BOOTS, TRACKS, AND ROTORS
"Rotor is to track as track is to boot" --Brigadier Richard Simpkin

 
Mike J.
The J-8 Shop

MAIN RULES

v. 1.2

Modern-era operational-level air/land wargame.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Game Scale

Game Units

Turn Sequence
Order Phase
Movement

Combat Resolution
Combat Resolution Table
Advanced Rules


OTHER GAME FILES
Emcon-C:  Naval companion to BT&R
Unit Rating Methodology
Detailed Sequence of Play

Unit Ratings
1990s: France | Iraq | Russia

1980s:
Ground Combat Units, NATO Central Front, 1980s.
Air Units, NATO and Warsaw Pact, 1980s
Naval Units of NATO and Warsaw Pact, 1980s

Orders of Battle:
Air Units, NATO, Warsaw Pact, and Neutral States, 1980s (by Peter Grining)
 

 GAME SCALE AND DEFINITIONS
Each turn represents approximately 3 days of operations. The game can be played on a hex map, using cardboard counters to represent brigade-sized formations (with occasional separate battalions) and aircraft squadrons, or as a miniatures game, with each inch or cm representing approximately 25km of actual terrain (depending on the scale of miniatures used) and individual vehicle and soldier miniatures representing battalions. 

There are two types of hexes in use in BT&R. The "ground war" is fought on hexes representing 25km or so. In additionr, the game uses the concept of Operational Hexes (OpHexes) of 250km, using a map system introduced by Victory Games' Gulf Strike and Aegean Strike games, which superimpose such "super-hexes" on a standard map. OpHexes are used for the purpose of determining air superiority, combat initiative, supply and other factors.

Prevailing and Highest: These rules use terms Prevailing and Highest in regard to various combat characteristics (technology level, detection capabilities, etc.). In such cases, a value is said to be Prevailing if it is represented by the greatest number of units of one side participating in the specific engagement. Highest value is, as the term implies, the highest combat value of its kind among units participating in that engagement on that side. For example, if a force consists of one tech level 3, two tech level 4, and one tech level 5 units, tech level 4 is considered to be Prevailing, and Tech level 5 to be the Highest.

GAME COMPONENTS
At present BT&R does not include unit counters, maps, and other items. Since BT&R project started as an effort to update/modify Gulf Strike/Aegean Strike rules, many of the components from these games may be used (especially maps) may be used in BT&R. However, in the future BT&R will be updated with dedicated game components, with the exception of maps.

GAME UNITS
There are three types of units, Maneuver, Support, and Air. Maneuver units include combined arms units ranging from battalion to division in size.

Soviet Tank Division, Category I, 1980s
Three tank regiments, 1 motor rifle regiment, 1 artillery regiment, supporting units. T-80BV/T-72B/T-64BV MBTs, BMP-1 and -2 IFVs, BTR-70 and -80 APCs, 2S1 and 2S3 SP howitzers. Regular, Tech Level 4 unit.
Size Strength Armor Fire Support Air Defense Mobility Doctrine
5 11 (5) III/VIs (IV/VI) 7 (3) [2] [5] 4/4 M 8

Size: represents the approximate relative size, in terms of number of troops and weapon systems, of the unit.
Strength: The unit's combat strength. The parenthesized strength value represents the unit's combat power residing in its infantry component.

Armor:
   Armored mobility and firepower rating of the unit. Value before the slash is the Average Armor rating, after the slash is the Highest Armor rating. Ratings in parentheses, when present, represent the unit's anti-tank capabilities. "s" indicates Special armor type (composite or reactive), * modifying AT values indicates the unit's antitank firepower comes predominantly from ATGMs and/or AT guns.
Fire Support: the unit’s ability to deliver indirect fire. The first value is the Size of fire support elements within the unit, the second is the Fire Support Value, and the bracketed number is the Organic Fire Support value.
Air Defense:
A bracketed value represents Organic AD value. Unbracketed values means the unit has Area AD capabilities. The first number is the size of AD elements, and the parenthesized number is the Area AD value.
Mobility:
represents number of movement points. The first value is the number of points to be used in Movement Phase, the second in Exploitation Phase. The letter represents mobility type. Helicopter units have two mobility values, one representing the movement capabilities of the helicopters (mobility type A), and the other the movement capabilities of the helo unit's ground echelon. See Helicopters Advanced rule for more details.
Doctrine: a measure of the unit's relative combat agility and swiftness in executing operations.

Support unit are mostly air defense and artillery units, which do not have Strength to add in battle, but provide support in the form of air defense or indirect fire.
 

Soviet Army-level Artillery Brigade, Category I, 1980s
Up to 5 battalions of self-propelled 152mm howitzers or guns. Regular, Tech 4
Size Strength Armor Fire Support Air Defense Mobility Doctrine
-- -- -- 6 (4)
-- 4/4 M --

Air units represent squadrons, wings, or regiments.
 

Soviet MiG-23 Regiment
40 MiG-23 fighters. Regular, Tech 3.

Size

Detection

Air

Surface

ASW

Survivability

Movement

Special

4 F
--
3
2
--
4 [1a]
1/2/4

Size: Multiples of 10 aircraft. F indicates a fighter unit.
Detection: Ability to detect air (first number) and ground (second number) units.
Air: Unit's relative ability to engage enemy aircraft.
Surface: Effectiveness against ground targets.
ASW: Effectiveness against submarines.
Survivability: relative ability to avoid being destroyed.
Movement: short, medium, and long range of the aircraft, in OpHexes.
Special: various special abilities.


SEQUENCE OF PLAY

1. Operational Phase
2. Order Phase
3. Air Superiority Phase
4. Movement Phase
5. Combat Phase
6. Exploitation Phase
7. End Phase

Operational Phase
Attempt to place Supply depots (see Supply Advanced Rule)

Determine Supply status (see Supply Advanced Rule)

Attempt to Reconstitute units (see Reconstituting Units Advanced Rule)

Divide by 4 the number of Interdiction points in each OpHex.

Attempt to Infiltrate/exfiltrate SpecOps forces (see SpecOps Advanced Rule)

Determine Area AD in each OpHex for both sides.


Order Phase

At the beginning of each Order Phase, each player issues new orders for each unit for the turn. Orders are placed in the followinq sequence: Administrative Advance, Hasty Advance, Deliberate Advance, Prepared Advance, all Defense postures.

Possible orders (or Postures) are Administrative Advance, Hasty Advance, Deliberate Advance, Hasty Defense, Deliberate Defense, Prepared Defense. Each unit receives 1 order per turn and all units belonging to that order group are in that posture until their next activation impulse. Disrupted units may be given only Hasty Defense orders and may not conduct any movement.

Hasty Advance (HA): Units spend movement points normally. May not be given to units with Deliberate or Prepared Defense orders.  Entering this posture costs half of the unit's movement points if previous posture is other than Hasty or Administrative Advance.

Deliberate Advance (DA): Units spend twice the normal movement points per hex. Units in this posture may advance into a hex vacated by retreating or withdrawing opposing units. May not be given to units with Deliberate or Prepared Defense orders.

Prepared Advance (PA): May be issued only to units with DA orders that did not participate in battles during previous turn. Units that conducted offensive operations while in PA posture must downgrade to DA, HD, or HA the following turn. No Movement allowed except for advancing into hexes vacating by destroyed/retreating opposing forces.

Hasty Defense (HD): May be given to units in any Posture.

Deliberate Defense (DD): May be issued to any unit with HD orders. Units with those orders may not move (except to retreat) or initiate battle. They may not move into vacated hexes.  Units with DD orders that performed offensive operations must downgrade to HD or HA during the following turn. Entering any Advance posture from PD costs half of the unit's movement points.

Prepared Defense (PD): May be issued only to units with DD orders. Units with those orders may not move or initiate battle. They may not move except to retreat.  Entering any Advance posture from PD costs half of the unit's movement points.

Administrative Advance (AA): Unit may use the road movement rates. It may not enter hexes adjacent to opposing units or initiate battles. Units in contact with opposing ground forces may not be enter AA posture. Entering this posture costs half of the unit's movement points, unless previous posture is Hasty Advance.

Air Superiority

Air units begin turn in eligible OpHexes (friendly-controlled OpHexes containing an airbase).

Assign air unit orders.

Air-to-Air missions:
CAP (Combat Air Patrol): May be sent out to Short range normally. In order to maintain CAP at medium range, at least two units of similar type and size must be assigned such orders per OpHex, but only one of them may participate in combat (and absorb casualties). Ranges may be extended using aerial refuellling (see below).
Escort: May be sent out to Short, Medium, or Long Range with no penalties.
Air units which have their Air rating in { } may not be given either Escort or CAP missions.

Air-to-Ground missions:
Strike: may be sent to Short (air-to-ground value unchanged) ,Medium (air-to-ground value halved), or Long range (air-to-ground value quartered).

Support missions (may be carried out only by air units which have these characteristics listed in the Special box):
Recon: provide a modifier for Interdiction rolls.
ECM: reduce opposing air defense and air-to-air combat abilities.
SEAD: suppression of opposing air defenses.
Refuel: extends the range of supported air units.
In-flight refueling-capable air units may use aerial tankers to extend their range. Provided a tanker is within range (given current orders) of the basing hex of the air unit, the air unit may treat the OpHex where a friendly tanker is present as the basing hex for the purpose of range. For example, an air unit with medium range of 4 and Strike orders could fly to an OpHex located within 4 hexes of the basing hex, and then fly to any OpHex located within 4 hexes of the tanker. Each tanker Size point can support up to 10 tactical air unit size points, or 1 strategic size point (Heavy Bomber units only).

Air Movement:
Both players simultaneously place units with Offensive orders on the operational map. Then they do same for units with defensive missions. Destination hex must be within range of the basing hex of the air unit.

Air combat:

Resolve air superiority in each hex as follows:

Segregate each side's air units in the Ophex into the following groups:
CAP air-to-air missions
Escort air-to-air missions
Air-to-ground missions

Due to the nature of the missions, aircraft with Escort orders may not engage one another (the aircraft are spending comparatively little time over the target area, in contrast with CAP missions which represent full-time air cover). The air battle in each OpHex is therefore resolved as several battles:

Each side's combined Escort and CAP force attacks the other side's CAP size (Defender). Once that battle is resolved, each side's surviving CAP force (Attacker) attacks the other side's Escort and Strike force (Defender).

In each case, only the defender in the battle rolls for casualties (it is therefore possible to have up to 4 "separate" air battles in each OpHex, depending on what missions opposing sides' individual air units have).

To resolve each of these air battles:
Calculate total Strength of all participating air units, determine their ratio and choose the appropriate column on the CRT.
Compare the two sides' Air Detection values (use the highest values present in the hex). Consult the Modifier Table and use the difference as a column shift in favor of the superior side. Presence of a friendly Supply Depot (see Supply Optional/Advanced Rule below) reduces the column shift by 1 if the opposing side has AEW aircraft in the hex. If the opposing side has no AEW in the hex, Supply Depot presence results in a 1-column shift in favor of the owning side.
Determine the Prevailing and Highest Air value of each side, calculate their average. Air units on Strike missions are considered to have Air value of 0.
Calculate the difference between the two averages, use it as a column shift in favor of the higher side.
Roll for each air unit using the following modifiers:
 
Compare the two sides' highest ECM level, find the difference, consult the Modifier Table. Apply result as a survivability modifier. Presence of Supply Depots has a similar effect as for Detection, but the result is a modifier, not a column shift.

Air units may use their missile-based Survivability modifiers (values in square brackets followed by "a" or without any letters) if their side has the highest Air Detection value in the hex. Air units with Surveillance or air-to-ground missions may use their mission- or missile-based based modifiers in similar fashion. The mission based modifiers are enclosed in { }, while missile based modifiers have the following values: "a" (air-to-air missiles), "g" (air-surface missiles), "r" (anti-radar missiles), "s" (sea-skimming anti-ship), or "h" (heavy anti-ship). regardless of detection level. Missile-based modifiers may be used only if the air unit is performing a mission that would require this type of missile. Mission-based modifiers may be used regardless of whose side has the highest air detection value in the hex.

Determine the highest and prevailing Survivability modifiers per hex (add mission-based modifiers, when applicable), taking into consideration only those units that are participating in the specific stage of the air battle (e.g., in the Escort and CAP vs CAP battle, ignore Survivability values of defender's Escort units and of Strike units on both sides). Compare each air unit's with the other side's prevailing and highest air values and apply a survivability modifer as follows:
Survivability higher than enemy's Highest: x2 the difference, positive modifier
Higher than enemy's prevailing: the difference as positive modifier.
Lower than enemy's prevailing: x2 the difference, negative modifier.

Stealthy aircraft add their stealth rating to their survivability modifier. If there are stealty air-to-air units in the OpHex, opposing air units use as a negative Survivability modifier half (rounded down) of prevailing Stealth rating if stealthy air units represent less than half of that side's air to air units, or full stealth rating if such air units represent the majority of air to air units.

<>Air Defense:
The remaining air units in the hex are now exposed to enemy Area air defenses in the OpHex.

First, resolve SEAD attacks on opposing air defenses.
Calculate the total Size of SEAD units in the OpHex. Select a column on the CRT.

1-2: 1:3
2-3: 1:2
4-5: 1:1.5
6-7: 1:1
8-10: 1:1.5
10-15: 2:1
15-25: 3:1
36+: 4:1

Find the average of prevailing and highest SEAD values. The result is a negative survivability modifier used by Air Defense units.

Roll for each area air defense unit in the OpHex, applying the survivability modifier from above. Use the right-subcolumns on the CRT. Also apply posture modifiers from Posture Effects Chart below.

After resolving SEAD attacks, resolve air defense fires against air units as follows:
Calculate the total strength of enemy air defense units in the OpHex. Ignore Organic air defenses.
Select a column on the CRT using the same methodology as for SEAD.
Find the average of Prevailing and Highest Air Defense values. Consult Modifier Table and use it as a negative Survivability modifier for air units.

Roll for each air unit in the OpHex.
Use the right-subcolumns on the CRT. Apply following additional modifiers:
Individual aircraft Survivability modifier: find modifier using the Modifier Table below. Aircraft belonging to players whose highest Air Detection value in the hex is not lower then the enemy's may use Mission-based Survivability modifiers.
ECM modifier: pick highest ECM value per hex, consult Modifier Table, use as a positive modifier
SEAD modifier: determine highest SEAD value in the hex, consult Modifier Table, use as a positive modifier.
Unit on an air superiority mission: +2
Stealthy aircraft with s1 value receive only half of the regular negative survivability modifier from enemy area AD. Aircraft with s2 value ignore area AD. Stealth benefits are lost if any enemy area AD units have higher Tech than the air unit.

Casualties are applied normally, per CRT (see below). The owning player may avert an Eliminated result by voluntarily aborting one other air unit of at least the same Size, in which case the unit is Halved, rather than Eliminated. Halved units revert to Aborted if one other air unit of at least equal size is also volunterily Aborted. Eliminated, Halved, or Aborted units may not participate in Interdiction or Ground Support missions during that turn.

MOVEMENT PHASE

Movement is carried out in several stages. First units of both sides with Administrative Advance are moved. After all AA-posture units have been moved, players move units with Hasty Advance orders, then with Deliberate Advance orders. Movement is carried out simultaneously. In the event of a conflict (for example, units of opposing side are seeking to occupy a certain hex simultaneously, or a unit is trying to avoid contact with an advancing opposing unit), owner of the formation with the higher prevailing Doctrine rating decides which side's units are going to move first. When a player designates a formation he intends to move, the opposing player, provided he has a formation that has not been yet moved and that higher prevailing Doctrine than the opposing formation about to be moved, and which is within its movement allowance of a hex occupied by the opposing formation, may move his formation first. Formations with Doctrine ratings higher than any opposing ones have the option of being moved either before or after any or all opposing formations have been moved, within each movement order group. Movement may be conducted normally through hexes adjacent to hexes occupied by opposing units.

Each unit has a number of movement points and mobility type recorded on its template. Mobility types are Mechanized (M), Fast Mechanized (FM), Foot (F), Cavalry (C), and Helicopter (H). Cavalry units are treated as Foot, and Fast Mechanized as Mechanized, for the purpose of movement point cost. Helicopters follow special movement rules. See Helicopters advanced rule.

Movement Point Cost: see Terrain Effects Chart.

Zones of Control: Movement through hexes adjacent hexes with total opposing Size of 2 or less is not blocked. When a unit moves into a hex adjacent to a hex with total
Size of at least 3 it must stop and engage the opposing units during the next Combat Phase or move into a hex not adjacent to that hex.

Interdiction:
Moving ground units may be subject to aerial interdiction attacks. These attacks are resolved as soon as the unit begins movement, but before the first hex is entered.

Calculate the total Size of air units with Interdiction missions. Select a column on the CRT (see SEAD resolution above). Find the average of Prevailing and Highest Surface values and determine Survivability modifier (see SEAD resolution above).

Roll for each moving ground unit, applying Survivability modifier from above and the following:
Organic air defense value: consult the Modifier Table and use as a positive modifier
Posture: apply Survivability modifier from the Posture Effects Chart (see below).

The type of damage inflicted depends on the posture of the unit.
Casualties to units in AA posture are applied normally.
Units in DA posture are Disrupted (see Combat Resolution) instead of Halved, and Halved instead of Eliminated.

Bombardment:
Air units and ground-based missile units may conduct bombardments. They are conducted as Interdiction attacks, but may be applied only against units in Defense postures. Use the same posture modifications as for Interdiction, with the following additions: Units in Deliberate and Prepared Defense postures treat Eliminated result as Disrupted. Units in Hasty Defense,  Eliminated as Halved, Halved as Disrupted.

Stacking: At the end of movement, total Size of all units in a hex may not exceed 20. Opposing sides' units may not occupy the same hex.

COMBAT PHASE

A battle is considered to be an engagement between one player's units, located in a single hex or adjacent hexes to the target hex, attacking the target hex occupied by the opposing side's units, plus the opposing player's units in adjacent hexes, if opposing player so chooses. In addition, artillery units on both sides may contribute their FS points. Each battle is resolved separately, in accordance with the sequence described below. The side that declares combat is considered the Attacking side, and it may use only units with Advance posture to participate in a battle. The non-initiating side may use any eligible units, with both Advance and Defense postures.

Certain units (such as area air defense units, which have no Strength, Armor, Infantry, or Artillery values) are eliminated automatically if an opposing unit moves into a hex adjacent to them and no friendly unit capable of ground combat is stacked or in an adjacent hex. Supply markers stacked with or adjacent to other friendly units can be eliminated through combat only when units they are stacked with/adjacent to are eliminated. Unstacked Supply markers is eliminated at the beginning of the following turn's combat phase if an opposing unit occupies an adjacent hex and no friendly units are stacked with it then. An opposing unit must remain adjacent to the Supply marker for an entire turn in order for it to be eliminated.

Determine the type of terrain in which the battle is fought.  Battles are considered to be in terrain of the hex into which the side initiating the battle is attacking.

Determine Strength  

Calculate the total Strength of units on each side participating in the battle (including, when applicable, additional Infantry strengths, per Posture Effects Chart). Infantry multiplier indicates the number of Infantry strength values to be added to the unit Strength in the battle.
Calculate the ratio of the two sides' Strength values. Consult the Posture Effects Chart to determine how many Infantry Strength values to add for each participating unit. Find the Attacker:Defender ratio of the total sum of all the Strength and Infantry Strength values.

Separately, calculate the total Size of both sides' forces.

Posture Effects Chart:


Doctrine
Infantry
Armor
Fire Support
Survivability
Hasty Advance
x 2
x 0
x 1
x 1/2 (x 1/4 if towed)
-2
Deliberate Advance
x 1
x 1
x 1
x 1
0 (+2 if Withdrawal declared)
Prepared Advance
x 1
x 2
x 1
x 2
+2
Hasty Defense
x 1
x 1
x 1
x 1
0
Deliberate Defense
x 1/2
x 2
x 1
x 2
+2
Prepared Defense
x 1/4
x 3
x 1/2
x 2
+4
Administrative Advance
--
x 0
--

-4

Subsequently determine Doctrine, Armor, and FS modifiers.

Doctrine and Armor multipliers are applied to the difference between the two sides averages of Prevailing and Highest values. Consult the modifier table. Use multipliers for both sides of the battle cumulatively (e.g., if a force in Bold Advance posture assaults a force in Deliberate Defense posture, the Doctrine effects multiplier is x 2 x 1/2 = 1). Armor modifier is applied as a positive CRT die roll modifier for the superior side, and a negative modifier for the negative side. The Doctrine modifier takes the form of a column shift in favor of the superior side.

The Fire Support multiplier is applied to Fire Support Strength of each unit under the posture. Survivability modifier is applied when rolling for unit casualties on the CRT.


Units in Administrative Advance posture are assumed to have Armor and Doctrine values of 0.

Modifier Table

Armor, Doctrine, FS Value Differential
Modifier
1
1
2, 3
2
4--6
3
7--10
4
11 and higher
5

Doctrine:
Find the average of Highest and Prevailing Doctrine values for each side, find their, consult the Posture Effects Chart (
use multipliers for both sides of the battle cumulatively e.g., if a force in Bold Advance posture assaults a force in Deliberate Defense posture, the Doctrine effects multiplier is x 2 x 1/2 = 1).and the Terrain Effects Chart, then consult the Modifier Table. The result is the number of column shifts in favor of the higher Doctrine side.

Armor:
Find the average of Highest and Prevailing Armor values for each side, find their difference, consult the Posture Effects Chart,
check the Terrain Effects Chart, then determine the modifier on the Modifier Table. The result is a positive Survivability modifier for units with higher Armor value, and a negative survivability modifier for units with lower Armor value. If one of the sides' sum of prevailing Average and Highest Armor/AT ratings is 0, modifiers are doubled (up to the maximum of 4). This does not apply if the prevailing Average Armor/AT rating is 0*.

Check whether the side with the higher Armor value also has the higher Doctrine value. If not, the Armor modifier is reduced by half of the Doctrine modifier (fractions rounded down). 

Armor ratings may be used in all postures. AT ratings may be used only in Defense postures and in DA posture (with the exception of ATGM-based AT ratings, which are marked with an asterisk).  However, if the opposing force is of inferior Doctrine, regular AT ratings may be used by units in HA posture, and ATGM AT ratings may be used in DA posture. If any units use ATGM AT values, they are considered to be no higher than the opposing side's Highest and/or average Armor values (even if the other side also uses AT values). If one side's predominant Armor values are marked with "s" (indicating special laminated or reactive armor), any ATGM-derived AT values are reduced by 1 level, unless the Tech of the ATGM-using unit is higher than the prevailing Tech of opposing units.

Fire Support:
Calculate the Size of the Fire Support (this includes air units with Ground Support orders, except B and MP-class air units which may not provide such support) elements.
Calculate the average of the Highest and Prevailing FS values--this is the force FS value. Light artillery vs. Deliberate or Prepared defenses is quartered. Heavy artillery and rocket artillery fire against HD or HA postures is halved (heavy rocket artillery is quartered in such circumstances).
Divide the FS Size by the total unit Size. Round off to the nearest integer. If higher than 1, divide the Force FS value by it. If 0, double the Force FS value.
Add the Organic FS value.
Apply posture multiplier.
 
If air units constitute at least half of the size of FS units, or the Highest FS value belongs to an air unit, the opposing side's ground units' Prevailing Organic AA value is used to find a positive modifier on the Modifier Table.
Find the difference between the two sides' final value, consult the Terrain Effects Chart and the modifier table.The result is a positive Survivability modifier for the higher FS side, and a negative FS modifier for the lower FS side. Check whether the side with the higher FS value also has the higher Doctrine value. If not, the FS modifier is reduced by half of the Doctrine modifier (fractions rounded down).


Resolve Combat

Left subcolumn is used by the Attacker, the right subcolumn by the Defender. Roll for each ground unit (or air unit, when resolving air combat) counter involved in the battle, applying Survivability modifiers due to posture, armor, and fire support.
 
Combat Results Table (CRT)

  1:6 1:5 1:4 1:3 1:2 1:1.5 1:1 1.5:1 2:1 3:1 4:1 5:1 6:1 7:1
12+  1    1    1                                      1   2
11 2    1    1    1                          1       2   2
10 2   2    1    1    1                       1   1   2   2   2
9 2   2   2    1    1    1          1     1    1   2   2   2   4
8 2   2   2   2    1    1    1  1    1    1   2   2   2   2   4
7 4   2   2   2   2    1  1  1  1  1  1   2   2   2   2   4
  4
6 4   4   2   2   2 1 2  1  1   1  1 2  1 2   2   2   4   4   4
5 4   4   4   2 1 2 2  1  2 2  1 2  1 2 1 2   4   4   4   4
4 4   4   4  1 4  1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2  1 4  1 4   4   4   4
3 4   4  1 4  1 4  1 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4  1 4  1 4  1 4   4   4
2 4   4  1 4  1 4 2 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 4 2 4 2 4  1 4  1 4   4   4
1 4 4  1 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 1 4  1 4   4
0 4  1 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4  1 4  1 4
-1 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4


Depending on the unit density, and by mutual agreement of the players, a single roll may be made for all units participating in the battle (recommended for scenarios with many units), for all units in a single hex, or for each individual unit. Each player rolls a 1D10 for each discrete ground unit participating in the battle being resolved, applies appropriate column shifts and die roll modifiers, and determines the result. If players prefer less random results, 2D6-2 may be substituted for 1D10 by mutual consent.

The results of hits are as follows:
1 hit: -2 for all own combat rolls, +2 to enemy combat rolls
2 hits: -4 to own combat rolls, +4 to enemy combat rolls
3 hits: -6 to own combat rolls, +6 to enemy combat rolls
4 hits: unit is eliminated. Exception: bombardments and interdiction never eliminate a unit, unless it is in Administrative Advance posture. In this case a unit with 4 hits suffers -8 to own combat rolls, while enemy units engaged in a combat with it receive a +8 modifier.

When determining the proper modifier to use, determine the prevailing number of hits among the units of each side participating in a battle, by size. For example, if units with a total Size of 10 had 1 hit, while units with total Size of 8 had 2 hits, the entire group would be treated as if it had 1 hit.

At the end of each Order Phase, the number of hits is decreased by one, with the following restrictions:
1 hit: Number of hits reduced under all circumstances, except if the unit has Advance orders. Unit must be in supply.
2 hits: As for 1 hit, and the unit may not be adjacent to an enemy unit.
3 hits or more: As for 2 hits, and the unit must adopt Hasty Defense posture.

Air units lose hits from one turn to the next automatically, 1 hit per turn.

EXPLOITATION PHASE

The Exploitation Phase is identical to the Movement Phase, with the exception that Interdiction effects are not checked. The following units may not move in Exploitation Phase:
--Any unit or force that suffered "movemeeeents costs quadrupled" or worse result from Interdiction (if the Interdiction Advanced Rule is used).
--Any unit or force that participated in ggground combat in which the opposing was not destroyed, forced to retreat, or retreated voluntarily.

Units that suffered hits in the turn and use Exploitation movement suffer one additional hit.


ADVANCED AND OPTIONAL RULES

BT&R was designed as a game of varying complexity, with “modular” rules. The basic rules contain everything that’s needed to play the game, while the Advanced rules add complexity as well as realism. The game has also been written in such a way that it can be played with some, all, or none of the Advanced rules and still be “complete.”

Cavalry Units: Troop units mounted on horses. They have 3 MPs and Foot-class mobility. In Maneuver battles, cavalry units suffer an additional -2 modifier when rolling for damage on thhhhe CRT.

Helicopter and Airmobile Units: helicopter and airmobile units (with Airmobile movement radius) have special movement rules.
Airmobile units are regular ground units with an Air movement rating. They may move in either phase using either their air rating or their ground rating, and participate in combat normally. Ff using the air rating, at the end of the combat phase they may return to the hex in which they began the movement phase. However, if remaining there means an out-of-supply status, no further airmobile moves may be attempted until supply is restored.

Separate helicopter units may pick up ground units and deposit them at new locations, provided the entire move of the helicopter, from its original hex through the starting hex of the ground unit to the destination hex is not greater than the movement allowance. The helicopter unit then returns to the original hex. Helicopter units may use both their ground and air movement ratings in the same movement phase or exploitation phase (the ground movement represents the relocation of the ground component of the unit). Light helicopter units may pick up units (up to their size rating) Attack helicopter units may move in a fashion similar to transport helo units.

Transport helicopter may pick up units up to its own Size, in which case the ground unit in question may assume HA or DA posture upon arrival at its destination, and move and fight accordingly. Transport helicopter units may also pick up units up to 4 times its own size, in which case the transported unit must assume HD posture and may not move for the rest of the turn.

Attack helicopters without armor rating participate in combat if the opposing side's units that no armor rating. In a combat that involves on one side only helicopters, FS modifiers are not used. 

Light Infantry: Infantry units whose Infantry value is marked with "L" are forces highly skilled in light infantry tactics (patrolling, ambushes, night operations, etc.). Light Infantry units have their Infantry multiplier increased by 1 (e.g., from x0 to x1, from x1 to x2, etc.) in all terrain types that cost more than 1 MP for mechanized  movement type units to enter.

Reconnaissance Aircraft: Treated as a special air unit (in the same category as SEAD, ECM, AEW, Tanker). Recon units improve the effectiveness of Interdiction fires and provide positive die roll modifiers for ground battles. Calculate the average of prevailing and highest Recon values. Calculate the total size of Recon units in hex and add to the prevailing/highest Recon value average. Consult Modifier Table. The result is a negative Survivability modifier applied to opposing ground units during Interdiction, Bombardment, and Ground Support missions.
 

Special Operations Forces and Irregular Units: In addition to operations by regular military forces, a campaign may also include operations by spec ops units of the warring sides, and/or partisan/guerrilla/paramilitary units which, instead of seeking to bring into battle opposing regular forces, attempt to disrupt opposing operations in the area, conduct reconnaissance, and vector friendly air units.

Special Ops and Irregular warfare is resolved on the Operational Map. SpecOps and Irregular units add their Strength andcombat value to the total Interdiction Strength and Surface values, respectively.  In addition, SpecOps units contribute a die roll modifier to all opposing Interdiction rolls in that hex, using the Recon Aircraft interdiction modifier chart.

SpecOps units may operate in any OpHexes, whether controlled by own or opposing forces. Irregular units may operate only on the national territory of their country of origin. Neither SpecOps nor Irregular units are affected by Supply rules.

Opposing players may combat opposing irregular and SpecOps forces by assigning forces to security roles. Such units are also placed on the OpMap and may not be used in regular combat operations.

SpecOps units must be infiltrated and may be exfiltrated during play. They do not have independent ability to move from one OpHex to another. To successfully infiltrate/exfiltrate a unit, the owning player must roll a number equal to or lower than the Infiltration/Exfiltration number on the chart below. Only one attempt may be made per SpecOps unit per turn. Unsuccessful attempts have no consequences beyond failure to infiltrate/exfiltrate.
 

Distance in OpHexes to nearest friendly Supply depot Infiltration/Exfiltration chance
0 9/8
1 8/6
2 6/4
3+ 4/2


Supply: To be considered "supplied", each unit must trace a path of no more than 15 hexes to a Supply Depot marker. The path may not cross hexes occupied by opposing units, hexes adjacent to supplied opposing units, or vehicle-impassable terrain (river, mountain, heavy forest, swamp, or jungle hexes with no roads). Each player may place one supply marker in each OpHex his units are present. Supply depots must be placed on a hex with a road, and it must be no more than 15 hexes (traced only along roads) from at least one other friendly Supply Depot.


Supply depots are placed at the beginning of the Order Phase of each turn. When a player wants to place a new supply depot, he must roll the following result:
Prevailing army quality is Veteran: 7 or less
Prevailing army quality is Experienced: 5 or less
Prevailing army quality is Trained: 3 or less
Prevailing army quality is Green: 1 or less

The following interdiction die roll modifiers are applied:
Opposing Interdiction value in OpHex:

No more than one supply depot per side may be placed in one OpHex. If a player wants to change the location of a supply depot, he must remove it from play at the end of each Combat Phase (after supply determination), and must attempt to place it during the next turn, using the above rule. If an attempt to place a Supply Depot in an OpHex is made (regardless of whether it is successful or not), no attempts may be made in any OpHexes adjacent to that hex during that turn.

<> Units must be in supply in order to recover from hits. Units that engage in ground combat while out of supply automatically suffer double the number of hits. Any turn a unit that is out of supply spends under Advance orders it receives one hit. Movement while out of supply is halved. The maximum number of hits a unit may accumulate through being out of supply is 4, and units are never eliminated through the accumulation of his while  out of supply. However, once 4 hits are reached, the unit may no longer move. Once in supply the hits are removed normally.

Withdrawals:
Immediately prior to battle resolution roll a force may declare it is conducting a Withdrawal.
Declaring a withdrawal reduces number of hits suffered by 1. The other side's units are not affected. After battle is resolved, all surviving units that participated in the battle must retreat by 1 hex, and the opposing side's units may move to occupy the vacated hexes. This option is available only to units in Defensive postures, and using it reduces posture to HD.
 

TERRAIN EFFECT CHART

Explanation of effects:
Doctrine effects halved or quartered: Doctrine difference halved or quartered prior to checking for number of column shifts.
Armored effects halved or quartered: Armor difference halved or quartered prior to checking for number of column shifts.
 
Terrain Type Movement Combat Effects Other
Clear 1 MP per hex    
City 1 MP per hex. Armor effects quartered
FS quartered
Doctrine effects halved
Light Infantry strength doubled
 
Rough 2 MP per hex, except Light Foot (1MP/hex) Doctrine and Armor effects halved  
Woods Mechanized 2 MP per hex, Foot 1 MP per hex Armor effects Halved
FS halved
 
Wooded Rough 2 MP per hex, except Light Foot (1MP/hex) Armor effects halved
FS halved
Doctrine effects halved
Light Infantry strength doubled
May not trace supply unless along a road.
Forest Mechanized units may advance only with DA orders, and only at rate of 1 hex/turn. Foot 2MP. Light Foot 1MP. Armor effects  quartered
FS quartered
Doctrine effects halved
Light Infantry strength doubled
May not trace supply unless along a road. Stacking halved
Mountain Mech and Foot may enter by Minimum Move only. Light Foot 2MP per hex. Armor effects quartered
FS halved
Doctrine effects quartered
Light Infantry strength doubled
May not trace supply unless along a road. Stacking halved
High Mountain Impassable to Mech, Foot. Only Light Foot may enter, at rate of 1 hex/turn. No armor effects
FS halved
Doctrine effects quartered
Light Infantry strength doubled
May not trace supply unless along a road. Stacking quartered
Swamp Foot and Mech units may enter only with PA orders. Light Foot pay 2MP/hex Doctrine effects quartered. May not trace supply unless along a road. Stacking halved
Wooded Swamp Foot and Mech units may enter only with PA orders. Light Foot pay 2MP/hex Armor effects halved
FS halved
Doctrine effects quartered. Light Infantry strength doubled
May not trace supply unless along a road.
Intermittent Lake As Clear Doctrine effects halved, unless airmobile units present  
Wooded Intermittent Lake As Clear Doctrine effects halved
FS halved
 
Canals/Irrigation As Clear Doctrine effects halved May not trace supply unless along a road.
Bocage 2MP/hex Armor effects halved
FS halved
Doctrine effects quartered
Light Infantry strength doubled
May not trace supply unless along a road.
Ravines 2MP Armor effects halved
FS halved
Doctrine effects halved
May not trace supply unless along a road.
Salt Marsh as Swamp as Swamp May not trace supply unless along a road. Stacking halved
Sandy Desert As Clear As Clear  
Rocky Desert as Rough as Rough May not trace supply unless along a road.
Jungle as Forest as Forest May not trace supply unless along a road. Stacking halved
Jungle Rough as Wooded Rough as Wooded Rough May not trace supply unless along a road. Stacking halved
Jungle Mountain Mech and Foot may enter by Minimum Move only. Light Foot 2MP per hex. Armor effects quartered
FS halved
Doctrine effects quartered
Light Infantry strength doubled
May not trace supply unless along a road. Stacking quartered.
Escarpment Half of unit's MPs to cross Doctrine effects quartered, unless airmobile units present. Light Infantry doubled May not trace supply unless along a road.
Minor River May be crossed only in DA or PA posture unless crossing via a bridge in AA. Doctrine effects halved, unless airmobile units present. May not trace supply unless along a road.
Major River May be crossed only in PA posture unless crossing via a bridge in AA. Doctrine effects quartered, unless airmobile units present. No armor effects. Infantry doubled May not trace supply unless along a road.
Road Allows units to ignore terrain costs if using AA posture.
1/2 MP per hex
As per other terrain in hex.  
Trail Allows units to ignore terrain costs if in AA posture.
1 MP per hex
As per other terrain in hex.  

Mike J.
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The J-8 Shop
Wargame Rules, Variants, and Orders of Battle
http://www.geocities.com/pmj6/

“War is a series of catastrophes which result in victory.”
Georges Clemenceau




 

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