The Early Christian Era
One line melodies known as plainsong or Gregorian Chant were used. Scales and modes were worked out and were the standard building material for music for a very long time. These scales and modes were not written down in the sense we see in later music, music was often annotated by placing neumes above the music to remind the singers follow the melody. These evolved into notes at a later date.
The Romanesque Era
In this era gregorian chant still prevailed, but it was also the era where three and four line staffs were written to show pitch and the era where two melodies were joined together. This resulted in creation of a musical form called Organum.
The Gothic Era
Between around 1150 and 1450, polyphonic music came into the mainstream. Generally speaking, harmonies were formed by combining melodies in a stylised manner. They were combined at the octave, fifth and fourth intervals, making the music sound austere. Near the end of this era, composers began to craft harmonies from thirds and sixths as well. This innovation got called Ars Nova or New Art and was the transition into the Renaissance period.
Secular music also flourished, with minstrels and troubadours. They traveled from court to court entertaining the local population with songs about everyday life and were very popular.
For a listen to Gothic Style Music you may want to visit this site.
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