specific frequency, which transfers quantised energy levels from the source to the observer. The greater the number of audions received, the greater the signal intensity and spectral range. "

The reader's criticism of this example must also be applied to all photon theories, for when comparing wave and particle theories, totally different processes define wave and particle reflection, refraction, colour, intensity, absorption, interference, rejection, diffraction, polarisation and propagation effects. The audion and the photon being observational illusions produced the resolution of measurement! The distinction between wave and particle optics so great, elementary school students can identify unmistakable fingerprint characteristics of the processes involved.

The biggest problems faced by particle optics being simple explanation of common observations. Any particle description of reflection must explain bouncing particles, and then surfaces actively filtering and colouring the bounced particles. Similarly, under the Descartes corpuscular concept, as light slows on entering a medium and refracts, particle optics must describe the energy functions as light exits the medium where it again refracts and then accelerates to the medium's normal propagating speed. Only wave theory provides a complete explanation for the following quick list.

Particle optics begins with simple particle Physics where objects collide, with each action producing a reaction. Just as the pool table's roll deviates the snooker ball, in the same way, on the golf corse, the slope of the green affects the golf ball's final trajectory, and the position of a water trap may change the atmospheric conditions above with irregular up and downdrafts producing wind sheer effects deviating the ball causing a marked change in trajectory. As an electron alters an atomic magnetic field producing a changed magnetic environment, similarly changed magnetic molecules gather together in a spiralling molecular vortex that travels from the picture tube's cathode to the anode, with the molecular wind curtains and magnetic field changes that deviate the beam's final screen contact point. Due to the nature of the altered state spiralling matter flow, any loading that deviates the spiralling vortex through loading produces a twisting effect, rotating the image and altering the molecular flow's focus before striking the screen, giving the impression of an electron beam. As the cause, mechanisms and processes differ, particle, electronic, molecular and magnetic optics must be uniquely viewed and must not be confused. The processes of particle refraction and reflection become very complex due to the nature of the event, the numerous energy-forms and ancillary events taking place.

Owing to supporters of both Quantum theory and Einstein's relativity, preaching particle optics and particle Physics without any comprehension of particle Physics, the sciences become very interesting, as a religion rather than a Science. Since the scientific community accept the photon as a discrete particle with mass and energy, but massless and dimensionless, as a wave with mass and a wave particle without mass, contradictions invalidate the sciences, because these photons do not show any slow or collision effects described in Particle Physics.

The fact stands that when a meteorite or cue ball comes to rest, the object can be salvaged. However, when light stops, or collides, where do all the photons go? Surely, due to sunlight, piles of different sized photons need to be swept-up at the end of each day. In a nuclear reactor, although neutrons remain totally invisible, when captured in a containment vessel, they rapidly break down into Hydrogen gas, as Hydrogen bubbles. If the reactor pumps fail, the Hydrogen bubble produces a dirty bomb, spreading nuclear material throughout the environment. To consider the photon as really small, then if photons gravitate through matter, the Earth's core must be pure photons. Similarly, if a pea globe lights up the insides of a sealed silvered vacuum flask, the photons must reflect, lose energy and fall to the bottom, eventually filling up the flask. These photon events do not occur in Nature because the photon remains a noumenon, an object of the mind, defined by invalid tendentious theory.

Optical refraction occurs when matter's magnetic fields correctly couple and vibrate, propagating the signal-of-change between matter. Before discussing light further, one must consider all matter as solid and therefore opaque, demanding an answer to a simple question, "How does solid matter become transparent?" Solid matter includes the molecules that make up glass, the atmosphere, water, ice, and that matter filling the intergalactic medium.

(The colour "black", claimed by deceptive photon theories as the total absorption of light, when explained by wave reception-transmission processing also includes total signal cancellation and rejection across the optical spectrum. Equally, although spectral measurements confirm the Sun's enormous surface temperature, the solar spectrum reveals absorption and rejection spectral lines and band which when measured reveal temperatures verging around absolute zero (depending on the effective absorption, cancellation or signal transmission gaps). Therefore Black Temperature measurements generally identify a material's lack of transmission, but then it could also be a consequence of intervening matter's signal absorption, rejection and cancellation effects, not necessarily an object's activity. Although the solar spectrum shows numerous dark lines, incorrectly referred to as absorption lines, when major solar flares occur transmitting thermal broadband white light across the entire spectrum, as both the Zeeman and Doppler effects smear and shift the lines from the line's normal position, only true absorption lines remain as black lines while blank non-transmission lines glow brightly.

Although the Universe contains dark matter, stars, nebula and galaxies, as all matter reveals specific temperatures in the X-ray, UV, Light, IR and radio bands, any map of the Universe made at the frequency of an absorption or rejection line reveals a mottled map showing little or no structure and a temperature near absolute zero. At any frequency just below such an absorption-spectral line reveals very distant objects, while at frequencies just above this line, only the closer objects appear as a consequence of the Tired-Light-Theory.

(Described fully in Chapter 12, the Tired Light Theory and several other observations discount the microwave background radiation claimed as a proof of Einstein's relativity and the (singular?) Big Bang Theory. Due to the fact that radio maps and star catalogues made at frequencies above and below absorption lines reveal the Universe, the discovery of, the interpretation of, or the electronic creation of, an absorption-rejection line in the microwave region, must be considered as an interesting observation that confuses the universal picture.)

However, under the 7-layer model, although the terms optical and white light refer to matter propagating energy within a specific frequency band, then as signals-of-change, magnetic deformations, vibrations and resonance effects, alignment and positional change, activity and field strength, encompass all other energy propagation effects, including mechanical energy and particle physics. The principal differences being the signal's medium specific propagation speed and properties.

Since Environmental Relativity fixes light speed and the speed of sound as force-form-dependent and medium-specific, both the observer's motion and medium's relative motion affect the perceived propagation speed; an effect easily proven with digitally encoded timed radio and optical signals. Although Doppler shifts apply with the source's motion relative to the medium, affecting frequency, the propagation speed within a stationary or moving medium remains constant with respect to the medium. However, as the observer travels towards a radio source, Environmental Relativity states that the observer's relative propagation speed increases shortening the wavelength, so that the frequency increase produces a Doppler shift pushing the radio signal into the microwave region, through infrared, light, ultraviolet and into the X-ray bands. Similarly, in moving away from the source as observer relative propagation speed decreases in the medium, the wave length increases as the frequency decreases reddening X-ray frequencies into the ultraviolet, light into infrared, and microwave into the radio bands. To a stationary observer using encoded Doppler radar, the medium's relative motion in a tornado's funnel affects the medium's propagation speed revealing each molecule's apparent Doppler shift (as the forward and returning signals from individual propagating molecules identify relative speed, direction, and chemical composition).

Obviously, as different energy-forms affect matter in different ways, producing different response effects, energy cannot be directly refracted or reflected by matter. At the atomic level the processes of refraction and reflection involve detection and reception, where the absorbed signal produces response reactions that through rejection and-or transmission processes, add to or subtract unique signal components characteristic of the propagating matter, reinforcing the direction of incidence. (As an example of "fluorescence", of a reception-transmission effect, when monochromatic ultraviolet light strikes a surface, although photon theory states that the object should reflect only one wavelength, the reception-transmission process of S-waveforms produces a reception-translation-conversion effect adding to the original signal, where the material glows brightly, perhaps appearing whiter than white, transmitting the material's broad band spectral signature, along with the original monochromatic signal.

Equally, due to refraction involving multiple reception-transmission processes, the atmosphere's complex chemical composition appears in the spectrum of a uniform white light signal, where the atmospheric composition adds, subtracts and amplifies certain frequencies. Through the reception-transmission effect, Doppler radar produces a "radio fluorescence" effect in the atmosphere that not only reveals the atmospheric composition, but also atmospheric motion.)

Transmission and reception include resonance, reverberation, and throughput, giving matter the illusions of energy-form compatibility producing transparency, refraction, reflection, polarisation, energy-form distribution, absorption and resonance, colour, convection and through a signal feedback situation, gravity. As a physical movement of the atoms in the various states of matter, motion produces convection, conduction, impact, vibration and fluorescence, migration, rotation, and acceleration, where energy-form distribution produces rotationally affected Coriolis effects, negating all descriptions of linear motion on the Earth's surface. Energy apathy through loading, signal absorption, rejection, and signal cancellation effects produce opacity, insulation, apparent absorption, and mechanical stability.

An Introduction to Magnetic Chemical Bonding

At gift and novelty shops, perhaps at magic or $2 stores, or through e-traders, readers may find in the executive toy and novelty section, disk magnets, magnetic balls and magnetic construction kits. These kits generally contain two magnetic disk types, those with the magnetic poles running from the base to the top and those where the magnetic field runs across the diameter of the disk. A great deal of fun can be had playing games with magnetic balls, or across the diameter disks, for they show the various processes through which all magnetic chemical bonds work, with the student discovering a wealth of knowledge from simple experiments providing observational proof, to the reasons behind many observational illusions giving electrochemistry exceptions to the rule. Magnetic chemical bonding produces expectations without exceptions. Here, Faraday, Davy and many others fell into a trap accepting the electro-chemical observational illusion as the truth without proof, ignoring the most fundamental truth of all, chemical bonds involve magnetic forces and the application of all forces involve atomic magnetism. To explain and release Nature's trap reveals Nature's truth about matter.

Chemistry's classic valency exceptions appear in the Lithium oxides, LiO2 , Li2O2 and Li2O, supplying proof of matter's magnetic bonding. In the quiescent state molecular Oxygen exists as O2 and that of the soft metal Lithium as Li2. In Nature's Chemistry, fast and slow reactions occur. For argument sake, please consider the fast reactions as burning reactions, and the slow reactions as corrosion or rusting. As fast chemical reactions involve a burning process, the molecules of both Li2 and O2 break apart in a flame entering into mutual reactions, forming the reaction product, a "V"-shaped water like structure, the molecule Li2O. This agrees with Chemistry's standard valency prediction for the Lithium-Oxygen reaction.

When physically cut with a knife, and the fresh Lithium surface exposed to air, the metallic lustre begins to show signs of oxidisation, as slow rusting reactions dull the surface, and within a few minutes the reactions appear to cease (though molecular migration continues). Despite this chemical activity, forming LiO2 and Li2O2, the block's temperature remains relatively constant. The single and double trap mechanisms appear when the Oxygen atom slides open trapping one or two Lithium atoms. Using pairs of different diameter disk magnets, with the larger pair representing the Oxygen molecule, and the smaller pair representing a Lithium molecule, when placed on a sheet of glass, such an emulation tests the model illustrated in figure 6-1, revealing these chemical exceptions as natural magnetic chemical bonding expectations through natural magnetic processes.

Lithium _______Oxygen______ The Single trap_____ Double Trap

Figure 6-4 Oxygen's Magnetic Trap Mechanisms

In playing with these disk and ball magnets, using similar sized plastic, cardboard or steel disks or balls to represent neutrons, an invaluable children's game takes shape with young experimenters building models of the first twelve flat elements, giving reason for Oxygen having an apparent valency of 2 (with two gap fields) and with specific bonding angles. The game's fascinating part begins with the mind layering and modelling the next 38 elements. Problems occur because as these static models do not contain rotating structures, the Earth's magnetic field and gravitational field influence the model's structural longevity.

As magnetic slip and gap fields produce attraction and repulsion effects between atoms and molecules, giving alignment, matter becomes solid when these fields link, couple, and lock neighbouring molecules and atoms into a three-dimensional matrix giving solids material properties with degrees of rigidity and strength, flexibility, elasticity, and electrical conductivity, as well as melting and boiling points, et cetera. Matter's chemical, electrical and physical properties change as molecules link, connect and align into fixed crystal structures through temporary and semi-permanent bonds. However as matter's activity changes, a compromise between magnetic structure and resonance suddenly alters matter's ability to maintain molecular integrity, reversing the view that increased field strength should hold matter more firmly together, natural magnetic resonances, field interaction and field change produce incompatibilities breaking molecular structures apart.

Hence, the solid structure could exhibit melting and boiling points, with the molecules going from a solid, through a liquid state before changing to a gas as does water ice. Some molecules with strong breakout fields go directly from the solid form to a gas, unless placed under extreme pressure to compact and restructure the molecule's magnetic field reducing the field breakout points, (Example, CO2). Other satisfied stand-alone molecules (like Oxygen) cannot form solid structures unless located in an intense directed magnetic field.

Although chemical bonding aligns, positions and locks molecules forming solids, gravity's influence may promote a slow migration flow in the weaker solids. Equally, through pressure, gravity may force incompatible molecules to wet other objects. Please consider a smooth polished block of Gold at the atomic level, where the surface appears as a series of tightly packed protective magnetic field hemispheres. When placed on a large block of cement, the cement's jagged crystal structure produces some fascinating events and effects. As gravitational pressure cold presses the two surfaces together, minor magnetic couplings take place forming temporary chemical bonds that coat the cement surface with a fine gold deposit. With time, the surfaces may even glue themselves together as the Gold chemically fuses with the cement. Although Gold does not react with wood and porcelain, artists decorate such materials with Gold-leaf, with pressure wetting the surface with a Gold layer several atoms thick.

Another very interesting effect occurs when attempting to push a Gold bar from an apparently stationary position. With the application of an increasing force to the Gold matrix across the cement in a direction parallel to the contact surface, the applied force deforms both surfaces. Although some use the expression "overcoming the inertia and friction," the pressure bonding between the surfaces initially resists breaking and appears to oppose the applied force, however as the force gradually increases, no movement occurs until that moment when the temporary magnetic bonds break. Once this event occurs, releasing the stress between atoms of both surfaces, a cascade of breaking bonds give rise to a distinctive transient cracking sound, followed by an on-going grinding sound as the block moves. As the shock wave and sounds travel through the cement, the Gold and the air, the production of this sound indicates vibrating atoms along the contact zone between the Gold and the cement.

This vibration (AKA: friction) occurs between the local atomic magnetic fields of each surface, with magnetic field couplings making and breaking so rapidly that the motion disassociates and strips matter from both surfaces, contaminating the contact zone. Often wrongfully attributed to inertia, the coefficient of friction identifies strong molecular magnetic linking, where frictional effects hold and then vibrate the contact zone's surface molecules.

Friction, Electrostatics, Lubricants, Abrasives, Polishes and Glues.

Almost everyone seems to accept different concepts and meanings when describing, inertia, adhesion, resistance, drag, friction, and abrasion. Many people often misuse, confuse and misinterpret common observations, describing observational illusions, blaming an event's physical manifestations as the apparent mechanism, or in giving credence to unrelated processes, when many observational effects identify Nature's mechanism and its common processes for all perceived terrestrial effects, obviously changed by an event's rejection and 7-layer failure points. For example, without concept of mechanism or process, misguided people ignorantly state, conclude, and irrationally defend the belief that, "As friction wears things away, slows things down, and as rubbing produces warmth and electrical effects, friction produces abrasion, drag, heating and electrostatic charges." Although some observational effects only appear with 7-layer module failure, in each case, independent reference frames and conditions apply to various response reactions involving magnetic interactions between two surfaces, between a medium and a surface, or between a medium's fluid flows.

Surface wetting effects present Science with many interesting observations identifying matter's structure, its environmental couplings, links and alignment, including such effects as molecular migration into solids, out-gassing in a vacuum, wetting and soldering, the surface effects over a spinning disk (described in Chapter 14), the Coriolis effect, a meteor's death plunge, and (as explained in Chapter 18) Calcite's double refraction, the Brewster angle polarising light, and diffraction. The AD 2000 Æther Theory describes the surface of an optically reflective solid as a uniform magnetic cushion interface composed of tightly butting atomic and molecular magnetic fields uniformly extending into the local environment, which through wetting effects, align, position, concentrate and connect the environmental medium to the magnetic surface cushion, which in coupling the environment to the surface gives matter the means to receive, alter, reinforce and propagate environmental signals-of-change. In testing this postulation picturing matter differently, the causal researcher must use a single common atomic mechanism responsible for producing all natural effects. As the working mechanism becomes apparent, so does the explanation and distinction between particle and wave optics.

As illustrated by a material's out-gassing effect in a deep vacuum tank, where surfaces maintain a concentrated layer of wet surface molecules, then, when two surfaces mutually contact in the terrestrial environment, environmentally wet surfaces carry with them molecules that act as a molecular barrier preventing direct contact until pressure, extreme shaking, or another more active wetting agent removes or replaces the foreign matter. Such wetting agents include the atmosphere, active chemicals, lubricants, detergents, and glues, polishes, cutting and abrasive compounds. Defining a material's specific use becomes impossible owing to the fact that different materials react or interact, where the observed effects depend on the strength and activity of matter's magnetic interconnection bonds. What may be considered as a magnificent lubricant in one situation may become a vicious corrosive agent, cutting compound, polish, or glue, in other situations.

Although water acts as a lubricant (with motor vehicles hydroplaning in the wet, perhaps sliding every which way in icy conditions), simple chemical impurities and pressure change water's properties, aligning the water matrix as an electrical conductor, to a vicious cutting compound (capable of grinding rocks to sand, washing away buildings, bridges, crops and soils), or as an acid or base (corrosively eating away stable chemicals). Irrespective of purpose and use, as a temporary continuation of matter's three-dimensional crystalline structure, all wetting agents establish different strength magnetic interconnection bonds between a surface and medium, to another surface, or within a medium. Equally, structural integrity, molecular alignment, relative local field strength, and surface effects, play key roles in classifying materials as insulators, conductors, semiconductors, and resistors. Although molecular flow alignment turns some materials into good energy-form conductors, this same material may appear as an insulator retarding other energy-forms. With temperature reduction, some electrically resistive materials become extremely good conductors.

When an object or fluid moves, relative motion and proximity to other objects and fluid flows alter the system's environmental atomic alignment, coupling, motion, and relativity. With molecular bonds and a medium's interconnection bonds being of different strength to surface bonds, and with a medium's unsatisfied bonds generally presenting greater strengths to the medium's satisfied bonds, molecular interconnection bonds produce a resistance and apparent inertial effects, when these temporary bonds link, make, stretch and break along a material's active contact zone, signals-of-change affect neighbouring magnetic envelopes. Since differential energy distribution effects propagate until restoration effects reach an equilibrium condition, where matter absorbs, rejects, and liberates energy-forms, then, irrespective of a material's state, researchers must consider all moving matter as relative molecular flows, which while absorbing energy from the environment dissipate excess energy into the local environment, be that a solid object or a medium.

Depending on an event's magnitude, 7-layer mechanical failure and rejection conditions establish a plethora of magnitude dependent surface response effects and force-form propagations that include shock-front effects, wave motion, vibration, buffeting, and rotation, to chemical and thermonuclear change, activity and volume requirements, the charge illusion blowing electrons from atoms altering atomic magnetic field structures and chemical bonding, structural change and molecular abrasion, cementing and seizure, to magnetic propagation as radio signals, heating, incandescence and fluorescence.

To simplify description, friction describes relative motion effects between solid matter, of fluids, of atoms and molecules in a vacuum, as molecular flows affecting matter's surface contact interface, magnetic buffeting and unsatisfied molecules produce activity change with linking and couplings resisting motion, thereby propagating signals-of-change into the object and the surrounding environment. Due to matter's crystalline alignment and structure, lubricants and abrasives change matter's frictional processing. Diverse processes turn solids, liquids and gases into lubricants that isolate, absorb, bridge, or reject local magnetic vibration effects, while abrasives, cutting and polishing compounds promote increased buffeting and activity, altering the magnetic interface tearing molecules and atoms from a surface. However, with pressure, molecular alignment and abrasion creating a debris build-up, a cutting compound's scree could turn into glue, cementing, and seizing the surfaces forming resilient semi-permanent chemical bonds.

When an object moves through a medium and the interconnection bonds fail to break, the object pushes the medium ahead of it forming a shock-front. Once an object's leading edge cuts through the shock front's weak temporary bonds, tearing temporary bonds apart forming unsatisfied interconnection bonds, detectable physical and chemical reactions occur from the object's first point of contact and continue into the object's wake. These unsatisfied shock-front molecules replace the object's weaker wet surface interconnection bonds, expelling the surface contact molecules as unsatisfied molecules. Needless to say, this creates a chain reaction of surface events, rapidly replacing wet surface bonds with wet surface bonds, resisting motion. Since replacement produces unsatisfied bonds, intense bonding activity at the first point of contact creates a molecular hot-spot, replaced molecules start a bucket-brigade of events from the leading edge and travel along the object's sides as breaking wet surface bonds form unsatisfied bonds and as unsatisfied bonds replace satisfied wet surface bonds, molecular reverberations transmit signals-of-change into both the surface and environmental molecules.

Just as molecular activity propagates various signals-of-change, each molecule receives and responds to local environmental signals (be that, activity and potential energy, cross-wind pressure, gravitational signals, rotational attributes et cetera), producing differential energy distribution effects capable of deviating an object's trajectory, (as described shortly and again more fully in Chapter 11). As local gravitational molecular effects apply at a solid's surface, with pressure wetting the surface, then as any gyroscopic disk spins on its axis, above the contact interface, environmental flow structures develop from the axis, flowing over the surface aligning matter, shock-front aerodynamic effects lift objects from the surface. Molecular circulation currents initiated by this radial wind, establish each-way energy distribution effects that receive, isolate and average that location's cumulative environmental signals-of-change and throughput conditions giving the gyroscope a seemingly independent alignment and the illusion of being a gravitational anomaly.

As unsatisfied molecules break away from the object and the medium, displacement, molecular links and chemical reactions produce the impetus for environmental restoration effects in the object's wake, or at the edge of a spinning disk, propagating other turbid signals-of-change, forming molecular current flows and circulation effects. Although qualifying this Chapter's opening remarks, people only notice some surface effects when a ship moves across the water, when a jetfighter breaks the sound barrier, or when a meteor burns in the atmosphere. They do not realise that through a Dickie interferometer switching apparatus, a tape-recorder's playback head and suitable low-noise high-gain amplifier can detect thermal activity, the motion of atmospheric winds, molecular flows, and material structures passing the head's sensitive gap field.

Relative buffeting effects occur between different environments that dislodge electrons from the materials involved, weakening matter's magnetic structure and the chemical bonds holding atoms together, making it easier to dislodge atoms from molecules, to separate matter, or to alter matter's magnetic structure. In using cutting and abrasive compounds, the abrading (hogging or grinding) process produces apparent scratches, while the polishing process (sometimes referred to as figuring) uses a polishing lap that not only scratches the surface breaking chemical bonds through local proximity effects, atomic activity may melt, flow and fuse the polished surfaces. Subject to these erosive forces, many surfaces confirm Nature's common chemical and physical grinding and polishing processes, shaping and polishing minerals forming rounded river stones and jewellery, to the influence of pressure, heat and chemical etching in telescope making forming refractive and reflective surfaces.

In certain mechanical situations, as the scree between two moving surfaces cannot go anywhere (perhaps in a bearing), atomic vibration and alignment produce chemical bonding conditions coupling the scree physically and chemically to both surfaces resulting in a sudden mechanical seizure. Although 7-layer failures produce some heating effects that cannot be measured in situ, other failures produce too much heat, so extreme the atomic vibration the effective temperature rise may appear enormous, melting surfaces together with sudden mechanical seizures that may destroy a motor, gearbox, or an atom and its molecules.

In telescope making, lens and mirror surfaces made from materials such as glass, Pyrex, quartz, ceramics, resin, marble, speculum metal, or plastic must be ground, polished, and figured into an optical surface with an amazing surface accuracy (typically better than one-eighth-wavelength of green light, about ± 650 Å [Note: an ångström, 1 Å = 10 -8 cm]). In the final polishing stage, using various cutting compounds, most materials require using the irregular water molecule, air and detergent, as a poor lubricant, cutting medium and polish. Although the figuring process literally melts and flows the optical material into the desired surface shape, throughout the early hogging-out, and rough polishing stages, as the surface curve takes shape, when the lubricant expels the air, fine scree ripped from the surfaces can melt gluing the surfaces together, producing a sudden mechanical seizure. So great the temperature rise causing thermal deformation during the figuring stage, opticians must rest large optical surfaces before optically testing the surface accuracy.

Often taken as the opposite of friction, cutting, and abrasive, the term "lubricant" generally refers to materials that improve the slippage between two surfaces, however, this property depends on the situation and the materials involved, simply because a in different situations, common lubricants exhibit vicious cutting and polishing abilities. For instance, a lubricating engine oil's molecular shape and bonding, with alignment between two metal surfaces turning an oil into a liquid crystal needle bearing, where the molecules axially align to the shaft, rotating between the two surfaces, reducing the frictional effects, but then in other situations, such as when applied between oil based plastic surfaces, local chemical bondings turn the oil into a cutting, polishing and cementing compound, ripping molecules from the surface, perhaps fusing and seizing the plastic surfaces together.

Heavy greases, saturated and unsaturated oils, may not appear to be lubricants until forced between two surfaces. As some bent molecules straighten under pressure, the molecules align to motion as rollers, directionally changing the fluid's apparent viscosity and frictional characteristics. Certain high temperature greases identify molecular directionality, for in supporting shaft rotation the molecules align as needle bearings around the shaft to the bush, so that the grease presents a marked resistance to all forces applied at right angles to rotation. Since these bushes must be removed or installed along the shaft (at right angles to the rotation), the molecular alignment effect becomes very apparent with the force needed in turning the grease molecules to a new slip direction.

With the inert gases and gas molecules universaly obeying the Avogadro effect at the same activity conditions (temperature, volume and pressure) with equal strength magnetic protective envelopes holding all gas molecules apart at uniform spacing and environmental throughput, then irrespective of molecular shape, by careful technological design using differential pressure and motion, gases form almost frictionless bearings. Just as a wind provides aerodynamic lift above a flat sheet of paper or wing shaped object, high pressure gases act as bearings lifting and separating surfaces, perhaps levitating heavy objects, or centring rotating shafts (examples: Several brands of extremely high speed centrifuges use gas centring bearings, while the surface hugging Hovercraft travels over land and ocean riding on an almost frictionless molecular pressure cushion.) The major problems with gas bearings being the financial cost and energy requirements used to obtain sufficient differential pressure needed for levitation, steering and stability.

Defined as adding or removing electrons from a molecule or atom, causal researchers must exercise extreme care using the term ionisation, owing to the fact that as a faculty dependent, branch dependent and department dependent term, ionisation effects do not always involve electron migration or electron exchange, and then, many effects not deemed as ionisation involve active ionisation processes. In carrying with it the wrong messages concerning commonality of process, so called ionisation events may or may not describe effects including chemical bonding, chemical reactions, the charge illusion, to magnetic radiation arising from fluorescence, phosphorescence, incandescence and friction. Consequently, several unique processing events produce fluorescence without involving ionisation. When atmospheric molecules pass over an insulating surface, molecular couplings to the surface produce a highly localised radio-frequency signal, where surface and atmospheric molecules reach a point of fluorescence, as in St. Elmo's fire. Equally, high frequency sound waves that spin water's impurities cause fluorescence.

Wrongfully attributed to the production of an electrostatic field causing temporary ionisations in the vacuum, the frictional reverberations caused by vigorously rubbing a long fluorescent tube with animal fur rapidly changing the molecular magnetic environment, local radio frequency transmissions become visible as a dull moving glow inside the tube immediately surrounding the fur's position. Although charge pools develop on the glass surface, the phosphor glow only appears as the fur moves on the surface. The phosphorescence occurs because the moving fur locally buffets both the glass and phosphor molecules, creating alignment changes that propagate through the tube's glass wall exciting the remaining gas and the phosphor coating. When delivered by way of an electrical circuit, directly injecting radio frequency signals through the fluorescent lamp's terminals to the molecules in the vacuum, the phosphor begins glowing along the tube's length. Since the remaining gas molecules resonate liberating ultraviolet signals-of-change, the phosphor responds as the intensity and radio frequency increase, so does the lamp's optical output, operating more efficiently with luminosities as much as 10 times brighter than the tube's rated output.

Electrical insulators (such as glass or ebony rods, tubes and containers) when rubbed with a cloth or fur, develop and hold a relative charge longer owing to a material's environmental dynamics. The electrical potential depends on the respective signals-of-change blowing electrons from a material, while the "charge polarity" depends on material relativity producing rectification effects. The Whimshurst Machine's operation, and electrical charges produced by rubbing ebony or glass rods with the same fur show this rectification process, where the magnetically weaker material loses electrons to the magnetically stronger surface material, aligning neighbouring matter to both surfaces, initiating a molecular alignment field, which as the intervening matter flows, gives the impression of an electrostatic charge field between the surfaces. Due to molecular alignment inside a charged Leydon jar, despite being fully charged and then pulled apart shorting out the components, when rebuilt the charged condition returns with the Leydon jar's glass insulator holding the apparent charge for a considerable time. Once established, as maintaining molecular alignment requires energy, the longevity the electric charge effect depends on the medium's environmental dynamics aligning matter, producing surface effects and molecular flows in the medium, where the rate of molecular flow discharges the apparent electrical potential difference.

This amazing illusion of charge gives rise to the belief that "like charges repel and unlike charges attract", even though magnetically altered matter accumulates in charged pools with like charges attracting and unlike charges repelling. The terrestrial illusion appears as spiralling molecular flows link and discharge the apparent charged pools. These charged pools differ in solids, creating an alignment change that attracts neutral matter, exchanging electrons. Therefore, matter exists with three charge polarities, positive, neutral and negative. In hijacking genuine push-pull electrical effects between these three states, Quantum theorists predict using matter's tri-state as the next generation of Quantum computers, with "yes", "no" and "maybe" options. Unfortunately, electrical "charge" effects must be considered as being relative to the environment, for within a magnetically altered environment, despite forming spiralling molecular flows, environmental charge relativity means that a mass carrying an enormous charge potential equal to the local environment appears neutrally charged.

Subject to motion, pressure, and local relative surface vibrations, luminescent frictional effects generally appear with molecular vibration intensity that could easily destroy matter's weak magnetic chemical and nuclear bonds, especially when considering an extremely rapid potential energy increase. As an example, please consider a meteor burning its way through the atmosphere, which dependent on the entry conditions, demonstrates particle refraction's many forms. Occurring almost 100 Km overhead, the spectacular nature of bright meteor showers cannot be ignored, with brightly coloured meteor trails streaking across the night sky, some exploding, some leaving persisting trails, others travelling so fast with a persistence so short that a blink conceals the event. Unfortunately, as scientifically ignorant scriptwriters use scare tactics to sensationalise terminal astronomical encounters, presenting a false version of Science, many people fear meteorite falls, falsely believing that all meteor events release tremendous energy on impact. Although in part due to cataclysmic impact events that terminated geological epochs, many meteors simply pass through, get bounced by the atmosphere, while some fall as meteorites landing without damaging the terrain or causing a 200 metres high tsunami.

Rather than a rapid conversion of impact energy into numerous energy-forms, these meteorites either skirt their way around the planet or they innocently catch-up to the Earth and fall to ground or into the oceans, lakes and river. In the shock-front and wake of a large fast moving asteroid entering the atmosphere, where compression and the magnetic vibration intensities reach an extreme, atmospheric displacement, pressure, supersonic wind flows, molecular impact and surface effects absorb and liberate the object's increasing potential energy, not only in stripping molecules from the body's hard crystalline surface structure, matter's disproportionate energy propagation within the falling body produces stresses, distortions, and fractures, with structural failure tearing the object apart, fragmenting the meteor into the chemically shattered atmosphere promoting several different fluorescing, incandescent and chemical effects in the shock-fronts and wakes of each fragment.

At the atomic level, the magnitude of the local magnetic vibration may be so great that both the atmosphere and the mass appear to burn, disintegrate, or detonate. The observed events and duration dependent on contact area, displacement, mass, speed, pressure, molecular resistance, angle of entry, viscosity, the relative motions of both the Earth and the asteroid, rate of descent and gravitational feedback. As different mechanisms apply, the results could vary from a-non-event soft-landing to a massive nuclear detonation ending the current geological epoch, perhaps destroying the Earth itself. In the city environment, because smaller meteorites look like normal rocks that children pick up and throw, people fail to recognise meteorites in parks, on streets, roofs and balconies. Some people even blame their neighbours when a meteorite bounces off the roof.

By gravitationally describing mindless matter communicating environmental signals-of-change, pre-heating the asteroid before the final death plunge, the effects of atmospheric friction become very clear, where the atmosphere becomes a powerful cutting agent, through a persisting and increasing series of impact and vibrational buffeting events occurring at the atomic level from the shock front and first point of contact. As the asteroid uniformly heats with gravitational potential energy increase, and atmospheric molecules vibrating surface atoms so vigorously heating the surface, stripping and ripping matter from the asteroid, chemical burning reactions occur in the meteor's wake while compression in the shock-front in displacing atmospheric gases rips the atmospheric gases apart. In presenting a resistance to the asteroid's motion, the shock-front effects include drag and aerodynamic lift.

As the asteroid enters the atmosphere, displacing and pushing the air out of the way so rapidly, it may liquefy in the shock-front due to enormous pressure. The pressure may be so great, chemical and nuclear bonds break, resulting in an on-going nuclear explosion that may alter the direction of trajectory through the atmosphere, perhaps blowing the meteor away from the Earth, causing a greater refraction, perhaps as a bounce sending the meteor as a rogue asteroid into a different orbital path.

Although friction and pressure deflects an object, the mechanism responsible for a trajectory change could involve particle refraction in the atmosphere, from the distribution of energy due to the applied energy-forms released, gravitational-feedback, or through an atmospheric explosion. Although the pull of gravity attracts the asteroid to the Earth and the greatest resistance to motion and highest force of gravity occur on the lower side of the asteroid, the approach speed, direction and meteor rotation may refract the meteor around and away from the Earth, without an explosion. Due to aerodynamic principles, the meteor may actually fall-up, refracting away from the more dense medium returning the object into space as a rogue asteroid.

Figure 6-5 illustrates two distinctive particle refraction explanations, where the object's rotation, entry speed and trajectory produce primary differences. The inserts marked "A" and "B" show relative drag effects, either accelerating the fall rate, or in providing lift. Equally, an increase in the meteor's velocity due to the Earth-meteor gravitational-feedback effect may produce the slingshot effect (as a near-miss) where the meteor physically rises out of the atmosphere and at an enormous speed breaks away from the Earth's gravitational grip. Unfortunately, as all exiting asteroids become rogue asteroids, their changed orbital path must be recalculated, for it may return on a direct collision course.

several approach windows

Figure 6-5 Speed dependent refractions in an atmosphere.

As the asteroid enters the atmosphere, with less friction on the higher surface than on the lower surface, the asteroid begins to spin, developing extreme turbulence in its wake, with aerodynamic effects adding to the trajectory change. This situation often appears on the golf course where a golfer's slice produces a ball rotation deviating the ball's trajectory from the straight parabolic path. The third group of trajectories identifies a nuclear bounce situation, where the displaced-compressed atmosphere under the meteor enters a critical thermonuclear state, blasting the meteor back into space.

Perhaps the most interesting meteor effect occurs at high altitude where with so little atmosphere, the frictional forces heat the asteroid's surface to incandescence and the atmosphere to luminescence. When matter moves at different rates relative to each other, apparent surface interface effects influence molecules on both sides of the interface, giving rise to specific force-forms, energy-forms and subsequent effects at the atomic level. Along this interface, due to relative magnetic movement and proximity, each molecule's local magnetic cushion responds to passing local magnetic cushions, producing rapid vibration, buffeting, alignment and structural change. Pressure and molecular flows between the surfaces exacerbates cumulative local molecular buffeting effects, where magnetic vibration knocks electrons, molecules and atoms from the weaker surface, perhaps giving rise to a molecular alignment field (electrostatic effects) and charge clouds, to mechanical abrasion, and extreme heating. Although a material or surface may appear soft, this property does not indicate a material's surface magnetic cushion strength, its molecular alignment or its interconnection bond strength.

Causal research students must not only challenge and attempt to negate existing scientific beliefs, they must do the same for The Theory of Environmental Relativity, the Postulation of BEING, and the AD 2000 Æther Theory, for although these concepts appear to merge into a theory of everything, only one workable theory actually explains everything in Nature's Universe. These three theories appear to more adequately explain atomic matter as magnetic matter (from elprons, protons, electrons and neutrons to atoms and molecules), where magnetic process operations and 7-layer failure points give matter the ability to respond differently in various situations and conditions.

-------------------- END CHAPTER SIX--------------------

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Version 2, April 15, 2006, Words = 25,910

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© Copyright 1995 AD, Robert Lanigan-O'Keeffe, Sydney, Australia.
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Changing the Universe, Introducing The AD 2000 Æther Theory.
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In archery, many variable factors influence the player's accuracy, producing numerous stresses, loadings, and aerodynamic drag effects that deviate the projectile from its proposed angle of trajectory. These factors give the player an insight into the sciences and the natural laws, including an appreciation of crosswinds and air resistance, gravity, projectile resonance and the Earth's rotation. Described through a series of rather complex interacting equations, modern computers cannot solve these equations within the game's time frame. After years of practice, without putting pen to paper, without using calibrated telescopic sights and complex mechanical bows, the experienced player simply aims a long bow, and after one test shot, makes the necessary compensations, and invariably, the arrow strikes a distant target with great precision.


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Playing Snooker immediately produces an appreciation of rotational impact events, force distribution, friction, inertia, gravity and the minor events and effects of rotational energy, applied force, and slopes that change both a game's strategy and outcome. Although this tabletop game may appear rather simple, and to some as interesting as watching paint dry, a player's action takes a great deal of mental calculation. Snooker becomes extremely fascinating when examined as systems, modules, and processes, where without the use of vast computers, various masters accurately predict the white ball's eventual position, three or more strokes ahead. In playing this game, applied biological energy directed as a energy-form travels along the cue stick, striking the stationary cue ball as a force-form giving rise to directed rotational effects that affect other balls on the table.

With just the cue (a specially shaped shock focussing tapered straight shaft, with chalked shock absorbing tip), a Snooker champion's ability in placing gyroscopic spins on the cue ball, (perhaps opposed to the direction of travel across the table,) in causing the white ball to strike, rebound and scatter the other balls in play, perhaps sinking one or two red balls, Snooker masters rebound and return the white ball to a predicted point where its position presents a tactical advantage or threat to the opponent's game plan. Each part of the cue stick and the player's grip must be appreciated as a system which contributes to effectiveness. A few factors that make a good cue work include the direction and magnitude of the applied force, the cue stick's mass, distribution of mass, molecular structure, shape, structural integrity, elasticity, resonance, rigidity and one's experience and grip. In the hands of a novice, the best quality cue becomes as useless as a bent or broken one.

Many active processes transfer the initial directed energy-form, as a sound through the cue into the cue ball. As the cue pushes the cue ball in the direction of the applied force along the cue stick, pressure, friction and the impact point and vectorial force distribution cause the cue ball to move and generally rotate, gyroscopically spin and yaw, or to slide without rotation across the table until it impacts with other balls. The spin direction changes the impact outcome. When the cue ball strikes the triangular racked red balls, energy losses occur as balls impact, transfer energy proportionally, rotate, and scatter at different rates in different directions, displacing one or more racked balls. So good some game masters, that the white ball's impact against the triangle of red balls, displaces just one red ball into the corner pocket.

Each time a ball strikes another, the impact transfers several energy-forms through matter that initiate specific rotational effects in the affected matter. Each affected ball will move, roll and travel in a direction with a certain impetus, not necessarily related to the direction of impact, owing to gyroscopic slippage developed on the affected ball. The surrounding environment plays an important part of this game, from the roll of the table (causing a refraction), friction, the resilience to inertial change, the Earth's rotation, gravitational effects, air movements and vibration.

Owing to the different physical conditions that produce particle reflections, refractions and rotation, Snooker cannot be identified as a simple example of rotational energy because it involves several scientific disciplines, where sound energy distribution transfers generally occur within 1° of the impacted ball's equator. As the white ball rebounds from this ball and rolls to a stop, the master's carefully calculated action may position the white ball at exactly the position needed to sink the next coloured ball for maximum break, or to deliberately frustrate and prevent the opponent from scoring by placing the white ball's final rest state in the Snookered position.

Between the application of the directed energy-form, to that moment when all motion on the table ceases and sounds fade into the distance, the number of individual atomic processes cannot be comprehended, involving thousands of millions of unique operational mechanisms, active modules and operational processes repetitiously occurring, where differential effects originating at the ball's equator produce sound, resonance, motion and rotation.

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