AUFTRAGSTAKTIK
Miniatures Rules

  Mike J.
The J-8 Shop

MAIN RULES
v. 1.01


INTRODUCTION
Auftragstaktik is a set of grand tactical miniatures rules depicting late 20th Century and early 21st Century land combat, with a strong emphasis on command and control aspects. The rules have been structured in order to retain the general flavor of miniatures rules in that they enable the player to maneuver discrete stands representing different weapons systems, while at the same time permitting a relatively large force to be commanded by a single player.

DATA FILES
China | Denmark | France | Germany | Great Britain | Israel | Soviet Union/Russia | Sweden | United States (Army)

SCALE
One inch represents 500m. Each stand represents a company or a platoon. Each turn represents 1 hour of actual time.

BASING
Company stands use 1.5' x 1' bases. Vehicle or troop miniatures should be mounted facing one of the longer edge. It is recommended that for company stands, for instant recognition, two miniatures be used per stand. Both miniatures should face the same edge. Platoon stands use 1' x 1' bases.

UNITS

T-80B Company
Size
Move
Protection
AT
AP
Indirect
Special
sc or mc
10t
11*
G(g/g): 11
M(g): 12* [10]
HE (g/g): M
HW: 2 [6]
--
IR

Game units represent companies, batteries, or platoons.
Size indicates the number of weapons in the unit, using the following codes:
  s=small, m=medium, l=large; p=platoon, c=company, b=battery
Move is the movement allowance, followed by mobility type.
Protection represents ability to withstand direct-fire attacks. Stands with Protection greater than 0 are considered to be AFVs.
AT is the anti-tank effectiveness, with Gun, Missile, and Close Combat values. Parenthesized values indicate the quality of fire control and stabilization systems, respectively (for guns), or guidance system sophistication (for missiles). Numbers in brackets represent range in inches.
AP is the ability to destroy soft targets, with High Explosive, Heavy Weapons, Small Arms, and Close Combat values. Numbers in brackets represent range in inches.
Indirect represents the unit's ability to deliver indirect fire.
Numbers in brackets represent range in inches.
Special contains various special abilities, in this instance the night vision capability of Infra-Red.

TURN SEQUENCE

Orders Phase
First Movement Phase
First Combat Phase
Reaction Phase
Second Movement Phase
Second Combat Phase
Morale Phase
Close Combat Phase
End Phase

ORDERS

Each company may be issued an order at the beginning of the Orders Phase. Order types include the following:

No Orders: Unit may not move. It may make an entrenchment attempt. When No Orders is given to a company or a battalion, its stand(s) may move as if with HA orders during the first Movement Phase, but may make no further movement until different orders are issued.

Deliberate Advance:  The unit may move up to half of its movement allowance per movement phase. It may not move at all in either or both of the movement phases, however, if it does not move in the first movement phase it may not move in the second. The unit must move in the general direction of the arrow on the order chit.

Hasty Advance: The unit must move at least half of its movement allowance for each movement phase, and up to its full movement allowance. The unit must move in the general direction of the arrow on the order chit.

Travel: Unit must move at least its full movement allowance per movement phase, and up to twice (vehicular stands only, x1.5 its movement allowance for troop stands)  its movement allowance per movement phase. Units with Travel orders may use Road movement rates if moving along one. The unit must move in the general direction of the arrow on the order chit.

Withdraw: Unit must move away from all spotted enemy units. It must move at least half of its movement allowance. Direct fire on units with Withdraw orders suffers from a -4 modifier. Firing units with Withdraw orders suffer a -2 modifier.

Orders may be issued by Battalion, Brigade, and Division-level headquarters. An order issued by a higher HQ may not be changed by a lower HQ unless there is a change in the tactical situation of the lower unit (e.g., contact with the enemy). Orders issued remain in force until changed during the following Orders Phase. Orders may also be changed during Reaction Phase, but only at battalion level. In cases of orders issued by brigade or division headquarters, all units within the battalion receiving such orders receive the same order. If a battalion is issuing orders, each stand in the battalion may be issued a different order. One roll is made for the entire battalion, regardless of the HQ level.

Orders are not changed automatically. Issuing headquarters must pass the HQ roll, as follows:

1-3: Failure. Orders may not be changed.
4-6: Delay. New orders may be issued the following turn.
9+: Success: New orders may be issued immediately.

Only one roll per battalion may be made. Brigade and Division HQs may make an unlimited number of rolls, but no more than one roll may be made per battalion, by any level HQ. In other words, if a battalion HQ made an HQ roll, neither the brigade nor the division HQs may make a roll for that battalion until the next orders phase.

Brigade and Division HQs may make a single roll for all units of a brigade. If successful, each battalion may receive a different order, but all stands belonging to that battalion must receive the same order. Divisional HQs of armies with Centralized doctrine may roll to issue orders for several brigades at the same time.

The following modifiers are used:

Difference between prevailing friendly and enemy HQ rating values x2: positive modifier if issuing HQ has the higher value, negative if it has the lower value.

Issuing Headquarters modifier:


Decentralized
Balanced
Centralized
Battalion
+2
0
-2
Brigade/Regiment
0
0
-2
Division
-2
-2
-2


A battalion that is in contact with the enemy (which is defined as any of the battalion's units having a line of sight to a spotted enemy stand) may not attempt to break contact (defined as increasing the distance between own and enemy stands even when there is no line of sight between them) except through brigade or division orders. Brigade HQs may issue orders to subordinate battalions to react to events happening to other units of the same brigade. A brigade HQ may not issue orders to any of its own battalions to react to battles against enemy units (by issuing orders that would move them in the direction of out-of-contact enemy units, unless they also move them in the direction of enemy forces that are already engaged by the same brigade) that are not in contact with any of that brigade's units. Such orders may be issued only by divisional headquarters.

During the Reaction phase, only battalion HQs may attempt to change orders of their subordinate stands, in accordance with the limits outlined above.

MOVEMENT

Order of movement: Withdraw, Travel, Hasty Advance, Deliberate Advance. Stands move in the general direction of the arrow on the order chit.

Terrain effects:

Terrain
Foot
Wheeled
Tracked
Light forest, Brush
1
2
2
Heavy Forest, Jungle
2
NA
NA
Urban
1
1
1
Rough, Rubble
2
4
2
Swamp
2
NA
NA
Stream (to cross)
2
4
4
Clear
1
1
1
AT Ditch (to cross)
2
NA
NA
Road
1/2
1/4
1/3

Vehicles with Low-mobility Wheeled (lw) mode of movement use Wheeled multipliers, but with doubled movement costs when moving off road.

Weather effects: deep snow and mud doubles all off-road movement rates. Low-mobility wheeled vehicles may not move off-road under these conditions. Special all-terrain vehicles with low ground pressure are not affected by snow and mud.

Grouping Units: Grouping means stands are arranged in more compact formation, in order to shrink the length of the front they are occupying. Grouped units are depicted by arranging stands so that one is directly behind another, with bases touching. When measuring distance to grouped stands, treat the first stand in the mass as representing all the stands in that group.

Unit Integrity: Once all movement is completed, no stand of a battalion may be separated from any other stand of that battalion by more than battalion command radius, according to the command radius chart. At least one stand of a battalion must be within the brigade command radius of the brigade HQ. Brigade HQs must be within the divisional command radius of their divisional HQ.

Spotting: Add up the following modifiers. If the result is greater than 0, the unit is spotted. There is no limit to the number of stands that may be spotted per single stand per turn.

Spotter: Recon +2, Stationary +2, Distance to unit being spotted -1 per each 2 inches in excess of 2; on higher elevation than spotted unit +2
HA orders: -2; Thermal Imager-equipped: +2; Not facing the unit that is to be spotted: -2,
Troop Quality: Elite +2, Veteran +1, Regular 0, Recruit -1, Militia -2.

Unit being spotted: Vehicle or towed artillery stand: +2, Stationary -2, Hasty Advance +4, Deliberate Advance +2,
Firing +4, on higher elevation than spotter -2, unit spotted previous turn or movement phase: +4,
unit in cover -2.
Troop Quality: Elite -2, Veteran -1, Regular 0, Recruit +1, Militia +2.
Grouped unit of more than 2 companies: +2

Once a stand is spotted, it remains so until it moves at least 4 inches away from the location it was occupying when it was spotted, even if no opposing units are capable of spotting it usign the rules above.
For the purposes of and firing and spotting, all distances are measured from the edge of one stand to the edge of another. Use the shortest distance between stands to determine distance between them.

Ground surveillance radar (GSR)-equipped stands receive additional +4 modifier when attempting to spot moving vehicular stands and +2 when attempting to spot moving troop stands.

Night spotting: stands with no night vision capability receive an additional -4 modifier. Stands with night vision other than TI receive a -2 modifier. TI-equipped stands spot as if during daylight.

COMBAT

Fire is conducted sequentially, in following order: first fires by unspotted units. After their fire is resolved in the descending order of troop quality. Elite units fire first, followed by Veterans, then Regulars, Recruits, and so on until Militia units fire at the end. In all cases all fire (including indirect fires called by these units) by each group is fully resolved before the next group may fire. Fires by opposing units of the same quality is resolved simultaneously. ATGM fires (except fire-and-forget systems and kinetic energy missiles) is resolved after all other fires have been resolved. ATGM fires are resolved in the same sequence as other direct fires. Players may elect to have their units fire in later phases than they are entitled to, but never earlier. 

Firing on armored fighting vehicles (vehicular stands with Protection values greater than 0) by Heavy Weapons or Small Arms fire has no effect, except to cause a morale check (see below). However, if the AFV has zero hits, HW or SA fire may be attempted, but with maximum result of only 1 hit (representing forcing the AFV to button up)..

Heavy weapon units (ATGM, MMG/HMG, RCL, mortar platoons) and towed artillery units may fire only if they do not move during the preceding movement phase. This includes non-moving stands of units that have DA orders. Moving Infantry stands mounted on APCs or IFVs may not fire if the unit has Hasty Advance orders (unless the unit is moving at Infantry's HA pace). They may, however, fire if the unit has Deliberate Advance orders, even if moving at vehicular pace.

Infantry stands may fire any and all weapons (e.g., small arms, heavy weapons, ATGMs) (subject to orders restrictions) during a fire phase, and they may fire them at different targets. AFV stands, however, may fire only one weapon type (gun, ATGM, HW) per fire phase. AFV stands armed with AT guns or missiles must engage any AFVs that are in range before engaging any infantry stands. They must engage the closest enemy AFV stand.

When engaging AFV stands, if the line of fire passes either through the forward arc of the stand (defined by 45% lines from the forward corners of the base) to which the AFV silhouette is pointing or two adjacent ones, fire is directed against the AFV's frontal armor. Otherwise it is directed against flank armor. Top-attack weapons are also considered to be attacking flank armor, regardless of where the shot is coming from.

Towed artillery units and other heavy weapons with integral transport are fired on as troop stands when deployed (use the first protection value), and as soft vehicles when moving (use the second protection value).

Anti-Tank (AT) fire
-7 or less -4... -6 -2-3 -1 0 +1 +2, +3 +4..+6 +7...+10
+11...+15
+16 and  higher      
Anti-Personnel (AP) fire
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
+1
+2
+3
+4
+5
+6
12 or more
1
2
2
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
11
1
1
2
2
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
10 1 1 1 2 2 4 4 4 4 4
4
9 1  1 1 1 2 2
4 4 4 4
4
8   1  1 1 1 2 2 4 4 4
4
7      1 1 1 2 2 2 4 4
4
6        1 1 1 1 2 2 4
4
5          1 1 1 2 2 2
4
4          1 1 1 1 2
2
3            1 1 1 1
2
2              1 1 1
1
1 or less
              1
1

Dice: Roll 1d10, or, by mutual agreement if less random result distribution is desired, 2d6-2.

Hit Effects:

1 hit: -2 on to-hit rolls.
2 hits: -6 on to-hit rolls.
3 hits: may not fire.
4 hits: eliminated

At the end of the order phase the number of hits each stand has is reduced by 1.

Troop stands that are in close terrain (villages, towns, cities, forest, jungle, light or heavy entrenchments, fortifications) may be eliminated only by close combat. Hits inflicted by direct and indirect fire are accumulated normally (and are reduced by 1 at the end of each following order phase), but are eliminated only if the 4th or higher hit are inflicted through close combat.


Size-based die roll modifiers:
Small platoon -4/+2
Med Plt -3/+1
Large platoon -2/+1
Small company: 0/0
Medium company: +1/0
Large company: +2/-1

The first modifier is the shooter modifier, the second the target modifier. They are cumulative. For example, a large company firing at a large platoon would have a +2 +1 modifier, for a total of +3. Target size modifiers are not used when resolving HE fire.

Target Orders Modifiers:
Hasty Advance: 0
Deliberate Advance: +2
Withdraw: -4
Administrative Advance: +4
Stationary: 0 (-2 for troop stands)

Vehicle Fire Control modifiers:
Basic (b): -4 per 2 inches in excess of first 2 inches.
Good (g): -2 per 2 inches in excess of first 2 inches.
Advanced (a): -1 per 4 inches in excess of first 4 inches.

Main Gun Stabilization modifiers
(note that stands of units with DA orders that did not move in the preceding fire phase are treated as non-moving for the purpose of fire modifiers):
Basic (b): Hasty Advance: -4, Deliberate Advance: -2
Good (g): Hasty Advance: -2, Deliberate Advance: -1
Advanced (a): no adverse effects from movement. Helicopters are assumed to have advanced stabilization.

Troop Stands Fire modifiers (note that stands of units with DA orders that did not move in the preceding fire phase are treated as non-moving for the purpose of fire modifiers):
Small Arms (SA): Deliberate Advance
1L , Hasty Advance 2L.
Heavy Weapons (HW): Deliberate Advance 2L, Hasty Advance may not fire.
Man-portable ATGMs: as for Heavy Weapons AP.
Heavy Weapons (HW) (including vehicular) Range modifiers: -2 for each 2" in excess of first 2".
Small Arms (SA) range modifiers: no modifiers, but may fire only out to 2".

Cover and Entrenchment Effects:
Light Cover (Woods, Brush, Villaget): -1
Heavy Cover (Forest, Jungle, Urban): -2
Hasty Entrenchment: -1
Deliberate Entrenchment: -2
Prepared Entrenchment: -4

In addition, stands in Deliberate Entrenchment receive a +1 modifier to all of their fire attacks, and units in Prepared Entrenchment receive a +2 modifier.

Stationary, Entrenchment and Cover modifiers are cumulative. Vehicle stands do not benefit from Cover.

Miscellaneous Effects:
Small Arms fire on troop stands with * protection modifier suffers a -1 die roll modifier. SA fire on troop stands with ** protection modifier suffers a -2 DRM.
Fire by unspotted stand: +4
Firing at a stand of lower troop quality: +2 per TQ level of difference.
Firing at a stand of higher troop quality: -2 per TQ level of difference.

Firing at stand flank: 2L
Firing at stand rear facing: 4L

Fire at and by grouped units:
1 AFV company and 1 troop company may group without penalties. Additional grouping incurs the following penalties, per each additional company in the mass: +2 to being spotted, -1 to own firing rolls, +1 to all fires directed at grouped units. Platoons may group with one another with no penalty up to 6 platoons, after which they suffer from the same penalties as grouping companies. Up to two platoons may mass with a company without penalties. Additional platoons suffer grouping penalties as above, with 2 platoons being considered a company for the purpose of grouping. Fire at grouped infantry and/or soft vehicle stands is treated as an attack on all of the grouped stands. It is resolved through a separate roll for each grouped stand. It counts as a shot at a single stand for rate of fire resolution purposes (see below).

ATGM Fire special rules:
1stGen ATGMs (MCLOS guidance) may not roll on columns to the right of the  +1 column, after all modifiers have been applied. 2ndGen ATGMs (SACLOS guidance) may nto roll on a column to the right of +4, +6, after all modifiers have been applied. 3rdGen ATGMs may not use columns to the right of +7...+10. If such ATGMs are entitled to attacks on those columns, they are instead resolved on the +1, or +4...+6 columns for 1st and 2nd Gen ATGMs, respectively. 4th Gen ATGMs (fire and forget, or kinetic energy) face no restrictions.
Moving stands firing ATGMs may fire only in the second fire phase. Non-moving stands with ATGMs may fire in both phases. Top-attack ATGMs (units whose M AT rating is marked with ^) are always treated as if attacking flank armor.

Rate of fire:
Companies firing on companies: ATGMs may fire only one shot, regardless of its effects (exception: ATGMs with advanced guidance ("a") have the same ROF restrictions as AFVs). AFV firing on other AFVs and all stands engaging in direct fire at troop stands may fire a second shot if the first shot results in the elimination of the target. Tanks of Soviet manufacture may fire only once per fire phase, regardless of results. AFVs equipped with "hunter-killer" systems firing on AFVs and machine-gun stands firing on troop stands may fire an unlimited number of shots, as long as they keep eliminating their targets. Platoons engaged by companies do not count toward that limit--a company may fire at an unlimited number of platoons per turn. Platoons engaging other platoons use the same rules as companies firing on companies. Platoons firing on companies may fire only one shot per fire phase (subject to other restrictions).

HE indirect fire effects:
Indirect fires may only be used in the first fire phase.
After firing units are declared, counterbattery fire is resolved. See Miscellaneous Rules below. Each firing battery lays down a company-sized template, and each firing platoon a platoon-sized template. Each unit that moves over the template (including only partially overlapping the template) is attacked by indirect fire.

Use the +1 column on the CRT, apply terrain and cover modifiers, plus the following:

Very Light and Light weapons: +2 vs. troop and soft vehicle stands in open terrain.

High ROF weapons: +2
MRL: use the parenthesized number after the Indirect value as a die roll modifier.

Very Light HE increases Entrenchment and Cover modifiers by 2. Light HE increases them by 1.
Heavy HE reduces Entrenchment and Cover modifiers by 1 (to a minimum of 0), and Very Heavy HE reduces those modifiers by 2 (to a minimum of 0).

For the purpose of HE fire resolution (oth direct and indirect) AFVs are considered to be in Hard Cover. Open-topped AFVs, with Protection value marked by an "o" are considered Soft Cover against HE fire.

Indirect HE is also affected by unit orders:
Battalion orders, battalion-level firing unit: no change
Battalion orders, brigade-level firing unit: 1L (no change for decentralized)
Battalion orders, division-level firing unit: 2L (1L for decentralized)
Brigade orders, division-level firing unit: 1L (no change for decentralized)

Multiple rocket launcher (MRL) stands fire may place two artillery templates on the board per fire phase. Their attacks are resolved against stands touched or overlayed by the templates, after which the templates are removed. The templates belonging to a single MRL stand may not overlap one another, but must touch. MRL stands also have specific die roll modifiers, which are applied when resolving their attacks.

Direct fire HE effects:
They are  conducted in the same manner as indirect fire, except that an additional +2 modifier is used, and HE is considered to be one level heavier (e.g., a Light artillery stand would count as Medium for direct fire purposes).

Close Combat: CC a special type of combat which takes place at the end of the second combat phase. To enter close combat units must either have Hasty Advance orders or Deliberate Advance orders but use no more than half of their movement allowance.Infantry stands of units that had HA orders and moved at the movement rate of their vehicles may not participate in the first round of close combat. The infantry stand suffers the same number of hits as the carrier vehicle does in the first round of CC. Unit bases must be touching in order for CC to take place. During close combat each participating troop stand picks one opposing stand and attacks it. It is possible for a single unit to be attacked by more than one attacker. Close combat continues either all units belonging to one of the sides are eliminated, or if one of the players chooses to withdraw from CC. Withdrawing units receive Withdraw orders and 1 hit for withdrawing. They instantly move an equivalent of a single movement phase away from opposing units, at Withdraw movement rate. Units may not withdraw from CC before at least 1 round of it has been fought.

Close combat is resolved on the Anti-personnel fire table. AFVs may not initiate close combat or engage in close combat with other AFVs.  If Concealed units are drawn into close combat, they receive a "free" CC attack against one enemy stand. If that stand is eliminated, the concealed unit may attack another stand, until it fails to eliminate that stand. After that CC is resolved normally.

Close combat modifiers:
Troop vs. Troop/Soft vehicle
Morale Difference:
positive modifier for superior stand's attacks, negative modifier for inferior stand's attacks.
CC Value Difference: positive modifier for superior stand's attacks, negative modifer for inferior stand attacks. Stands that have no CC value are considered to have CC value of 0.

Numer of hits difference x2 : positive modifier for superior stand's attacks, negative modifier for inferior stand's attacks.
Size modifiers: use both target and attacker modifiers.
Troop Quality: difference in levels x2, positive modifier for superior stand, negative modifier for inferior stand.

Cover and Entrenchment modifiers are not used in CC.

Modifiers for CC against AFVs.
As above, and in addition use the infantry stand's AT CC modifier.
AFVs may not engage in CC. However, after each round of CC is resolved, an AFV stand in CC may fire its HW (if any) against a single infantry stand attacking it. This attack is resolved normally (AFV is treated as stationary, with infantry benefitting from cover only if it is terrain-based) and with an additional -6 modifier.

MORALE
Morale is checked during the Morale Phase. Every battalion that has come under enemy fire of any kind must check its morale. Roll on the CRT, using the following columns for each morale level:
VL: +11; L:+7+1-;  A: +4+6; H: +2+3; VH: +1.

Morale roll modifiers:
General modifier: -2
Number of hits suffered (average per battalion): +avg. number of hits
Formation is Checked: +1
Formation is Routed: +2
In cover or entrenchment: -2

Morale Roll Results
2 result is Checked
4 result is Routed.
Other results have no effect. Morale die rolls affect the entire battalion.

Checked formations may only receive No Orders or Withdraw orders. Checked units may fire without restrictions. Routed units may not be issued any orders, but must instead move away from all visible enemy units at maximum movement rate. If a Routed unit ends movement within 4 inches of an enemy unit, it surrenders and is eliminated. Routed units may not fire. Routed and Checked markers remain on the formation's HQ units until they pass a morale check.


MISCELLANEOUS RULES

Airstrikes: Ground support by aircraft is resolved in the same manner as indirect fire. All air-dropped ordnance is considered Very Heavy HE Indirect fire and uses appropriate modifiers. In addition, air units' Indirect rating includes an additional modifier that is used when delivering HE attacks. Airstrikes differ from normal fire support in that they attack a specific stand (in case of grouped stands all stands are considered attacked), and do not place an impact template on the table. Aircraft that become available during each turn are assigned during the orders phase to specific battalion, brigade, and division HQs, and are considered to be these HQs assets for the purpose of determining their effectiveness (use the same modifiers as for HQ subordination of indirect artillery fires). No size modifiers are used when resolving airstrikes, except for strafing attacks in which the air unit is considered to be a medium platoon-sized element (4 aircraft). When delivering strafing attacks, aircraft use their AT rating against AFV stands and HW ratings against troop stands and soft vehicles. Strafing attacks suffer no modifiers due to range or movement, fire control or stabilization. Only shooter and target troop quality modifiers are used.

Air Defense:  Fire against helicopters and aircraft is resolved like indirect fire, on the +1 CRT column. Use the following modifiers:
Target TQ higher than shooter TQ: -2 per level of difference.
Target TQ lower than shooter TQ: +2 per level of difference.

Target Protection value: use as a positive modifier, the first value against SA and HW fire, the second against Missile fire.
Range modifier: use normal HW, SA, and AP (for specialized AA guns) modifiers based on fire control.

Missiles do not suffer from range modifiers. However, their fire is modified based on their guidance system. Basic guidance (b): -2, Good guidance (g): 0, Advanced guidance (a): +2

Target is an aircraft: all SA and HW (with the exception of specialized AA mounts)  fire suffers an additional -4 result.

ATGM fire against helicopters: use +1 column for resolution, with following modifiers: 1st gen ATGM: -6, 2nd Gen -4, 3rd and 4th Gen: -2.

For the purpose of tracing line of sight, nap of the earth-flying helicopters are considered to be one level higher than terrain below, and high-flying helicopters and all aircraft are considered to be 2 levels. Soviet helicopters are not capable of nap of earth flying.

ATGMs vs. non-AFV targets: If fired against unarmored vehicles, ATGMs are treated as Medium artillery. When fired against permanent fighting positions or troops in buildings, they are treated as Heavy artillery.

Cluster Munitions (ICM): AFV cover modifiers are ignored. Fire against troops stands in the open receives an additional +2 modifier. ICM ought to be regarded as scarce munitions by gamemasters, allowing for no more than one ICM mission per artillery stand per game. US forces in the late 1980s may fire unlimited ICM missions.

Counter-Battery Fire: Counterbattery fire may be declared against any enemy artillery units (including on-board and off-board indirect fire, including mortars but not including grenade launchers) and is resolved after the enemy artillery fire has been resolved.
CB fire is resolved as standard indirect fire, with the following additional modifiers:
Troop quality: as for direct fire
CB-firing side C3 level: 1: -4; 2: -2; 3: 0, 4: +2; 5: +4
Target's C3 level: 1: +4, 2: +2; 3: 0, 4: -2; 5: -4
Target is SP arty: -2
Target is MRL: -2
Firer uses ICM: +2
CB-firer is MRL: +2

CB fire target outranges all CB-firing units: -2

Entrenching: stationary stands may attempt to improve their defensive posture by entrenching. There are three levels of entrenchment: Hasty, Prepared, and Fortified. Hasty entrenchment is automatic after one turn remaining in the same location for personnel stands. To go to Deliberate level, stands must roll at the beginning of each Orders Phase. If 8 or more is rolled (modified by Troop Quality: Veteran and Elite: 7 or more, Recruit and Militia: 9 or more), the attempt succeeds. Improving entrenchment to Prepared Level uses the same procedure, but the number needed for the attempt to succeed is increased by 1.

MBT stands may not improve entrenchment level (with the exception of T-64 and later Soviet MBTs, which may gain Hasty entrenchment normally) without engineer assistance, in which case they roll for improvements as troop stands without engineer aid. APC and IFV stands, provided they are accompanied by own infantry.

Headquarters Stands: HQ units are of three basic categories, Mechanized, Motorized, Foot. In all cases they are represented as a medium company armed with SA and HW, and capable of CC as a normal infantry company. However, when fired upon they are treated as an light AFV (in the first case) or as a soft vehicle (in the latter two cases). HQ stands are present at regiment/brigade and division levels. Each brigade and division has 1 HQ stand. Once eliminated, HQ stands may not be replaced.

HEAT Ammunition: 
High Explosive Anti-Tank (HEAT) munition-firing weapons are marked with * or, in the case of advanced HEAT rounds, **. HEAT rounds are treated as normal AT fire, with the following exceptions. HEAT with * fired at targets with Protection rating marked with * suffer a 2L column shift, and when fired at targets with **-marked Protection rating they suffer a 4L column shift. HEAT rounds with ** fired at * Protection suffer no column shift, and 2L column shift when fired at ** Protection.

Gun-type weapons ("G" AT ratings) marked with * represent low-velocity weapons firing HEAT, such as the Soviet 73mm cannon used by BMP-1, or recoilless guns everywhere. Such weapons, in addition to normal rules treating HEAT, may not fire beyond 4".

Helicopters:
Helicopters behave as normal units, except that each helicopter counter/stand is self-ordering. Helicopters are issued the same orders as other vehicles, and suffer from similar restrictions, except that helicopters have unlimited movement both with CA and FA orders. They are also considered to have stabilized armament for the purpose of firing. If with FA orders the helo is considered to be flying above the terrain and any enemy unit may trace LOS to it (and vice versa), while with DA orders the helo is considered to be on the same level as terrain and may take advantage of it for purposes of cover. Helos are spotted in the same way as AFVs, with dedicated air defense vehicles having an additional +2 spotting modifier. Helicopters with mast-mounted sights receive an additional 2L benefit against enemy fire when under DA orders.

Anti-helicopter fire by small arms is resolved using AT fire row, and fire by SAMs, HW, and AAA using AP fire row.


Mines: Minefields are laid by special minelaying units, which may lay up to the number of minefields per turn specified in unit data. They may also be laid by artillery (see Cluster Munitions above). Each minefield has a .75" by 2" template. Stands crossing AP and AT minefields must roll on the 0 column of the CRT for damage, with the following modifiers: Militia stand 2R shift, Recruit stand 1R shift, Regular stand no change, Veteran stand 1L shift, Elite stand 2L shift. AFV stands are affected only by AT minefields, troop stands by AP minefields only, and soft vehicle stands by both. Troop stands receive a -2 modifier if with Cautious Advance orders. Minefields that have been crossed by opposing units are removed from the table at the end of the turn.

Overruns: An overrun attack takes place when an infantry stand or group of infantry stands is attacked by a force of armored or mechanized infantry companies. Units attempting an overrun may not have more than 1 hit at the beginning of overrun. It is resolved as Close Combat during the Movement Phase, with the following changes: the stands being overrun get one CC attack against the overrunning units. If the attackers end that CC with no more than 1 hit (cumulative with hits suffered earlier), they may continue movement. If any of  the overrunning stands end the defenders' CC attack with 2 hits or more, the entire overrunning force must stop movement.

Reconnaissance Stands: Battalions, Brigades, and Divisions may have Reconnaissance platoons and companies as part of their Orbat. In addition to enjoying additional spotting benefits (as outlined in the Spotting rules), Recon stands are governed by a number of special rules. HQ command radius is doubled when it comes to Recon stands. Recon stands are issued orders independently of their parent organizations and do not roll for order change success. Reconnaissance companies and battalions subordinate to brigade/regiment and division HQs are considered to be subject to the brigade and division command radii.

Only troop, light vehicle, and light AFV stands are considered "reconnaissance" for the purpose of receiving the "recon stand" spotting bonus. Main battle tanks are never considered to be "recon" vehicles, even when assigned to reconnaissance units.

Top-attack Missiles: These weapons either follow a high flight path or use downward-looking warheads to strike at the thinner top armor. Top attack weapons are denoted by ^ in the AT attack column of the data charts. They are always considered to strike side armor of the target. When attacking vehicles with improved top armor (denoted by ^ in Protection column), they suffer an additional 3L modifier.

Unit breakdowns:  Each company may be broken down into its component platoons or a platoon plus a weakened company. The following breakdowns are possible:
Large company: 3 large platoons; 4 medium platoons; 1 medium platoon and 1 medium company;  1 large platoon and 1 small company.
Medium company: 3 medium platoons; 1 medium platoon and 1 small company.
Small company: 3 small platoons.

Using this option requires marking company stands with a marker indicating the company has detached a platoon, or using interchangeable company size markers on unit stands.


RATING UNITS


Unit
Size
Move
Protection
AT
AP
Indirect
Special








Size
Companies and Platoons:
Small Platoon (sp): 3 vehicles or weapons, or under 20 dismounted personnel.
Medium Platoon (mp) or small battery (sb): 4 vehicles or weapons, or between 20 and 30 dismounted personnel.
Large Platoon (lp) or medium battery (mb): 5 vehicles or weapons, or between 30 and 50 dismounted personnel.

Small Company (sc) or large battery (lb): 8-11 vehicles or weapons, or under 80 dismounted personnel.
Medium Company (mc): 12-14 vehicles or weapons or between 80 and 120 dismounted personnel.
Large Company (lc): 15+ vehicles or weapons, over 120 dismounted personnel.

Movement
Movement, in inches per movement phase, Hasty Advance orders:
Foot, vehicles 0-10kph: 2
Horse, vehicles 11-30kph: 4
Vehicles 31-50 kph: 6
Vehilces 51-70 kph: 8
Vehicles 71+kph: 10

Movement codes: T: tracked, W: wheeled, LW: low-mobility wheeled, A: amphibious
Helicopters have unlimited movement, and have a movement allowance of H.

Protection:
1-10mm: 1
11-20mm: 2
21-40mm: 3
41-70mm: 4
71-110mm: 5 ,
111-160mm: 6
161-220mm: 7
221-290mm: 8
291-370mm: 9
371-460mm: 10
461-560mm: 11
561-770mm: 12
771-890mm: 13
891-1020mm: 14
1021-1160mm: 15
1161-1310mm: 16


Protection: *, **: special armor (reactive, composite, etc.), that reduces the effect of HEAT warheads, ^: strengthened top armor (in case of missiles, top-attack flight profile).

Open-topped vehicles are marked with "o".

Unarmored stands protection: all infantry units have Protection rating of 0. Infantry with body armor receive * modifier. Troops with advanced body armor (interceptor vests, etc.) receive ** modifier. Softskinned vehicles have Protection rating of -2 (for large vehicles, such as artillery prime movers), or 0 (jeeps and the like). Protection values of unarmored stands are in { }.

Helicopters and aircraft have two Protection ratings, the first derived from their armored protection/ruggedness, the second from electronic countermeasures.
The first rating is arrived at as follows: unarmored helicopter/aircraft: 0. Lightly armored helicopter/aircraft: 1 Heavily armored helicopter/aircraft: 2. In addition, helicopters with mast-mounted sights (MMS) have their protection rating modified with an "m".
Second rating: no defensive suite: 0. Basic defensive suite: 1. Extensive defensive ECM suite: 2

AT:
The following penetration scale is used to assign AP values:
1-10mm: 1
11-20mm: 2
21-40mm: 3
41-70mm: 4
71-110mm: 5 ,
111-160mm: 6
161-220mm: 7
221-290mm: 8
291-370mm: 9
371-460mm: 10
461-560mm: 11
561-770mm: 12
771-890mm: 13
891-1020mm: 14
1021-1160mm: 15
1161-1310mm: 16

AT box may have two lines, marked G for vehicles with guns firing AT projectiles, and M for stands equipped with ATGMs.
Stabilization, missile guidance, and AFV fire control codes:
Basic, Good, Advanced, or b, g, a.
Basic: stadiametric sights, no stabilization, MCLOS guidance.
Good: optical rangefinders; SACLOS guidance, some stabilization
Advanced: laser rangefinders, comprehensive fire control suites, fire-and-forget ATGMs, full stabilization

Missile range is placed in brackets. Each 1000m of range counts as 2", with additional 2" added for the final range value.

Certain aircraft (A-10, for example) equipped with heavy armor-penetrating onboard cannon are rated for AT as AFVs, with the exception of having no fire control and no stabilization.

Infantry stands have an AT Close Combat (CC) value, assigned as follows: No infantry AT weapons in the stand: 0. At least 1 AT weapon per squad: 2. Lavish provision of AT weapons: 4.

AP: Up to three values, for small arms (SA), heavy weapons such as MGs, autocannon (HW), and high explosive (HE). 

Small Arms:  The first value is used for ranged fire, the second for Close Combat purposes.
Automatic Rifle 2/3, Assault Rifle 1/4 SMG 0/4
Per 2 SAWs (5.56mm or 7.62mm intermediate round machine-gun) per squad: +1 to ranged fire only.

Heavy Weapons: HW ratings may include a different firing unit Size modifier, if the unit in question has more or fewer HW-rated weapons than base company size indicates. IN such cases the HW size rating is included in parenthesis, and is used only for resolving HW weapons fire by that unit.

HW ratings for basic weapon systems:
GPMG: 2, range 4"
HMG: 2, range 6"
Autocannon 20mm and greater: 4, range 6"

Multiple barrel MG and autocannon mount: add 1 for 2-gun  mounts, add 2 for 3 and 4 gun mounts.

HE:
VL: under 75mm
L: 75-90mm
M: 91-130
H: 140-175
VH: 180+

Indirect:
VL: under 75mm
L: 75-90mm
M: 91-130
H: 140-175
VH: 180+


Indirect fire ranges: each kilometer of range is equivalent to 2 inches.
Artillery weapons that use extended range munitions (RAP, BB, etc.) have two range values, separated by a /.
High ROF weapons are indicated by a "b" (for "burst") after their Indirect values.

MRL stands receive the following modifier per number of tubes per firing unit: under 10: -2; 10-30: -1; 31+: 0

Aircraft Indirect ratings are based only on their weight of ordnance (per single aircraft), and are in the form of a modifier:
1 ton: -4, 2 tons: -2; 3 tons: 0; 4 tons: +2, 6 tons: +4

Special:
Night Vision: TI: thermal imaging night vision, II: image intensifier/low light TV night vision, IR: active infra-red night vision, SL: searchlight.
h/k: hunter-killer
GSR: stand is equipped with ground surveillance radar.

Air defense (AD): two types of weapons, missile (m), or gun (g).
Basic value is calculated the same way as the heavy weapons value.

Air defense missiles: rated for basic (b), good (g), or advanced (a) guidance, and range in inches calculated in the same fashion as for direct fire weapons.

Headquarters ratings are on the basis of tech level and troop quality. 
Tech Level:
Moderate radio use: 1
Extensive radio use: 2
Partial digitization: 3
Full digitization: 4

TQ: Levy 0, Recruit 1, Regular 2, Veteran 3, Elite 4

Each HQ is also assigned a Command radius, in inches, using the following chart:


Battalion
Regiment/Brigade
Division
Digital
12
12
24
Extensive radio
8
8
16
Some radio
6
6
12
Telephone
4
4
8

The values are for HQs of units with Normal doctrine. Units with Decentralized doctrine multiply the value by 1.5, with Centralized doctrine by .66.

HQ units are of three basic categories, Mechanized, Motorized, Foot. In all cases they are represented as a medium company armed with SA and HW, and capable of CC as a normal infantry company.

Mike J.
=
====
The J-8 Shop
Wargame Rules, Variants, and Orders of Battle
http://www.geocities.com/pmj6/

“War is a series of catastrophes which result in victory.”
Georges Clemenceau








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