One must look at the Universe with both eyes open, to observe the Universe in perspective, experiencing its depth to appreciate its immense size and magnificence. Astronomers may discount such notions stating "The distances to the stars and galaxies are so great, that to see any 3-D astronomical image is absolutely impossible, for even Solar Parallax has a limited range." Solar parallax is the geometric relationship between the Earth's orbit and the distance to a star. But it would be so fascinating to look through the Universe to observe the very structure of each galaxy, witnessing the birth, evolution and death of galaxies, to see them as they are, as real objects with structure. Unfortunately, binocular vision only allows terrestrial objects to be perceived in 3-D, however, the angles separating far-off galaxies and star fields are so fine, that to show anything more than an apparent FLATness, seems totally impossible. Astronomy has been limited to the flat view of a three dimensional Universe for far too long.
Any comparison of current astronomical star catalogues with those made only a hundred years ago, identifies physical changes that have transpired in both The Galaxy and Universe. Each day, the unchanging-Universe changes ever so slightly. Often, the differences are extraordinary. Some objects have physically moved due to proper motion; binary stars have rotated; some stars faded away while others appeared. To confirm these changes, photographic records can be used. From the point of time when astrophotography began (1860), a great wealth of data has accrued. These records must be protected for humanity, for they reveal something of tremendous importance to Astronomy. Nineteenth Century astronomers like Mr H.C. Russell in Sydney pointed simple cameras skyward to capture some amazing images. In the 140 years since, in the 51,135 days, many little changes have produced a noticeable change. When Russell's pictures are viewed along-side pictures of the same object made recently, the changes are astounding.
To view the Universe in 3-D uses time and a child's toy, the stereoscope (illustrated in figure 13-1). Most predators evolved binocular vision early in geological history. Commercial stereoscopic cameras and viewers have been available since 1860 AD. During the history of photography, photographic emulsions, cameras and telescopes have evolved. The spectral sensitivity of the emulsion have changed dramatically. An old emulsion may not be red sensitive, while today's emulsions are sensitive over the entire optical spectrum. The clarity of modern pictures is startling in comparison to the early pictures. The biggest difference could be the telescope itself. Between any two similar photographs, there may be differences in photographic grain size, colour loss, deterioration, oxidation, staining, magnification and diffraction. The camera and film type do not need to be the same, for when photographs are made of the same object, from nearby locations using different cameras, then brought to the same degree of enlargement and curvature, the game "spot the differences" could be played using the astronomer's blink-microscope. When astronomical images are viewed through a stereoscope, the heavens open up as stars and deep-sky objects appear in 3-D. But when the differences are too great, the procedure fails. This limit is best illustrated with old photographs of known city streets, where each day trivial day-to-day changes go unnoticed. After twenty years, the small changes can be overwhelming.
Figure 13-1 The stereoscope
Astronomers may downgrade the significance of such 3-D imaging stating "it is purely an illusion", but then aerial surveyors and cartographers have been making contour maps using this illusion for years, having applications in Surveying, Geography, Archaeology and geophysical exploration. The contour maps produced are trusted and used by aircraft pilots; navigators; bushwalkers; the Police; the Military; government intelligence agencies, civil engineers etc. Perspective is a powerful illusion. Astronomers have made 3-D contour maps of the craters on the Moon and planets. The ink-blot procedure (used by psychologists) proves that anything can be read into two dimensional images when viewed by themselves, however when something is viewed in 3-D, physical objects are seen with structure. When some object has structure, then it can be identified correctly.
How is 3-D astronomy possible? : The mechanisms used by the mind to perceive three dimensional images are well outside the range of this book. It will be shown that sight is an on-going deception. In the simplest form, the stereoscope is made from two equal power magnifying glasses. Typically, a 3-D image is formed from a photographic image pair, when each eye examines a unique photograph of the same object, taken from two slightly different vantage points. Although each photographic image may look the same, each carries discernible angular positional differences that the brain processes to produce a 3-D view of the object. When a separating screen is used, the brain marries each images together, a single 3-D image is perceived. Without the screen, cross peripheral vision reveals three images of which only the central image shows the 3-D effect. The stereoscope illustrated in figure 13-1 uses the group method (with 3,4 or 5 images), so that one's cross peripheral vision enhances the perception effects.
Using one camera, aerial surveyor use three different techniques to produce the necessary maps. The illusion of 3-D can result from changes in time, position, or both time and position.
With astrophotography now over a 140 years old, this last system of position and time is made possible since each photographic plate made then is a frozen moment in time, carrying much positional information. When married to a second series of photographs made today and viewed together with the same degree of enlargement, the stereoscope makes the Universe jump into its 3-D magnificence. The illusion is limited, but as every year passes, the resolution increases as does the effect of apparent height.
In Astronomy, the astronomical unit (Au) is the distance between the Earth and the Sun, about 149,500,000 Km. Solar Parallax allows astronomers to use the Earth's full orbital diameter (2 Au) to measure the distances to most stars, but the range is limited to about 200 l.y. Fortunately, the rotation of The Galaxy produces a galactic parallax. As the Solar System moves around the Galaxy at about 216 Km/sec, a 100 year period (36,525 days) has moved the Solar system some 681,644,160,000 Km (give or take a bit). This distance is 2,230 Au, (that is 1,115 times greater than solar parallax). Figure 13-2 shows the dramatic effect that such an enormous and growing base line presents. Needless to say, this means that many galaxies will jump into 3-D, especially since those galaxies are also changing due to their rotation and proper motion. This dual effect over time gives rise to a double parallax. Any motion causing a positional change will show as a height above the flatness. Three effects need to be understood.
Real Time Orientation means that the true left and true right views must be determined to form a Left and Right image pair that presents the perspective of depth. The images must be aligned and enlarged to the same size. Due to enormous distances and fine angles, the alignment of the stereo pair is reasonably critical in producing the correct 3-D image.
Reverse Time Orientation is an illusion turning depth into height. Stereo aerial photographs of the great pyramid in Egypt, when swapped around, (the left image used as the right image and the right used as the left), reverses the vertical perspective, so the pyramid appears as the great shaft into hell, descending deep into the sands of the desert.
The rapidly rotating planet Jupiter, noted in figure 13-3, is displayed simultaneously in both real and reverse orientation. These images come from a MEADE Instruments advertisement, which is reproduced in full at the end of this chapter, at no expense to Meade Instruments. The reason for using this advertisement is purely to show the effect and some of the problems.
Without a separator in the stereoscope, 4 images are seen, the central two being stereoscopic. In this situation, both the left and right images are the same, while the centre image is more recent. Through the stereoscope, the left central image is in real-time orientation, appearing as a banded hemisphere rising from the screen. Because the central right image is in reverse time orientation, it should appear as a striped concave bowl. Impressive to the observer will be the cloud structures and their heights. If the contrast is changed, some amazing observations can be made that will taunt most readers.
Augmentation: Images can be made clearer as many photographic problems cancel out without perspective, sometimes noted when a stereo pair is rotated through 90°. A plagiarised photograph can be identified as minute differences, such as additional photographic grain which would hide the original grain of the parent, fails to be seen, however all common photographic faults show up as common elements during augmentation.
This technique of augmentation has discredited several claimed UFO sightings, where different people have produced photographic evidence for different sightings, but where similar objects were photographed. Stereoscopic research can prove that the eyewitnesses actually photographed the same photograph from a published work, cropped the image, then claimed it as proof of different encounters, of the same object. Readers will laugh when they learn that in many situations, UFO research laboratories like NICAP have verified such hoax images as being a genuine image of a UFO. Such language proves that the picture is a picture, but does not verify or give credibility to the images captured on that genuine photograph. Some amazing hoax images have turned up, from pictures of an empty snowboot in the snow (from above), described as being that of the extra-terrestrial visitor, to pictures of the planet Jupiter, that have been specially treated to appear different.
One hoaxer in a television studio, re-filmed and enlarged a film which captured the image of the planet Jupiter. The film was run through a projector and the image on the screen filmed. The new original footage now captured enlarged images from the screen, however to make the story more convincing, the movie film was reversed and fed into the projector up-side-down, motion added and both the magnification and camera angle changed. The Jupiter film's emulsion was now upside-down and on the back of the projected film blurring the images, but left remained left due to the film's sprocket holes. Although televised, the researcher video-taped the footage and re-filmed it from a television screen frame by frame. His images had to be brought to the same diameter, rotated, and aligned, whereupon common enlarged dust and grain showed up between two different regions of the film, a forward and reversed sequence, frame by frame. The proof was unequivocal because the grain clouds were so enlarged, they stood up. The hoax was proven.
Threats were made by the reporter who filed that story to maim and kill the researcher. The producer of the world-wide news stories claiming a UFO encounter also threatened the researcher with a multi-million dollar law suit if the facts about the footage being a hoax were ever made public. An attempt was even made by the perpetrators of the hoax footage to claim $10 million in cash and prizes offered by The National Inquirer for a genuine film of a real UFO. Even today, despite all the evidence, ufologists still claim these hoaxed images of the UFO allegedly filmed on the last day of 1978 from an Argosy airfreighter over New Zealand, as genuine. One of the classic images from this movie shows a lazy 8 or the & symbol, an effect caused by deliberately bumping a camera mounted on a good tripod.
To correctly relate astronomical images for maximum stereoscopic separation, logical deduction and calculation may work, however trial and error rotation seems to work better due to the many variables caused by proper motion of many objects in 3-D. Initially, three basic motions causing stereoscopic parallax must be considered in determining a best fit orientation, Solar, Galactic and relative proper motion, with respect to The Earth. The proper motion of any object is a relative motion, hiding all true motion.
CARE MUST BE TAKEN: The eyes are easily strained. The author takes no responsibility for any sight problems caused by misuse, over use, or abuse. It is necessary to exercise the eyes regularly when using any stereoscopic equipment. If the separation of the images is too great, an impossible perspective or alignment may cause eye problems. Excessive use of a stereoscope or incorrectly aligned binoculars can cause the eyes to dysfunction, that may cause temporary or permanent Strabismus, denoted as either divergent (lazy eye syndrome) or convergent (cross-eyes). If the observer exercises the eyes at regular intervals, the effects may not become permanent. After spending half an hour behind poorly aligned lenses or images, strabismus is dreadfully inconvenient, changing one's visual perception, and convergence, making simple tasks difficult.
Relating the orbital plane of the Earth in the Solar System moving around the Galaxy is not simple or 100% accurate, as the Earth is not centrally located in the spiral arm, or on the galactic plane. Not only is there a left-right variation with motion around The Galaxy, there is also an up-down change caused by solar parallax. The Earth's orbit actually describes a helical path as the Solar System moves around the Galaxy. Positioning of astronomical objects currently uses Earth-centric position angles. The angle of the Galaxy's intersection to the ecliptic is about 61°. The view experienced is that of relative positional changes, since position in the Universe is not related to any recognised astronomical positioning system. The Earth based positioning system defines North angles as having positive angles (+declination), from the Earth's equatorial plane while Southern objects have negative angles (or - declinations). As the Earth turns, with respect to a fixed axial direction, the hour angle or right ascension allows a rough direction system to work. The Earth's inclination (the lean or tilt of the Earth's axis to the orbital plane) does not really matter a great deal, adding a small error into the calculation. The galaxy itself is also inclined to the main plane of galaxies. As for the speed of the galaxy itself along this plane, measurement are vague.
Close objects in The Galaxy can reveal their hidden structure. The ring nebula in Lyra appears in a telescope as a dirty grey smoke ring. When displayed in 3-D, nodules, spherical shells and an amazing cone are seen.
The Crab Nebula (M1) shows massive changes in a short time frame, where the immense beauty of the dumbbell magnetic field generator is actively displayed. The Crab Nebula's physical changes are awe inspiring, alluring and as graceful as a ballet when viewed in 3-D. Quite obvious are the equatorial polar toroid haloes identifying a very stable magnetic field generator of enormous proportions, with the ionised gasses in the field. Here one sees the magnetic field of the nebula. This image denies the complex rotating neutron star theory behind the Crab Nebula pulsar. But more on that later. The tired Light theory states that different frequencies travel at different speeds in the medium. To illustrate the point, when a single colour image is shown using the red, green, blue and grey components, 3-D images appear.
Not only does the 3-D technique show close objects, it can identify "really distant" objects. In reverse time orientation, distant objects appear as a flat foreground plane. Other planes may be observed as many objects move in groups. Im the figure below, four images a galactic group can be viewed either horizontally or vertically to give some interesting perspectives of a galactic plane.
It is not necessary to know the base line distance (for that can be determined later). Many astronomical books love to show the pretty pictures, without giving the necessary photographic information, such as time-date- filters-exposure. All one can go on is the book's copyright information. These pictures were scanned from both recent and very old publications. Even poor grade photocopies, like those above, can capture the 3-D information in the herring-bone background.
The 3-D view becomes evident as the time frame between each image increases (illustrated are two images made 10 years apart). Replicated left and right images produce a visual conflict with the different central image, giving real-time and reverse time orientations to the stars and the object. The typical text book pictures illustrating Barnard's star (arrowed). In this 3-D example, the time difference is only 19 years, yet there are many differences between the two images. These images are a little difficult to resolve initially, indicating that the real-time alignment exists at a greater angle. So, the images must need rotation. When the same images are re-sequenced and rotated through 90°, differences in the Milky way are seen, where stars are streaming at different rates in different galactic arms.
When such pictures are developed, the negative images will be considered by experts as "under-exposed". This does not mean that there is no image present, rather the image size is so small, it must be found. It does require knowing where to look.
With many galaxies, a five to twenty year base line will introduce the 3-D effects, unless the object has a great relative motion or no discernible galactic parallax. The nearby great Andromeda Galaxy is so close that it needs but a few months to jump into 3-D. In viewing this object, a problem dealing with light's propagation properties will be realised. Almost every astronomical publication carries pictures of the great Andronedia galaxy. Although this strange optical effect will be examined shortly there are other galactic images that need to be examined, such as the peculiar galaxies like NGC 1300.
Any movie or video footage of a Solar eclipse allows the Solar surface to be viewed frame by frame. A 1/25th of a second is a massive time difference when viewing any object with such tremendous motion. Jupiter's moons jump into 3-D from 35 minutes to 15 hours depending on relative positions, with respect to the planet, while the planet's shape can appear within 5 minutes.
There is indeed a great deal of motion in The Universe. The four possible directions of motion may confuse the view. Some motion actively works in such a way that what one may expect to be the Left image should be set as the Right image, or rotated to a different angle due to the object's motion. The galaxy M51 is viewed normally has an amazing structure, while its "daughter galaxy" illustrates a better structure when the images are rotated 90° to M51. Even between the Galactic arms, a great deal of motion is visible, appearing as levels or planes of similarly distant stars.
M51... Now, look in the gap between the left vertical whisp arm and arm that links to the small PacMan galaxy. (This galactic classification is yet to be ratified or explained.) Just above the scratch in the 1933 image. Around the year 2000, this star will eclipse the bright star in the arm.
Some stars of the Milky Way galaxy physically exist in space directly in front of other stars and distant galaxies. When an object is photographed, the in-line close stars can be hidden and confused. As these stars change position with time, as each star appears in subsequent photographs several years later, in its new location, to be reported as a supernova, or claimed as a star birth. This illustrates a problem caused by the short photographic history, where the sample size is too small and used to claim proof of gravitational lenses, neutron stars and blackholes. Many astronomical objects have been incorrectly classified because the 2-D image shows absolutely no structure, presenting the cosmologist with a mystery. But with the stereoscope, these mysteries are quickly resolved as many objects show structures, and where there is structure, there is both a mechanism and an explanation. Unfortunately, the observations present such a different view, many cherished beliefs will be thrown onto the scrap-heap.
In 1905, the 40 inch Yerkes refractor captured some amazing pictures, in the time when astronomers had to manually make corrections to the telescope's tracking accuracy. Each photographic exposure took many hours in freezing conditions, before being developed and examined. A simple tracking error meant repeating the entire observation from start. With Mount Wilson's 100 inch reflecting telescope, its better resolution and improved image quality began to open up the Universe. Many astronomical books published around the turn of the century show pictures of the unusual galaxies. The marriage of these with the more recent pictures taken from current astronomical magazines and books, when correctly aligned in the stereoscope, disclose the 3-D secrets which the 2-D views do not show. When the images are aligned and sized (even with poor photocopies), almost instantly, the identification of galaxies and other local objects to those galaxies, becomes obvious. Stars that exist between the Andromeda Galaxy and the Earth stand out. The human brain cleans up the 3-D image by removing many imperfections. Here is a low grey scale resolution image of M51's central core.
Even with the expected differences between the optical systems and telescope resolutions, 3-D analysis opens the Universe that much further, for the mind does some amazing image processing, clearing away photographic faults and distortions as illustrated above. Poor quality photocopies of published astronomical images and blurred images can reveal hidden structures. Consequently, photographic pairs from two different telescopes can be married together to enhance the perception. In passing, two seemingly poor images of the planet Mars, taken by the Hubble Space Telescope were published for all to see the sandstorms sweeping the planet's surface. The original source images seem to show nothing of importance, until filters and a stereoscope expose the truth. (The researcher must source the originals before any criticism is levelled.) Unfortunately NASA's images need to be aligned, filtered and brought to the same image size before 3-D viewing. (Look in the upper temperate zone.) New Scientist No 2055 page 11.
In Astronomy, the greater the time separation between the images, the greater the apparent depth, however, there are limits which the human brain can resolve when the separation becomes so great, the mind may ignore an object, showing it as two or more totally unrelated and separate transparent objects, objects that appear and disappear when one blinks. Some objects may also be considered as being so close, they are perceived as a danger, causing both eyes to blink uncontrollably. Optical overload can takes place in the brain and eyes where the field of view is so different, mental processing is slowed to such a degree that all perspective is lost.
Major differences between the left and right views, between the ultraviolet and Infrared stars in the same star field, will be discussed later for the apparent optical differences can overload the mind. Sometimes the difference between Red and Blue may add to the 3-D effect, though one can develop a savage headache or eye-strain attempting to process such 3-D images. It is better to marry two spectrally similar B&W images of Red and Yellow or Green and Blue star fields, than one where the stereoscopic pair is so spectrally dissimilar that very few common reference stars are seen. Often Blue-Red images of the same field produce differences so great, eye-strain is more evident than 3-D effects, however many galaxies lend themselves to this type of analysis. Certain regions of dark matter in The Milky Way develop a positive web-like structure when the images are made as little as five years apart.
At the other extreme, a base line may be too short, where the objects align on what appears to be a flat background plane. This flat plane gives one a distance measuring tool, in that each year the plane moves further away as close and moving objects stand out. Immediately the really deep space objects are identifiable from local objects.
The stereoscope can be modified using a dual rotating bed so that both images can be rotated together around a common optical axis, maintaining positional integrity. This forms a vast range of illusions where as the photographs independently rotate together in the same direction, close objects appear close at first, flatten and then recede. Swopping the images around (left to right) reverses the effect. Local stars in the galaxy appear to be in moving sheets, tubes, webs and strings, while the extremely distant galaxies appear as a flat veil. Throughout this work, mainly grouped image sets will be displayed with normal and reverse time orientation are used to flip the images from heights to depths. The introduction to the next chapter is written in 3-D, requiring a stereoscope or pair of magnifying glasses to be appreciated fully.
3-D astronomy will create a great deal of controversy in astronomical circles because it tears apart many current beliefs, showing planets, star fields and other galaxies with definable structure. All regions of the sky divulge several planes of activity, quite unlike the bubble models of Galactic concentration. Dark matter, stars and galaxies in the Universe will reveal some amazing insights into the very essence of the Universe, including the life and death of a galaxy. The heart, soul and frailties of each galaxy can be explored, including the Milky Way. A completely different evolutionary process emerges for the Solar System and the galaxies. The story told by these objects is one of an infinite and on-going uniformitarian evolutionary process. When it is all said and done, the galaxies are very small objects in the Universe, however these small galaxies collectively make up the visible Universe. The Solar System is an even smaller speck compared to the Galaxy and smaller still is our speck of dust, the Earth.
To contemplate the age, the size or the evolution of the Universe, using limited beliefs and limited mentality, proves the human trait of a pigeon hole mentality (where everything is put into a box, four walls a ceiling and a floor). This in turn creates an awesome problem in the sciences, education and religions, as mankind's view is limited to the visible Universe. Some cosmologists have claimed proof when there is none, for the belief we will never know the truth means that one can falsify discoveries, be it a distant planet orbiting a remote star system, (observed for only two months and claimed as proof) or a gravitational lens structure claimed as a proof of relativity (but which theory of relativity ?). This tool debunks many speculations, showing, the truth. This view of the Universe is not an attack on science, religion or education, rather the 3-D view will improve with time as will knowledge and the sciences. The chief attack is on those who jump to a conclusion too-fast without researching the facts, accepting speculations, beliefs and the-flavour-of-the-month as the only truth.
The further the Galaxy carries the Solar System, the greater and more impressive the 3-D view of external galaxies will become. 3-D observations will, in the next chapter show that Hubble's classifications of galaxies (Appendix 6) and his evolutionary process (chapter 10) are simply wrong and deluded. Many objects have been given woeful classifications based on the ink-blot experiment, because astronomers continue to observe a 2-D universe, discounting views of the 3-D Universe. This is due to the learnt "false belief" (through the acceptance of Hubble's classification of galaxies ). People have been prevented from looking for they are taught that the galaxies are so far away, they can never be observed in 3-D. It is time to look.
----- END CHAPTER THIRTEEN -----
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The Voyager space craft photographed what several ufologists claimed to be a face carved into the surface of the planet Mars. Many books have been written by unscrupulous individuals, cashing in on the gullible's need for proof that life existed there. Many scientists discount the fact that the Earth is the Mother of all life on the Earth. Without any proof whatsoever, they claim that life actually began on the planet Mars, only to be carried here on a shattered fragment of Mars itself, an astronomical interplanetary Noah's Ark, due to either a volcanic explosion or a cataclysmic impact event that perhaps destroyed all life on that planet. (There is no evidence of such an impact on Mars.)
The life carrying asteroid journeyed across the vacuum of space, encountered terrible radiation from the primordial Sun, to become a meteorite that burnt up, crashing onto the Earth's surface. This is a miracle of modern science in that the undamaged occupants were liberated and today life abounds here but not on Mars. Problem. How does one kill life-forms? A vacuum? Intense radiation? Intense heating? Burning? Impact? As all these were experienced, the notion of a Martian Mother and the means of escape from the dying arid world of Mars seems totally ridiculous.
Life as we know it, independently began on the Earth and may have begun elsewhere in the Universe.
Let's create a controversy amongst fools.
(the following is written in a ufology style)
The following images were made by a NASA satellite in 1970 recording something so unusual as the Moon's Shadow raced across the North American Continent during a rare total solar eclipse, the authorities only released these images recently. Study these 3-D pictures, for they will show what the authorities have been covering up for many years.
(Find California and Mexico)
It appears that the ancient aliens carved out a huge face across Texas and beneath the Gulf of Mexico. A face only visible from space. But in one face there are actually two faces at right angles, identifying a race of aliens with vast intelligence and superior technology to ours. One face is normal and looking to the left while the other, wearing a helmet is looking to the lower right.
Why would the ancient aliens create such a huge carving? Those who should know, will not supply any answers. Is it to warn other aliens and space travellers that this planet is inhabited? Is it to warn off attack? Only the ancient aliens can answer these questions. Perhaps there may be a connection to the ancient landing fields of the Nasca plains. Just as the Nasca lines are a mystery today, these ancient landing fields, no one can ever hope to know why the ancients made these lines or carved this face.
Below is the unquestionable evidence showing how great and powerful this race of aliens actually are, for with their advanced technology, they have shaped many galaxies into their likeness, showing the smooth round intelligent head, large recessed eyes, massive brain cavity, large nose and mouth, recessed chin. These pictures show evidence of a vast medical knowledge far above the limits of our technology for the aliens are using thought transmitters mounted to their skulls and connected to their brains.
This PacMan galaxy exists near M51. It is known as NGC 5195 at 13h 30.0' +47°16'
But there is yet another face to the Universe.
Could this series of 3-D images mean that extra-terrestrial interlopers are deviates?
NGC 4038 and NGC 4039 at 12h 01.9' -18°53'
(Pornography, is a classification originating from a closed mind, often used to control, limit and suppress knowledge.)
This section was included against all advice for reasons of comic relief, and to show how facts are deliberately distorted by those with specific hidden agendas. But who is to know the truth? It is up to the reader to seek the truth or to be beguiled. But NASA will deny that the images of the 1970 eclipse were held up because of their restricted classification, but in giving this rebuttal, it will be seen by many as the absolute proof that the authorities did cover it up. This technique of using negative psychology to win the argument is practiced by shysters and con-merchants. It has been said "there's a sucker born every second." but for a person to accept and form some notion into a belief requires education. To teach a six year old means doing a 4 year specialised educational course and a suitable degree, but to teach a sixteen year old, any degree or diploma without specialised teaching qualifications will do, " for that is the way it is and that is the way it will stay until something better comes along".
It is necessary to return to Nature's Universe, to be sceptical and to question mankind's sciences.
An Augmented 2-D view (a mock 3-D illusion) is produced where one image is replicated at slightly different magnifications or twists. Although twisted by 2° and changed, common photographic grain or medium defects (scratches/ phosphor burns/ developer clouds) can be easily detected