UNIT RATING METHODOLOGY
For Boots, Tracks, and Rotors, and Emcon C

Mike J.
The J-8 Shop

GROUND UNITS

A typical ground maneuver unit will have the following notation:
 

Name of Unit
Basic composition. Troop quality, Tech level.
Size Strength Armor Fire Support Air Defense Mobility Doctrine
size rating Overall (Infantry) strength  Average/Highest Armor rating (Average/Highest) AT rating FS points (class) AD points Movement/exploitation points (type of movement) rating

Size: unit's Size rating is equal to the number of company-equivalents in the unit (10 8-man squads, 10 AFVs or other weapon systems) divided by 10, and rounded off to the nearest integer (or, in the case of smaller units, Size<2, to the nearest decimal point). Only armor and infantry company-equivalents are counted. Infantry companies with APCs or IFVs are counted as single companies. Transport helicopter unit Size represents the Size of ground unit it may airlift.

Strength: This is the number of company-equivalents (only armor and infantry company-equivalents are counted) in the unit (10 8-man squads, 10 AFVs or other weapon systems), divided by 10, multiplied by the Troop Quality multiplier (Green: x1 Trained: x1.5 Regular: x 2.25  Veteran: x3.375 Elite: x5 ), and rounded off to the nearest integer (or nearest decimal point in the case of small units). Mechanized infantry units are counted as a single company, i.e., a unit of 10 APCs and 10 infantry squads would count as one company. Calculate the parenthesized infantry strength as above, but by counting only infantry components of the unit. Note that the infantry company-equivalents are accounted for both in the general strength and the parenthesized infantry strength.

Armor: the relative armor/AT level of protection and armor penetration of these vehicles.

Determine the number of AFV companies in the unit and their armor protection, using the following scale:
I: HMG-armed AFVs, such as, BTRs, M113.
II: heavier IFVs (M2/M3 Bradley), CV9040, Puma light
III: ; Soviet 76mm gun, Puma heavy
IV: T-55, T-62, M48, M60; 100mm, 105mm APDS, Leopard 1, AMX-30
V: Early M1, early Leopard 2, most T-64/72/80 variants; advanced 105mm rounds, most 125mm gun rounds, early 120mm APFSDS
VI: M1A1, Leopard 2A4, T-80U, T-90; 120mm APFSDS, late model 125mm APFSDS
VII: M1A1HA, M1A2, Leo 2A5/6, late-model 120mm APFSDS

Calculate the average armor protection rating for the entire unit. For example, a unit with 3 companies of class III tanks and 9 companies of non-mechanized infantry would have the average rating of 3xIII + 9x0/12= .75 rounded off to I.  Note that while non-mechanized infantry companies are counted in the calculation, infantry components of mechanized infantry units are not. All other units are excluded from the calculation. Dedicated AT weapons are not included in this calculation, only armored vehicles. The Highest Armor rating (in parentheses) is simply the highest armor rating found in the unit, provided units so equipped represent at least 1/9th of the strength of the unit. Units which have an average Armor value of 0 and whose AFV components do not have sufficient numbers to qualify for a Highest Armor rating have their 0 Armor value modified by ^. If a major proportion of a unit's AFVs are equipped with laminated, reactive, or other type of special armor, mark their Armor rating with an "s".

Units whose anti-armor capabilities are stronger than own offensive armor capabilities receive an AT (anti-tank) rating. This rating is calculated solely on the basis of the weapons' AT abilities. The second rating is calculated in the same manner as the first, with some changes:
--AFV companies' armor rating are dependent on their most powerful anti-armor weapon. While the first armor rating reflects vehicles' armor, the second reflects their AT weaponry.
--Although the average is calculated normaallly, dedicated AT weapons or vehicles (ATGMs, AT guns, dedicated ATGM carriers other than helicopters) do not have their company-equivalents added to the total. Instead, each company-equivalent of AT weapons is treated as raising the AT value of a maneuver company (usually infantry) to the level of the AT weapon's. For example, each 10-weapon ATGM company-equivalent is treated as raising an infantry company's AT rating. Therefore, a unit of 10 infantry companies and 5 ATGM company-equivalents would have its average AT rating calculated on the basis of 5 infantry companies with no AT value, and 5 infantry companies with AT ratings equal to that of the ATGMs'.

Highest AT ratings are calculated in the same manner as Highest Armor ratings. Likewise, 0-rating procedures are also applicable to the AT rating.

Helicopter units are rated for  AT (if  equipped with ATGMs). They are given an armor rating only if armed with weapons for use against soft targets (cannon, rockets). Unarmored helicopters are given a 0^ rating, to signify they are capable of attacking soft targets (and other helicopters), while armored helicopters are give a 1 rating.

Fire Support:
Calculate the number of artillery battalions (multiples of 18 guns or launchers). This is the unit FS Size.
Unit FS value is calculated as follows:
Determine the prevailing type of artillery weapon in the unit. Multiply 1 by applicable modifiers:
75-90mm: x1
90-105mm: x1.5
122-130mm: x2.25
140-160mm: x3.375
180mm: x 5
203mm: x7.5
240mm+: x11

Range: under 10km: x.66
10-20km: x1
20-30km: x1.5
30-40km: x2.25
40-60km: x3.75
60+km: x5

Tech: use standard Tech multipliers
TQ: use standard TQ multipliers

TQ: Green: x1 Trained: x1.5 Regular: x 2.25  Veteran: x3.375 Elite: x5 
Tech: 1: x. .44; 2: x .66; 3: x 1; 4: x 1.5; 5: x 2.25


Calculate square root. The result is the FS value. Record FS value in parentheses.

FS values from weapons under 100mm are marked with a L, from, 203mm are marked with a H. Rocket artillery units are marked with "r".

Organic fire support value:
Organic Fire Support: This refers to ability to project HE fires by direct fire or short-range indirect fire weapons (light mortars, etc.) organic to companies and battalions.

Base value is 0. Add following modifiers:
per mortar battery per battalion: +1
Mortars are 107mm or larger: +1
Extensive provision of heavy weapons platoons (equipped with automatic grenade launchers, 50mm mortars, etc.): +1

Unit is an armor unit with main guns less than 100mm: +1.
Unit is an armor unit wth main guns 100mm or heavier: +2.

The result is the organic FS value. Record it in [ ] brackets.


Tech Level: This variable seeks to quantify the less tangible but nevertheless important qualitative factors, such as the quality and effectiveness of communications systems and other electronics, presence of "leading edge" technologies, etc.

Level 5: "Digital" forces utilizing stealth technology, near real-time communications, widespread use of homing munitions. Forces at that level include: US Army from approx. 2004 onward, most "high end" European militaries (France, Germany, Italy, Great Britain, Spain, Sweden, etc.), Japan, Israel and Australia from 2007+.
Level 4: Composite armors, thermal imaging sights, extensive communications networks, etc. "High-end" NATO and Warsaw Pact armies and other forces sharing a similar technology level reached that level in the late '70s or early '80s.
Level 3: "High-end" NATO and Warsaw Pact forces in the '60s and early '70s.
Level 2: Germany, US, Great Britain during WW2, most NATO and WP forces during 1950s and early 1960s. Extensive radio use.
Level 1: WW1-level technology. Reliance on wire communications.

Air Defense:

Air defense unit size is the number of air defense batteries the unit has. Area air defense value is calculated as follows:

Multiply 1 by
TQ: Green: x1 Trained: x1.5 Regular: x 2.25  Veteran: x3.375 Elite: x5 
Tech: 1: x. .44; 2: x .66; 3: x 1; 4: x 1.5; 5: x 2.25
Engagement rate low x.66; medium x1, high x1.5, very high x2.25
Range 10-20km: x 1.0
Range 20-40km: x 1.5
Range 40km-90: x 2.25
Range: 90-150km: x 3.375
Calculate square root. The result is the Area AA value. Therefore a unit with Area AD value would look as follows: 4 (3), with 4 being the number of batteries and 3 the AA value.

Organic air defense:
per air defense battery (6 systems) per brigade: +1
Has air defense systems with range over 10km: +1
Tech: 1: -2, 2: -1, 3: 0; 4+ +1;  5: +2
TQ: Green =2, Trained -1, Regular 0, Veteran +1, Elite +2
Largely self-propelled systems: +1

The result is the organic AD value, recorded in [ ] brackets.

Mobility Rating:

  Green Trained Experienced Veteran Elite
Foot 1/1 1/1 2/1 2/1 2/1
Horse 2/1 2/1 2/2 2/2 2/2
 Mechanized 3/3 4/3 4/4 5/4 5/4

Helicopter movement ratings are based on the helicopter radius of action.

Doctrine: Combination of troop quality, tech level, and mobility rating, factors that decide a ground unit's effectiveness in fluid combat situations.

Baseline value of 0.
Troop Quality: Green 0, Trained 1, Regular 2, Veteran 3, Elite 4
Tech Level:  add tech level number, 1 through 5.
Mobility: Foot: +0, Horse cavalry: +1 Mechanized: +2, heliborne: +3

If a unit includes subunits that do not all have the same characteristics (for example, an infantry division with a motorized brigade, or an armored division with an attack helicopter battalion), calculate Doctrine for the prevailing units of the force, and calculate a separate Doctrine for the "high-end" minority subunits. Record both Doctrine values on the unit status template, putting the minority Doctrine in parentheses.


Special Ground Unit Types:
Helicopter and airmobile: These units may be rated either as single entities (in cases where helicopters are permanently attached), or with helicopter units rated separately. Transport helicopters do not count toward Strength, and their Size represents the size of unit they may lift. Helicopters capable of taking large vehicles are treated as Heavy (H), while helos that can carry only troops and very light vehicles are considered Light (L). Size rating of transport helos is marked accordingly.

Attack helos do not have a Size rating.

Special Operations:
Rating for a company-sized SO element (approx. 100 troops). Troop Quality x Tech level
(as for Troop Quality, with 1, 1.5, 2.25, 3.375, and 5 for Tech Levels 1-5, respectively). Guerrilla forces are rated in the same manner.

Land-based Ballistic/Cruise Missile Units:
Missile weight .5-1 ton: .75 per missile. 1-2 tons: 1.5; 2-3 tons: 2.5; 3-4 tons: 3.5; 4-8 tons: 6 per missile. 8+ tons: 12 per missile.
Multiply this value by the total number of missiles (counting missile reloads as half of their actual number). Multiply by Troop Quality, ship type, and Tech Level multipliers.
Troop quality (TQ): Green: x1 Trained: x1.5 Regular: x 2.25  Veteran: x3.375 Elite: x5 
Tech: 1: x. .44; 2: x .66; 3: x 1; 4: x 1.5; 5: x 2.25

Divide by 10, calculate square root.
Unit's range:
0-100km: 0; 150-350: 1; 350+: 2
Record under Fire Support, as follows: {missile value; range}

AIR  UNITS

Type determines what orders a unit may be given. Following types are available:
Fighter (F): air-to-air role mainly, little or no training or equipment for ground support role.
Fighter-bomber (FB): multirole aircraft.
Attack (A): aircraft specializing in ground support.
Bomber (B): aircraft with no air-to-air capability, and possibly not always suited to ground support.
Surveillance (S): AEW, maritime patrol aircraft.

Air units are rated by 10-aircraft increments, except when directed otherwise. Methodology described below is for a 10-plane air unit "step".

Size: multiples of 10 aircraft. Calculate to 1 decimal point, i.e., 15 aircraft equal 1.5 size.

Detection: calculated as a sum for aircraft with air or surface search/surveillance radars (radar-equipped fighters and attack aircraft are not eligible):
Crew Quality (Green 0, Trained 1, Regular 2, Veteran 3 Elite 4) plus Tech (Tech level minus 1) plus:
Small search aircraft +3, large specialized search aircraft (AWACS, P-3, Atlantic) +4.

Air: Multiply 1 by the following
Agility: Very Low 1, Low 1.5, Medium 2.25, High 3.375, Very High 5
TQ: Green: x1 Trained: x1.5 Regular: x 2.25  Veteran: x3.375 Elite: x5 
Tech: 1: x. .44; 2: x .66; 3: x 1; 4: x 1.5; 5: x 2.25
Heavy fighter (F-15, F-4, F-22, Su-27, Tornado ADV): x1.5
Calculate square root. This is the air rating.

Surface:
Determine maximum number of tons of ordnance per individual aircraft, apply multipliers below.
TQ: Green: x1 Trained: x1.5 Regular: x 2.25  Veteran: x3.375 Elite: x5 
Tech: 1: x. .44; 2: x .66; 3: x 1; 4: x 1.5; 5: x 2.25
Calculate square root. Result is the anti-surface value. If air unit can carry anti-ship missiles, indicate the missile class as on surface ships.

ASW: Multiply 1 by
TQ: Green: x1 Trained: x1.5 Regular: x 2.25  Veteran: x3.375 Elite: x5 
Tech: 1: x. .44; 2: x .66; 3: x 1; 4: x 1.5; 5: x 2.25
ASW suite: basic x 1.5, average x 2.25;  extensive x 3.375
Calculate square root. The result is the unit ASW value. All aircraft ASW values are considered Area ASW and are put in [brackets].

Survivability:
Calculate the sum:
Speed: low subsonic -2, high subsonic -1, supersonic dash 0, supercruise +1, hypersonic +2
TQ: Green: +0 Trained: +1 Regular: +2  Veteran: +3 Elite: +4
Tech: 1: +0; 2: +16; 3: +2; 4: +3; 5: +4
This is the Survivability rating.
Aircraft with partial stealth characteristics receive an s1 survivability modifier, while aircraft with full stealth have an s2.

Missile- or Mission- based Survivability modifier [in brackets]:
Available for aircraft with long-range missiles and with special abilities usable only in some conditions. Missile range: 30-120: +1;  120-300km: +2; 300-500: +3; 500+: +4
Missile codes (multiple types may be possible for each aircraft): a--air, g--ground (non-antiship) s-seaskimmer antiship, r-regular antiship, h-heavy antiship.
Surveillance, ECM, tanker aircraft all have +4 mission-based survivability modifier. Recon aircraft have a +1 mission modifier.
For attack aircraft with terrain-following ability and full all-weather operations capability, add 1. Record the mission-based modifier in [ ] brackets.

Range: Three range bands, Short (quarter of Long), Medium (half of Long), Long. Each hex of range represents radius of action of 250km. Aircraft capable of being refueled in the air are marked with "r".

Special unit abilities:
ECM: Multiply 1 by
TQ: Green: x1 Trained: x1.5 Regular: x 2.25  Veteran: x3.375 Elite: x5 
Tech: 1: x. .44; 2: x .66; 3: x 1; 4: x 1.5; 5: x 2.25
Highly comprehensive ECM suite: x1.5
Small ECM suite: x.66
Round off to the nearest whole number. The result is ECM value.

SEAD: Same process as ECM.

NAVAL UNITS

Basic multipliers:
Troop quality (TQ): Green: x1 Trained: x1.5 Regular: x 2.25  Veteran: x3.375 Elite: x5 
Tech: 1: x. .44; 2: x .66; 3: x 1; 4: x 1.5; 5: x 2.25
Whenever reference is made to TQ and Tech multipliers, use these numbers unless others are specified.

Ship type multipliers:
FAC: x.66
Medium ship: x 1.0
Large ship: x1.5

FACs: under 1000t (Soviet ships up to 1,500t). Small ships: most Soviet-type vessels up to 10ktons, NATO ships under 2000 tons. Large ship: NATO vessels 2ktons and larger, Soviet ships 10ktons and larger.

Basic ship unit size: surface and submarine ship units each represent 1 very large ship (displacement 10ktons and higher), 2 large combatants (approximately 600 tons and larger) and MCM craft, 4 FACs and other small coastal combatants other than MCM craft (under 600t), or 2 submarines smaller than 10ktons.

Naval Unit

Unit type description, troop quality, tech.

Strength

Detection

Air

Surface

ASW

Survivability

Movement

Special

Strength value

Air/
Surface

Area AA {depletion};

 SSM/(msl type) [range]; Gunnery

 ASW value

Tonnage  (point defense)

Movement points (endurance)

MCM


Strength: Same as Troop Quality multiplier, rounded off to the first decimal point. Each ship unit has a strength of 1. Naval vessels optimized for operations in coastal areas have their Strength value followed by "c". Surface units carrying helicopters have a second Strength value in [ ]. If the helicopters are capable of ASW operations, add a to the Strength value, if they can carry anti-ship missiles (not counting Sea Skua, AS-15, AS-12-type short-range missiles) add s, and if they can carry light anti-ship weapons (Sea Skua, unguided rockets, cannon, etc.) usable against fast attack craft, add f. Each helicopter counts as .1 strength point (exceptions: light helicopters like AB-212 count as .075 points, heavy helicopters like Sea King or EH-101 count as 0.125 strength points).

Detection (surface and air): calculated as a sum:
Crew Quality (Green 0, Trained 1, Regular 2, Veteran 3 Elite 4) plus Tech (Tech level minus 1) plus: fac (+0), med ship (+1), large ship  (+2, must have dedicated air defense system to qualify for +2 air). If helicopters present, add 1 to surface detection, air detection only if AEW helos present. Aircraft-carrying ships (including aircraft carriers) that carry search aircraft with separate detection ratings (including Hawkeye AEW) are considered to have the same detection value as their aircraft.

Aircraft with no specialized search systems have no detection rating. Small search aircraft +3, large specialized search aircraft (AWACS, P-3, Atlantic) +4.

Submarines have no air detection ratings, and detect surface ships as FACs.

Air value:

Area air defense: Multiply 1 by
TQ: Green: x1 Trained: x1.5 Regular: x 2.25  Veteran: x3.375 Elite: x5 
Tech: 1: x. .44; 2: x .66; 3: x 1; 4: x 1.5; 5: x 2.25
Engagement rate low x.66; medium x1, high x1.5, very high x2.25 (AEGIS and similar only)
Ship type multipliers FAC: x.66; Medium ship: x 1.0; Large ship: x1.5
Range 10-20km: x 1.0
Range 20-40km: x 1.5
Range 40km-90: x 2.25
Range: 90-150km: x 3.375
If for a two-ship unit, multiply by 2. If for a 4-ship unit, multiply by 4. Calculate square root. The result is the Area AA value.

Point Defense, enclosed in [ ]:
Ship with no point defense weapons, apart from some visually-aimed cannon, and no ECM/decoy system: -6
Weak PD (few or no weapons, but with ECM/decoys): 0
Moderate PD (at least 1 Sea-Sparrow, Crotale, SA-N-4 system, a number of radar-controlled guns of at least 40mm): 2
Strong: several gun- and missile-based PD systems: 4
FACs that qualify for Strong PD are treated as having Moderate, and FACs that qualify for Moderate are treated as having Weak PD.

Sea-skimmer capable: marked with "s".

Surface
Multiply 1 by
Calculate the SSM strike value as follows:
Missile weight .5-1 ton: .75 per missile. 1-2 tons: 1.5; 2-3 tons: 2.5; 3-4 tons: 3.5; 4-8 tons: 6 per missile. 8+ tons: 12 per missile.
Multiply this value by the total number of missiles (counting missile reloads as half of their actual number). Multiply by Troop Quality, ship type, and Tech Level multipliers.
Troop quality (TQ): Green: x1 Trained: x1.5 Regular: x 2.25  Veteran: x3.375 Elite: x5 
Tech: 1: x. .44; 2: x .66; 3: x 1; 4: x 1.5; 5: x 2.25
Ship type multipliers: FAC: x.66; Small ship: x 1.0; Large ship: x1.5

Dual-use missiles (for example, the Soviet SS-N-14 ASW missile with secondary SSM capability) are halved.

Divide by 10, calculate square root. This is the SSM value. Missiles capable of sea-skimming attacks have "s" added to their designation, missiles between 1 and 4 tons are Regular ("r"), and missiles heavier than 4 tons are considered Heavy ("h"). Supersonic missiles are marked with "f".

Range: 0-100km: 0; 150-350: 1; 350+: 2

Land-attack missiles: strike values calculated as anti-ship missiles, except no air defense penetration rating. Land-attack values are indicated by "L" after missile value.

Gunnery: Multiply 1 by

Number of barrels: 1: x1; 2-3: x1.5; 4-6: x2.25; 7+: x3.35
Caliber: 57-76mm: x.44;  85-90: x.66; 100-114: x1; 120-130: x1.5; 152: x2.25; 203: x3.375; 406mm: x5
TQ: Green: x1 Trained: x1.5 Regular: x 2.25  Veteran: x3.375 Elite: x5 
Tech: 1: x. .44; 2: x .66; 3: x 1; 4: x 1.5; 5: x 2.25 (Tech 5 is reachable only with guided munitions)
Small ship x.66;  Med ship x1, Large ship x1.5
ROF slow x1; medium x1.5; high x2.25
Calculate square root, subtract 2. The result is Gunnery value.

ASW: Multiply 1 by
TQ: Green: x1 Trained: x1.5 Regular: x 2.25  Veteran: x3.375 Elite: x5 
Tech: 1: x. .44; 2: x .66; 3: x 1; 4: x 1.5; 5: x 2.25
ASW suite: basic x 1.0, average x 1.5;  extensive x 2.25
Small ship x.66, Medium ship x1, Large ship: x 1.5
Very Loud x.44, Loud x.66, Noisy x1, Quiet x1.5, Very Quiet x2.25
Area ASW: fixed wing aircraft and submarines. Point ASW: everything else.
Values calculated for individual ships. Multiply by 2 for 2-ship units (under 10ktons), by 4 for 4-ship units (FACs). If a ship unit carries a large ASW aircraft or helicopter complement (5 or more), calculate their Strength, add to the ship unit Strength, and put in parentheses. This Strength value is used only for ASW purposes.
Calculate square root. The result is the unit ASW value.

Submarine anti-ship attack value: Multiply 1 by
TQ: Green: x1 Trained: x1.5 Regular: x 2.25  Veteran: x3.375 Elite: x5 
Tech: 1: x. .44; 2: x .66; 3: x 1; 4: x 1.5; 5: x 2.25
Heavyweight (533mm) torpedoes: x1.5; SSMs or superheavy torpedoes: x2.25
Small ship x.66, Medium ship x1, Large ship: x 1.5
Slow x1, Medium x1.5, Fast x2.25
If unit represents 2 subs, multiply by 2.
Calculate square root.


Munitions Depletion numbers:

SAM: 8-16: 8; 17-32: 6; 33-64: 4; 65-128: 2; 119+: 1

SSM: no depletion number. Depletion depends on the intensity of missile strike (see Munitions Depletion rule).

Torpedoes (submarines only): 4-8: 8; 10-16: 6; 18-32: 4; 34+: 2

Survivability:

All ships fall into one of three categories, fast attack craft (F), Escort (E), and capital ship (C). FACs are generally vessels under 1,000t, Escorts between 1000 and 10,000t, and capital ships above 10,000t. In addition, armored ships receive a survivability modifier against gunnery and SSM attacks, as follows: light splinter armor +1, cruiser-type armor +3, battleship-type armor +5.

Movement allowance:
One movement point per movement phase equals 4.5 knots of sustained speed during a three-day period. Nuclear vessels have n after their movement allowance, submarines with air-independent propulsion (AIP) are marked with *.

Speed ranges: Slow (up to 2 movement points per phase), Moderate (3-4), Fast (5+)

Endurance: Total number of endurance points is listed. Endurance: 250km (140nm) increments, calculated for Moderate speed endurance. Moderate speed uses up 1 Endurance pt per hex travelled, Dash 3 Endurance points per hex, Slow 1 per movement phase.

Range in thousands of nautical miles and Endurance value
1: 7
2: 15
3: 20
4: 30
5: 35
6: 40
7: 50
8: 55
9: 60
10: 70
11: 80
12: 85
13: 90
14: 95

If a vessel's endurance is given for speeds around 9-10 knots, halve the endurance value given above.

Mine countermeasures (MCM):
Rated per 2-ship minehunter/minesweeper unit. Multiply by usual Troop Quality and Tech multipliers.

Mike J.
=====
The J-8 Shop
Wargame Rules, Variants, and Orders of Battle
http://www.geocities.com/pmj6/

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