The Story of Publius Quinctilius Varus

In September 9 AD an army of three Roman legions with supporting units of cavalry and auxiliaries, around 20,000 men in all, was annihilated in a running battle which lasted for three days.  Lulled into a false sense of security by the Germanic chief Arminius, the Roman governor Publius Quinctilius Varus led his army into a trap that only a handful managed to escape alive.  The loss of the Varian Legions was a massive psychological blow to the Roman Empire and, after 9 AD, the Romans gave up their plans to hold Germania and withdrew to the west bank of the Rhine.

Index
Roman Accounts of the Battle
Other Primary Source Material
The Archaeology of the Clades Variana
Modern Accounts of the Battle
Discussions
The Roman Army
The Early Germans




Roman Accounts of the Battle

Cassius Dio's account ...Cassius Dio - From Roman History (Book 56, 18-24)
The longest and most detailed account of the revolt, the battle and its aftermath.  Dio gives valuable details of the situation in Germany before the uprising and his account of the battle is the best which survives.
Paterculus' AccountGaius Velleus Paterculus - Roman History
A briefer account, Paterculus' passage lays blame for the disaster very much on Varus and gives the names of two of his senior officers.
TacitusCornelius Tacitus - The Annals (Book 1, 61)
Here Tacitus describes Germanicus Caesar's discovery of the remains of Varus legions while campaigning in northern Germany.
Florus' AccountFlorus - Epitomae (Book 22, 88)
Florus' account gives the background of Drusus' conquest of the province of Germania and the circumstances leading up to the revolt, as well as some lurid details of the torture and mutilation of captured Roman officers.
(English and Latin)


Other Primary Source Material

The Death of ArminiusCornelius Tacitus - The Annals (Book 2, 88)
In this passage Tacitus gives an account of a Chattian plot to poison Arminius and his subsequent assassination at the hands of his own people, the Cherusci. (English and Latin)
Stabo on GermaniaStrabo - Geographica - (Chapter Seven, 11.33-1.5)
These three passages from the Greek geographer Strabo give valuable information on the geography of Germania.  The second passage - VII 1.4 - also gives a brief account oof the battle and the names of several of the chiefs involved in the uprising against Varus the subsequent wars with Germanicus.
The translation and notes are courtesy of Iris Kammerer.
Maps of GermaniaMaps of Germania
Ptolemy's Geography gives us the names of settlements and forts within Germania, many of which correspond to names found in Tacitus and Strabo.  Here is a modern chart placing many of these recorded names, along with three modern maps showing the Germanic tribes at the time of Varus, the Roman campaigns in Germania and the location of various Roman bases and camps in the province.


The Archaeology of the Clades Variana

The Excavations at Kalkriese (in German)The Kalkriese Excavations (in German)
The University of Osnabrueck in Germany seems to have discovered the site of the Clades Variana.  A combination of Roman military artefacts and coins dating to 9 AD indicate that the Kalkriese site is, at least, one associated with the battle.  Here is a short abstract in English.
Under constructionSummary of Evidence from the Kalkriese Site (in English)
A summary of the archaeological evidence which links the Kalkriese site to the Clades Variana (Coming Soon).
Lucilla's Germanic Village PageBibliotheca Germaniae - A Reconstructed Cheruscian Village
Iris Kammerer's excellent site, including photos of a reconstructed first century Cheruscian village in Germany.  It also includes images of a reconstructed Treveran village from the same period, images of Germanic defences and much more.
Explore the abandoned Roman colony at WaldgirmesThe Abandoned Roman Colony at Waldgirmes
A great site detailing the on-going excavations of a Roman colony town which was abandoned and burnt to the ground in the wake of the Varian Disaster.  Includes reconstructions of the forum, the equestrian statue of the Emperor Augustus and an artist's rendition of how the colony may have looked circa 9 AD.  (German language site, with English and French versions available)
The Kalkriese lorica plateThe Kalkriese Lorica Find 
One of the most important archaeological finds at the battle site at Kalkriese was of a plate of Roman lorica segmentata - the earliest find of this type of armoour so far.  This discussion of the find and its significance is from Matthew Amt's excellent Legio XX pages (see below)
Die Varusschlacht und Kalkriese im Osnabrücker LandDie Varusschlacht im Osnabrücker Land 
Another German language site devoted to the Kalkriese finds and the Varian Disaster.  This one has extensive source material and other useful links.


Modern Accounts of the Battle

Barry Darling Coins - Varus SiteBarry Darling Coins - Varus Site 
An excellent and up-to-date reconstruction of the battle, with particular reference to the evidence provided by the many coins found on the site of the battle.  Highly recommended.
FalcoPhiles - Teutoburg Massacre 9 ADFalcoPhiles - The Teutoburg Massacre 9 AD <
Louise Dade's site devoted to the Marcus Didius Falco mystery novels of Lindsey Davis details the background and events of the 'Teutoburg Massacre' (which is what Roman fans call Varus' crushing defeat *g*).  The battle was a detailed part of the background to Davis' novel The Iron Hand of Mars - which is worth a read despite Davis mistaking the Germanics for 'Celts'. Celts?!!
Channel 4 - Secret History: The Lost Legions of VarusChannel 4 - Secret History: Lost Legions of Varus 
In late 2001 the UK Channel 4's 'Secret History' series featured a documentary on the Varian Disaster - Lost Legions of Varus.  The documentary featured extensive information about the Kalkriese excavations and a reconstruction of the battle featuring members of British Roman re-enactment groups.  Some great photos of the filming can be found on this Legio Secunda Augusta page (scroll down to 'The Varus Disaster').  Have a look at the rest of the Legio Secunda Augusta site while you're there.
Hermann the CheruscianHermann and the Teutoburger Wald
A very old fashioned and highly out-dated account of the battle and its background.  This is one indication of the way in which the events surrounding the battle have been interpreted by Germanic nationalists and nineteenth century Romantics.  Read with caution.
Runestone ArticleArminius the Cheruscian
A reasonably well-researched article from the neo-pagan magazine The Runestone.  It has a slightly romantic bias towards the Germans, but gives detailed information about the period after the battle and the end of Arminius' life.
Discussions
The Varus ForumThe Varus Forum
Contribute to the Varus Forum and offer your suggestions, ideas and information about the battle, the background history and the screenplay.  All contributions welcome.

The Roman Army
Vardulli's Roman Army forumThe Roman Army Page
As one of the most extensive and carefully compiled collection of articles and resources on the Roman Army, Sander van Dorst's invaluable site is a must for anyone interested in Roman military affairs.


The Roman Army ForumThe Roman Army Forum

Lively discussion of all aspects of Roman military history by historians and re-enactors.  Discuss Boudica's last battle, helmets, shield grips and, of course, the Varus Film Project.
The Germanic Heritage PageLegio XX Home Page
Matthew Amt's extensive and well researched site devoted to the Legio XX Roman re-enactment group, based in the US.  The site has many useful historical articles about the Roman military system and plenty of photos of Legio XX in action.
Romanarmy.comRomanarmy.com
An extensive and rapidly expanding resource site devoted to all aspects of the Roman Army.  It includes the Roman Army Talk discussion board and a large number of links, articles and useful items of interest. They have also awarded 'Clades Variana' their Corona Aurea award for website excellence.
Loricae RomanaeLoricae Romanae 
'Loricae Romanae' is Dave Pearson's careful examination of the armour used in the Roman Army, with very detailed information on Roman mail, scale, lorica segmentata and muscled cuirasses.  It includes excellent primary iconographical material from sources such as Trajan's Column and reconstruction diagrammes of the various finds of segmentata.
The Calleva Film ProjectThe Calleva Film Project 
Film-maker Sean Caveille is producing a documentary which aims to bring Roman Silchester to life with the help of local archaeologists, re-enactors and various Roman enthusiasts.  Support another Roman-oriented historical production.


The Early Germans

The Germanic Heritage PageThe Germanic Heritage Page
A collection of articles, links and resources devoted to the early Germanic peoples.  Language, literature, history, pagan mythology, runes and even pastimes and games are extensively covered.
Tacitus on the ancient GermanicsTacitus - Germania
Cornelius Tacitus drew on Livy's (lost) German Wars and the Geographica of Strabo, as well as reports and observations of Roman veterans, to write this the most detailed account of the peoples and customs of ancient Germania.
This is Thomas Gordon's translation, but a Latin text version is also available online.


*Theudawurdò*Theudawurdò - Home of the Germanic-L Discussion Listt

*Theudawordò ('Words of the Tribe') is the home page of the Germanic-L mailing list - devoted to discussion of all aspects of the early Germanic Peoples from prehistory to circa 800 AD.


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