EmCon C
v. 1.1
by Mike J.
The J-8 Shop


Main Rules
"Men matter most" -- Captain Wayne Hughes, USN (ret.)

Introduction
EmCon C is an operational-level naval rules set intended to portray fleet actions of the late 20th and early 21st Centuries. It is intended as a companion game to the Boots, Tracks, and Rotors operational air/land wargame.

DEFINITIONS:

Air units represent airwings, with squadron-sized components. Naval units represent 2-ship units (in case of ships under 10,000 tons) or single warships (over 10,000 tons). Fast attack craft are represented by 4-ship units.

Naval combat is resolved in OpHexes, representing 250km each.

Prevailing and Highest: These rules use terms Prevailing and Highest in regard to various combat characteristics (technology level, detection capabilities, etc.). In such cases, a value is said to be Prevailing if it is represented by the greatest number of units of one side participating in the specific engagement. Highest value is, as the term implies, the highest combat value of its kind among units participating in that engagement on that side. For example, if a force consists of one tech level 3, two tech level 4, and one tech level 5 units, tech level 4 is considered to be Prevailing, and Tech level 5 to be the Highest.

Naval unit characteristics

Naval Unit

Unit type description, troop quality, tech.

Strength

Detection

Air

Surface

ASW

Survivability

Movement

Special

Strength value (Strength including embarked helos)

Air/
Surface

Area AA {depletion}; [point defense]

 SSM/(msl type) [range]; Gunnery

 ASW value

Ship type (armor modifier)

Movement points (endurance)

MCM. ECM, others


Strength: Used to calculate combat ratios. Naval vessels optimized for operations in coastal areas have their Strength value followed by "c". Surface units carrying helicopters have a second Strength value in [ ]. If the helicopters are capable of ASW operations, it is marked with an “a”, if they can carry anti-ship missiles (not counting Sea Skua, AS-15, AS-12-type short-range missiles) they are marked with “s”, and if they can carry light anti-ship weapons (Sea Skua, unguided rockets, cannon, etc.) usable against fast attack craft, they are marked with “f”.

Detection: The ship's ability to detect air and surface targets, respectively.
Air: ability to engage air targets.
Surface: ability to engage surface targets with missiles and guns. Range indicates number of hexes at which the vessel can strike at surface ships.
ASW: ability to combat submarines.
Survivability: modifiers based on tonnage and armor and, in parentheses, in passive and active point air defenses.
Movement: number of hexes a ship can move in a movement phase. The parenthesized value indicates number of hexes a ship can move before it runs out of fuel. Nuclear-powered ships are marked with "n", which indicates their endurance is virtually unlimited.
Special: miscelaneous capabilities, including mine warfare (MCM).

SEQUENCE OF PLAY
Orders Phase
First Move Phase
Combat Phase
    Air Combat Segment
    ASW Combat Segment
    Submarine vs. Surface ship Segment
    General anti-surface ship Segment
Second Move Phase


ORDER PHASE

Ship orders:
Three naval unit missions (for surface and submarine units):
Dash: high-speed movement of a task force. Units with such orders may move at Dash movement rate. May not launch aircraft, use ASW except Area. May not attack at all? May not use Detection. More vulnerable to detection? Subs in particular more vulnerable to ASW. Non-nuclear submarines may not be issued Dash orders.
Cruise: move at Cruise movement rate. All combat as normal.
Station: may move up to one hex per movement phase. ASW enhanced (but not sub attacks vs. surface?).

Air orders:
Air units may be issued the following orders:
Air-to-Air missions:
CAP (Combat Air Patrol): If sent out to the air unit's Short range, the entire air unit is eligible to participate in the air combat. If it is sent to Medium range, only half of the unit may participate in combat (and absorb casualties). If the mission is to Long range, only a quarter of the unit's steps may participate and absorb casualties.
Escort: May be sent out to Short, Medium, or Long Range with no penalties.
Air units which have their Air rating in { } may not be given Air-to-Air missions.

Attack missions:
Strike: may be sent to Short (air-to-ground value unchanged), Medium (air-to-ground value halved), or Long range (air-to-ground Stri-Stand-off Strike: as above, but enables the aircraft to use stand-off munitions. Units whose third Initiative value is -- may not conduct Stand-off Strikes.

Miscellaneous missions:
Patrol: issued to ASW and search units (including AEW air units). May be flown only to Medium range if the unit in question is to take advantage of its ASW and Search capabilities.

FIRST MOVEMENT PHASE

Plot and record, without revealing to the opponent, submarine unit movement.

Move previously Detected task forces, from the lowest to the Highest detection rating (surface or air).

Place air units with search missions (such air units may also be assigned to specific friendly task forces, in which case they move with the task force). Aircraft increase their detection values by 1 when at Close range.

Move undetected task forces, from the lowest to the highest detection rating (surface or air).

Check for each surface TFs Detection status. Every surface TF that has enemy air, surface, or submarine units either in same or adjacent hex must check for detection.
Roll for detection on the following chart:
Modifiers: difference in detection values, stealth? Also, if one side's detector is airborne, and the other side has air detection rating close or same or higher and a fighter unit available, the detection chance is that much lower. Being Undetected also helps.
TFs which fail the Detection check are considered Detected. Previously detected TFs which pass Detection check are considered Undetected.
In most cases detection checks are performed only after all movement has been completed. However, Detection checks of undetected units may also be requested by either player if an undetected surface TF enters a hex occupied by or adjacent to an opposing surface or submarine unit with On Station orders, or an air unit with Search orders. If detection attempt is successful, detecting unit may attack the detected TF. If attacked, the detected TF may engage the attacking forces, then complete movement after combat is resolved. Alternately, the detecting unit may opt to shadow the detected TF by moving to the same or adjacent hex as  the final movement hex of the detected TF (if movement allowance permits), or remain in its original hex.

Move remaining air units. Both players simultaneously place units with Offensive orders on the operational map. Then they do same for units with defensive missions. Destination hex must be within range of the basing hex of the air unit. In-flight refueling-capable air units may use aerial tankers to extend their range. Provided a tanker is within range (given current orders) of the basing hex of the air unit, the air unit may treat the OpHex where a friendly tanker is present as the basing hex for the purpose of range. For example, an air unit with medium range of 4 and Strike orders could fly to an OpHex located within 4 hexes of the basing hex, and then fly to any OpHex located within 4 hexes of the tanker. Each tanker Size point can support up to 10 tactical air unit size points, or 1 strategic size point (Heavy Bomber units only).

Each air unit must be moved hex by hex to its destination hex. If an air unit moves through a hex with opposing air units with CAP orders, and/or through a hex that's adjacent to an opposing AEW unit, the opposing player may declare combat during movement. In that case the air battle is resolved before air units continue movement.

Move submarine units.

Movement notes:
While moving ships keep track of each unit's Endurance on a separate tracking sheet. For every Movement Phase spent in On Station posture, reduce Endurance by 1. If in Cruise posture, reduce Endurance by 1 per Movement Phase if the unit moved no more than 2 hexes per turn by 1 per each hex travelled (provided the unit did not travel more than 4 hexes per movement phase), or by 3 per each hex travelled (if the unit moved more than 4 hexes in a Movement Phase).

If a unit moves more than two thirds of maximum movement allowance in a Movement Phase, it is considered to be performing a Dash. Indicate such units with a Dash marker. Combat effects of Dash movement:
Submarines: may not attack, suffer 2 column shifts when defending against ASW.
Carriers: no air operations, otherwise as surface ships.
Surface ships: may not initiate combat, but may defend themselves against attacks. May launch SSMs as self defense. Suffer 2 column shifts vs. submarine attacks.

On Station combat effect: 1 positive column shift to ASW, submarine attacks.

COMBAT PHASE

NOTE: In all the combat phases, the players may opt to commit only some units to combat. Calculation of combat Strength and prevailing/highest combat values is then done only with units that have been committed to combat. However, all units in the hex that are eligible to be the object of attack in any given phase (e.g., air units in the air phase, submarines in ASW phase, surface ships in anti-surface phase) must roll for damage on the CRT. Ships which are not committed to combat may use their Survivability modifiers normally.

In addition, only units that have relevant values other than "--" may participate in launching attacks against enemy units. For example a unit with ASW value of "--" cannot contribute its Strength to in ASW attacks. It can, however, lend its Strength to defense against submarine attacks.

Combat Resolution Table (CRT)

 

1:6

1:5

1:4

1:3

1:2

1:1.5

1:1

1.5:1

2:1

3:1

4:1

5:1

6:1

7:1

12+

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

H

11

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

H

H

10

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

H

H

H

9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

H

H

H

H

8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

H

H

H

H

E

7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

H

H

H

H

E

E

6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

H

H

H

H

E

E

E

5

 

 

 

 

 

 

H

H

H

H

E

E

E

E

4

 

 

 

 

 

H

H

H

H

E

E

E

E

E

3

 

 

 

 

H

H

H

H

E

E

E

E

E

E

2

 

 

 

H

H

H

H

E

E

E

E

E

E

E

1

 

 

H

H

H

H

E

E

E

E

E

E

E

E

0

 

H

H

H

H

E

E

E

E

E

E

E

E

E

-1

H

H

E

E

E

E

E

E

E

E

E

E

E

E

<>

Air combat:
Air-to-Air missions:
CAP (Combat Air Patrol): If sent out to the air unit's Short range, the entire air unit is eligible to participate in the air combat. If it is sent to Medium range, only half of the unit may participate in combat (and absorb casualties). If the mission is to Long range, only a quarter of the unit's steps may participate and absorb casualties.
Escort: May be sent out to Short, Medium, or Long Range with no penalties.
Air units which have their AtA rating in { } may not be given these missions. Air units with Agility ratings in [ ] have their Agility halved (for the purpose of attacking, unchanged when resolving opposing attacks) when on air-to-air missions.

Air-to-Ground missions:
Strike: may be sent to Short (air-to-ground value unchanged) ,Medium (air-to-ground value halved), or Long range (air-to-ground Stri-Stand-off Strike: as above, but enables the aircraft to use stand-off munitions. Units whose third Initiative value is -- may not conduct Stand-off Strikes.

Support missions (may be carried out only by air units which have these characteristics listed in the Special box):
Recon: provide a modifier for Interdiction rolls.
ECM: reduce opposing air defense and air-to-air combat abilities.
SEAD: suppression of opposing air defenses.
Refuel: extends the range of supported air units.

Resolve air superiority in each hex as follows:

Segregate each side's air units in the hex into the following groups:
CAP air-to-air missions
Escort air-to-air missions
Air-to-ground missions

Due to the nature of the missions, aircraft with Escort orders may not engage one another (the aircraft are spending comparatively little time over the target area, in contrast with CAP missions which represent full-time air cover). The air battle in each OpHex is therefore resolved as several battles which are assumed to take place simultaneously:

Each side's combined Escort and CAP force attacks the other side's CAP size (Defender).

Each side's CAP force (Attacker) attacks the other side's Escort and Strike force (Defender).

In each case, only the defender in the battle rolls for casualties (it is therefore possible to have up to 4 "separate" air battles in each OpHex, depending on what missions opposing sides' individual air units have).

To resolve each of these air battles:
Calculate total Strength of all participating air units, determine their ratio and choose the appropriate column on the CRT.
Compare the two sides' Air Detection values (use the highest values present in the hex). Consult the Modifier Table and use the difference as a column shift in favor of the superior side. Presence of a friendly Supply Depot (see Supply Optional/Advanced Rule below) reduces the column shift by 1 if the opposing side has AEW aircraft in the hex. If the opposing side has no AEW in the hex, Supply Depot presence results in a 1-column shift in favor of the owning side.
Determine the Prevailing and Highest Air value of each side, calculate their average. Air units on Strike missions are considered to have Air value of 0.
Calculate the difference between the two averages, use it as a column shift in favor of the higher side.
Roll for each air unit using the following modifiers:
 
Compare the two sides' highest ECM level, find the difference, consult the Modifier Table. Apply as a survivability modifier. Presence of Supply Depots has a similar effect as for Detection, but the result is a modifier, not a column shift.

Air units with air-to-air missions may use their mission-based Survivability modifiers (values in square brackets followed by "a" or without any letters) if their side has the highest Air Detection value in the hex. Air units with Surveillance or air-to-ground missions may use their mission-based modifiers (in { }) and missile-based modifiers (values in square brackets followed by "g", "r", "s", or "h") regardless of detection level. Mission-based modifiers may be used only by the side whose highest air detection value in the hex is at least equal to that of the opposing side's.

Determine the highest and prevailing Survivability modifiers per hex (add mission-based modifiers, when applicable), taking into consideration only those units that are participating in the specific stage of the air battle (e.g., in the Escort and CAP vs CAP battle, ignore Survivability values of units with missions other than air-to-air). Compare each air unit's with the other side's prevailing and highest air values and apply a survivability modifer as follows:
Survivability higher than enemy's Highest: x2 the difference, positive modifier
Higher than enemy's prevailing: the difference as positive modifier.
Lower than enemy's prevailing: x2 the difference, negative modifier.


ASW Phase
Check which submarines are eligible to be attacked. Any submarine which is adjacent to or in the same hex as an opposing unit with ASW value is subject to be attacked. For each submarine subject to attack, the opposing player selects one unit from ASW-capable units adjacent to or in the same hex as the submarine.  Submarines may not combine their Strengths even if they are in the same hex, but instead are attacked separately. There is no limit to the number of submarine units that may be attacked by the same ASW unit in a single combat phase. Calculate the ratio of the ASW unit strength and the submarine unit strength, determine appropriate column on the CRT by comparing the units' ASW values.

Apply the following modifier: Multiply the sub's ASW by 1.5 (round fractions down). If the submarine's ASW is higher than the Prevailing ASW value of attacking units, use the difference as a positive modifier. If its ASW value is higher than the Highest ASW value of attacking units, use the difference x 2 as a positive modifier. If it is lower than the Prevailing ASW value, use the difference as a negative modifier.


Submarine units that do not have nuclear propulsion (n after the movement value) and do not have air-independent propulsion (AIP, marked by * after their movement value) have their Survivability modified by –2 if under Cruise orders.

Submarines with "F" survivability values add 4 to their survivability values if in Coastal hexes.

Submarine attack phase
Detected surface ships may be attacked by any submarines in the same hex as or adjacent to hex they occupy.
Submarines may not combine their Strengths, but rather carry out their attacks separately. Calculate the total Strength of each surface force subject to submarine attack, calculate the submarine:surface force ratio, find initial CRT column. Calculate the average of Prevailing and Highest ASW values among the surface units, compare with the submarine's Surface value, use the difference between values as a column shift. ASW-capable air units, if present in the hex, may add their strength and
Roll for each surface unit.

Submarine units which have a missile surface attack factor may instead launch a missile attack, which is resolved in the same manner as missile attacks in the anti-surface ship combat phase. However, submarine units launching missile attacks also may not combine their Strengths.

Anti-surface ship combat phase
Only detected surface units or TFs may be attacked.
Determine the Highest Detection value for each combat. If no side uses aircraft (for search or strike functions) only surface detection is used. Air detection values may be considered if the opposing side uses aircraft.

Determine the prevailing threat facing each surface TF: aircraft, heavy missile, regular missile, or sea-skimming missile. Aircraft launching missile attacks count as missile attacks. The attacking player may break up the attack into aircraft, heavy missile, regular missile, and sea-skimming missile components and resolve each attack separately, in sequence desired by the attacking player.

Calculate the Strength of all units participating in battle. Units that have a bracketed Strength value with letter “s” may use bracketed Strength instead. Find their ratio and select appropriate CRT column. Maritime patrol aircraft and heavy bombers not using missiles have their anti-surface values quartered.
Among the attackers, determine the Prevailing and Highest Surface value, calculate their average.
Among the defenders, determine the Prevailing and Highest Area AA value, calculate their average. (Note that in case of two surface TFs exchanging strikes, each plays the role of attacker and defender simultaneously, with both battles resolved separately but effects being implemented simultaneously).
If the attack prevailingly consists of sea-skimming missiles, non-sea-skimmer-capable Area AA is reduced to 0, and sea-skimmer-capable Area AA is quartered (round fractions down).
If the attack prevailingly consists of regular missiles, non-sea-skimmer capable Area AA is halved, while sea-skimmer capable Area AA is unchanged.
If the attack is by heavy missiles or aircraft, Area AA is unchanged.

Calculate the difference between attacker and defender Surface and Air values, use as a column shift in favor of the higher average side.
Find the Highest Surface Detection value (or, if the opposition uses aircraft, the highest Air detection value) on each side.
Compare the two sides' Air Detection values (use the highest values present in the hex). If the side's value is higher, use the difference as a positive Survivability modifier (up to maximum of +4). If the value is lower, use the difference divided by 2 as a negative Survivability modifier (up to maximum of -2).


Roll for each surface ship unit on the CRT, using the armor modifier when applicable. Units with F Survivability values add 4 if in coastal hexes, while units with C values subtract 2. If the prevailing enemy strength of the attack consists of air units or missile-firing ships, apply Survivability modifiers as follows:

Use Point Defense value as a CRT die roll modifier. If the attack is predominantly by sea-skimming missiles, use a -6 modifier if the Point Defense is not sea-skimmer capable (such PD values are marked by "s"). Units which have sea skimmer-capable PD suffer only a -2 modifer vs sea-skimmer attacks. If attacks are by manned aircraft and/or by heavy (h) missiles, multiply PD by 1.5 (round fractions up). If the attack is by supersonic (f) missiles, divide PD by 2 (round fractions down).

Attacks by Heavy (h) missiles against FAC-type units are quartered. Armor modifiers are halved against attacks by Heavy missiles.

If the Tech level of the target ship is higher than the Prevailing Tech of the attackers, use the difference x 2 as a positive modifier. If it is higher than the Highest Tech of the attackers, use difference x 4 as a positive modifier. If it is lower than the Prevailing Tech, use the difference x 2 as a negative modifier.

If Crew Quality of target ship is higher than the Prevailing Crew Quality of attackers, use the difference x 2 as a positive modifier. If it is higher than the Highest CQ of the attackers, use difference x 4 as a positive modifier. If it is lower than the Prevailing CQ, use the difference x 2 as a negative modifier.

Air units not using stand-off attacks must also check for damage using the following procedure. CRT column for resolving aircraft losses is the reverse of the final column used to resolve ship losses (e.g., if surface ships had to roll on the 3:1 column, aircraft must roll on the 1:3 column). Survivability die roll modifiers include Detection (as during attacks on surface ships), ECM, and the average of prevailing and highest Point Defense Survivability modifiers on the surface ships being attacked. Aircraft type survivability modifiers are not used. Heavy Bombers and maritime patrol aircraft on anti-ship missions (unit code HB) not using anti-ship missiles suffer from an additional –4 modifier.

After resolving missile and air attacks, resolve Gunnery battles as follows:
Only surface units may be targeted by Gunnery attacks. In order for a gunnery battle to take place, at least one of the players must wish to initiate one. His forces must be in the same hex as the target units. Enemy units must be detected, must not have Detection superiority (defined as having a higher Highest Detection value), and must have Dash speed no higher than the units initiating gunnery combat.

Gunnery combat is carried out as follows: calculate the total size of units participating in the battle (all surface vessels that are not fast enough to avoid combat must participate), determine the Prevailing and Highest Gunnery values on both sides and apply appropriate column shifts. Do same for Prevailing and Highest Survivability modifiers. Roll for each surface unit using the armor modifier (if any).

SECOND MOVEMENT PHASE
Conducted as the First Movement Phase, but Detection is not checked for. All air units other than Search units are returned to their bases and do not participate in the Second Movement Phase.

ADVANCED/OPTIONAL RULES

Air Defense Swamping: if the total Size of air units attacking a surface naval TF exceeds the Highest Air rating of that TF, the Highest and Prevailing Air value average is halved.

Close Escort:
Surface vessels may operate as close escorts to other surface vessels. No more than one naval unit may close escort another. The escorted vessel is treated as having the same Point Defense survivability modifier as the escort, and receives an additional +2 Survivability modifier. Close escorting vessel suffers from a -2 survivability modifier against all types of attacks.

Coastal Bombardment and Land-Attack Missiles:
Naval units equipped with guns may deliver gunfire support to amphibious landings and attack land targets with cruise missiles. Gunnery ratings may be used as Fire Support points by units located in land hexes adjacent to water. Land-attack missile ratings may be used for purposes of Interdiction.

ECM Aircraft:
Aircraft equipped with jamming and electronic warfare equipment have an ECM value in the Special column. If this rule is used, ECM value is added as an additional positive Survivability modifier for every friendly air unit in the hex, and half of the ECM value (fractions rounded down) is used as a negative Survivability modifier for every enemy air unit in the hex. Only 1 air unit can use its ECM effect per hex.

Emissions Control (EmCon): Surface warships may regulate their electronic (radar, radio) emissions in order to minimize own detectability (and, in the process, reducing their ability to detect other threats). Surface task forces may have EmCon levels of A (minimum emissions), B, or C (unlimited emissions). Use the following table to determine detection modifier to be used by other units during surface unit detection attempts:

Spotting Unit

EmCon A

EmCon B

EmCon C

EmCon A, any submarine

-4

-2

+2

EmCon B

-2

-1

+2

EmCon C, air units

-1

0

+2

If a unit was forced to defend itself against air and/or missile attack this turn, its EmCon is automatically raised to C.

Littoral Hexes:
These are hexes which border land areas (including archipelagoes). The following special rules apply:
Any surface unit in a littoral hex adjacent to enemy-held land hex is automatically Detected. Detection-based column shifts are halved (fractions rounded down). Missile-firing aircraft on anti-ship missions are subjected to Area air defense. Air units may not use their air-to-ground missile Survivability modifiers. Units with Strength values marked with "c" have their Strength doubled. Units which have a bracketed Strength marked with “f” may use their bracketed strength in anti-surface warfare in littoral hexes.

Mine Warfare: Minefields may be placed only in littoral hexes. The greater the number of mines placed, the higher the minefield number, and the greater the danger to opposing side's ships. Mines are combated by mine countermeasures (MCM) vessels, which are rated by TQ and Tech (oceanic vs. coastal also?).

Minesweeping operations: each MCM unit may attempt to clear mines in one hex per turn. Calculate ratio of MCM size to minefield size, find appropriate column, apply column shift modifier to the right(average of Prevailing and Highest MCM values), and roll for the minefield. H result indicates minefield size has been halved, and E result completely eliminates the minefield.

MCM units must also roll for mine damage using ratio of minefield value and total MCM size, with MCM column shift to the left. MCM units use their MCM value as Survivability modifier when resolving mine attacks.

Mine attacks are resolved during Movement (if unit conducted movement into mined hexes), or during Combat Phase (if it remained in a mined hex). Mine attacks take place whenever a ship enters a mined hex. Calculate the ratio of each ship's size and the mine size (mine being the attacker), find appropriate CRT column, and roll.

The following units are considered capable of minelaying: all maritime patrol aircraft, all submarines, B-52 and B-1 bombers.
Mine strength: multiples of 100 mines laid x Tech multiplier 1: x. .44; 2: x .66; 3: x 1; 4: x 1.5; 5: x 2.25
Minelaying capabilities:
Heavy bombers (B-52, B-1): 2
Maritime patrol aircraft: 1
Submarine: .6
Aircraft must fly to the hex being mined. Mine value for aircraft is for Medium range, and should be halved if the aircraft is flying a Long-range mission, and doubled on Short-range missions. Submarines on minelaying missions may not launch anti-surface attacks until they are replenished at a friendly base.

Munitions Expenditure: Each ship's Area AA and SSM value may be depleted. After every attack using these weapons, roll for the firing unit to determine whether these munitions have been depleted. If the roll is equal to or less than the number, place a Partly Depleted (AA, SSM) marker on the unit. Unit with a Partly Depleted marker may still use its weapons normally, but suffers a ___ modifier on each subsequent Depletion check. If a unit fails a second depletion check, it may not use that type of weapon until replenished in port.
SSM munition expenditure rolls:
Normal SSM strike (full SSM factor used): 6; medium strike (half SSM factor used): 2;  light strike (1/4 SSM factor used): 1
SSMs are considered Depleted after a single failed expenditure roll. No more SSM attacks may be launched by that unit until it is replenished. In addition, the unit may declare an all-out strike, which increases the SSM value by 1 (if original value is 4 or less), 2 (5-8), or 3 (9 or higher). If an all-out strike is launched, SSMs are automatically depleted.

When rolling for Area AA depletion, apply the following modifiers, based on the size of the air strike:
1 or less: -3
1-2: -2
2-3: -1
3-4: 0
4-6: +1
6-8: +2
9+: +3

Also use the modifiers based on the total size of surface units with area air defense participating in the battle:
1-2: +1
2-3: 0
3-4: -1
4-6: -2
6+: -3



Replenishment: Surface ships may replenish their Endurance by spending an entire turn in the same hex as a replenishment vessel, which may restore lost Endurance up to the limit of its own capacity. Munitions may be replenished only in a friendly port. Submarines may not replenish at sea.

Surface-To-Air Missiles vs. Ships: Vessels armed with Area SAMs may use them as anti-ship weapons. Any naval unit with Air value may increase its Gunnery value by 1.

EmCon C Unit Databases:

Warships of NATO and Warsaw Pact, 1980s

NATO and Warsaw Pact Air Units, 1980s



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