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Short HISTORY  of  PHOTOGRAPHY
A short history taken from various resources, far from being a complete or academic research, just my notes that may help others.

"PRE-HISTORIC"  PHOTOGRAPHY
5th century  In China: The first known record of using the CAMERA ABSCURA (dark room)
10th century The Arab scholar IBN ALHATHAM (ALHAZEN) noticed the connection between the size of the hole in CAMERA ABSCURA and the sharpness of the picture
1500s Records on artists using the CAMERA ABSCURA (special dark-tents/small rooms) for paintings including Leonardo De Vinci.
1600s-1700s The CAMERA ABSCURA had many modifications like: mirrors and lenses
scientists like JOHANN HEINRICH SCHULZE and ROBERT BOYLE noticed that SILVER CHLORIDE darkens while in contact with light BUT mistakenly think it's because of the air and not the light...
1700s-1800s studies on chemicals. The first picture is made by THOMAS EDGWOOD but there are no known ways (in that period) to save ("develop") the picture
1826 The French NICEPHORE and CLAUDE NIEPCE succeed in creating a picture in a CAMERA ABSCURA using BITUMEN which hardened when exposed to light. exposre time was 8 hours and it is just a negative....

"REAL" PHOTOGRAPHY
1839 DAGURRE and NIEPCE work together on developing what will be called the DAGUERRETYPE PLATE: sensitized SILVER on a sheet of COPPER, the picture was stabilized with SODIUM THIOSULPHITE.  The proccess was very expensive, exposure time upto an hour. in Russia modifications are made in order to reduce the cost of the proccess.

William Henry Fox TALBOT develped the NEGATIVE process: taking the picture on paper and then printing it using a projector. exposure time 30-60 minutes. the process was called CALOTYPE.

The first camera to be sold: made by GIROUX based on the design of DAGURRE 

1842 RICHARD BEARD tested chemicals for COLOR DEVELOPING but it awaits for the 20th century to the PANCHROMATIC film...meanwhile photos are hand-tinted
1850 The WET PLATE proccess/collodiun was developed by SCOTT ARCHER a glass plate (as a negative) needed a dark-room nearby. The complicated process required the plate to be wet with chemicals (in order to make it sensitive to light) and then expose it. the results were quick (took just seconds) BUT the process very complicated.

The Scottish DAVID BREWSTER developed the first STEREO VIEWER & camera (suprisingly called the BREWSTER VIEWER)

1857 DAVID A. WOODWARD patented the first ENLARGER for photos (a box with a 45 degrees mirror)
1861 THOMAS SUTTON patented the first REFLEX CAMERA
1860-1880 The wet-plate is replaced with a glass plate coated with SILVER BROMIDE.
Meanwhile, improvements in the use of paper based on ALBUMEN. All those improvements for more contrast and stable pictures
from 1880 SPY CAMERAS are popular! spy cameras disguised as books, hates, clocks and even ties.
The first SHUTTERS on the market! (till then the picture was taken by the photographer whose taking manualy the cap from the lens, exposing the plate and then putting the cap again
1882 The British GEORGE HARE invented the FOLDING BED CAMERA (to be very popular in the camera-construction)
1883 The Celluid-plate is developed as an replacement for the fragile glass plate
1888 KODAK - The first KODAK box camera on the markett and immidiatly was a hit! simple and low in value. EASTMAN develops the FILM based on paper to be used in the KODAK camera
1890 CARL ZEISS & GOERZ developed fine ANASTIGMATS lenses

The first MAGNESIUM FLASHes are avaliable for sale

1892 THOMAS TURNER developed the RED WINDOW. a simple feature to find out how many pic are left on the film. EASTMAN buys the patent and add a paper-back (with numbers) to the film to keep the film safe from the light comming from the red window
1895 The film with an extra paper can be loaded in daylight
The British FREDRICK SANDERSON issued a patent on special arms in the lensboard which add the ability to move the lens up and down
1898 The first REFLEX CAMERA on the market (made by GRAFLEX)
1904 FRIEDRICH DECKEL developed the IRIS (for ZEISS)
1914 The AUTOGRAPHIC feature was patenetd by EASTMAN. The autographic feature enabled a free text to be "written" on the film (with an enclosed stylus) thus after development the photo had the text on it. Eastman developed a special film for the Autographic feature.
1925 The first LEICA on the market! The camera was a hit (and still is...) as a compact yet very fine 35mm camera
1930 The BAKELITE proccess allowed the manufactering of the first Bakelite cameras to become a very popular (and cheap) material for camera-bodies. The British PURMA SPECIAL (by HUNTER) was a fine sample!
1934 BURVIN developed the first syncronized flash (for the Leica)  to become a standard (later to move into the camera's body)
1948 POLAROID 95 - The first instant camera. developed by LAND. The camera proccess the photo in 1 minute while the whole proccess is done inside the camera. 
* Those are not ALL the facts and I'm sure I forgot some...but there are better resources that zoom on special issues like: chemicals, mechanical patens, shutters, flashes etc etc   (but that I'll leave to you to find out)
 


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